Skip to main content

Full text of "American railroad journal [microform]"

See other formats


AMERICAN 
RAILROM JOURNAL 



J » 



NEW YORK 




i.» 



V. 17, 1844 



(>0 



a» 



i 

CO? 

^^> 

> 

air" 

^> 
S< 



m 

z 

5 



o 
o 

m 
O 
m 



O 



03 

J} 

Ci> 
J3 



m 



M'Qys^ 



Ml 



n? 



» 



\ 

*ii 



K.F. W^NDT LIBRARY : 
UW COLLEGE OF ENGR. 
21 5 N. RANDALL AVENUE 
MADISON, Wl 53706 



( 



.; .^ii^;yv.,..;:,Ba^^o-.?:; AMERICAN :'^;■I/^ve/^:w•;^t-^•:r .; .: 

RAILROAD JOURNAL, 

:^*^f ■ ■ MECH ANICS' MAGAZ1NE.!B^'- ;■■ ■ 

Published Monthly at 23 Chambers-st New York, J ^ By GEO C. SCHAEFFER, uul 

at 92 a-year, in advance, or 3 copies for tS. S ^ D. K. MINOR, Editors. 

No^ 1 Vol. 2 e " TATVTTTARV 1R44 5 Wh°l« No. 438. 

Third Series. 



,^\ " JANUARY, 1844. S'^vt.x°Vii*' 



For the American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. 
COST OF TRANSPORTATION ON RAILROADS. BY CHARLES ELLET, JR. CIV. ENO. 

:'":;;; '-,'1' ' (Continued from page 362>ji j >•■•:•"--»''.. 

,*; I propose now to continue to produce those detkits of the cost of transpor- 
tation on railroads, which enter into the approximate formula for the compu- 
tation of the average annual charges, preparatory to the indication of cer- 
tain modifications, which, in time, will be found necessary, in order to adapt 
the expression more strictly to the various cases which occur in practice. A 
reference to the table contained in a previous number of this Journal, (page 
348) will show with what accuracy the formula, in its present state, applies 
to almost every variety of roads in the Union. 

But it will occur to the experienced reader, that there are certain sections 
of the country on which the cost of fuel is exceedingly light ; others where 
it is very great ; that there are some lines provided with a double track ; 
some on which the engines are unusually large, or on which the company 
are exposed to peculiar causes of expenditure. It will be readily conceded, 
therefore, that a formula strictly applicable to all these cases, ought to be ex- 
pressed in more terms than the mere length of the line, the tonnage, the tra- 
vel, and the miles run by the locomotive engines — which are all the quanti- 
ties that appear in the rule which has been presented. But yet we have 
seen that that formula, as it is, does apply and give consistent results, and re- 
sults quite close enough for almost any useful practical purpose, without any 
correction for these varying conditions. This circumstance, therefore, needs 
explanation ; but before explanation can be advantageously offered, I must 
lay before the reader certain details which have been used in the construction 
of the formula. In anticipation of this explanation, however, I may observe 
that the true cause is, that these circumstances, which disturb the action of 
the general law, have very little influence compared with the value of the 
great items which compose the formula. I shall return to this subject again j 
but at present we may proceed with the determination of the values of the 
detail of expenses, and leave the slight corrections to be applied in conse- 



Cost of Transportation on Railroads. 



quence of these irregularities — irregularities chiefly in the prices of labor 
and materials — for the sequel. The reports of the various companies for 
the current year,, will shortly be published; and by introducing the result? 
which it is to be presumed they will exhibit, under an improving system o! 
economy, I hope to be able to make a still closer approximation to the truth. 
We shall have also, in a few weeks, the results of the year's operations on 
the Philadelphia and Reading railroad, from which we shall be able to veri- 
fy experimentally, the influence on the cost attributable to a very large trade 
conducted under remarkably favorable circumstances. 

I propose to consider next — ' ' ■'; 
.,v The Cost of Fuel. — It is obvious t6 every one that the consumption of ' 
fuel depends on the construction and power of the engine, the gradients of 
the road on which it operates, and the load which is conveyed. The cost of 
fuel really depends, in some measure, on these circumstances, but chiefly, in 
practice, on the price of wood ; for in this country the price of a cord of 
wood is much mor'i variable than any other element which aflTects the value 
of fuel, or the value of motive power. ■ :- (--'''i''^. ',■<- 

' The following table of the distance run by the locomotive engines in dif- : 
ferent parts of the country, together with the annual aggregate expense of'^ 
fuel, and the reduced expense, per mile run, will serve to exemplify thi»A' 
point. - V 

■■:-: ■ - -^.i:-,^- Table of the Expense of Fuel. - ■ i'^^'^* < ' l^i'^?% 



Nam« of Road. 



Georgia road, * 
Central road. 
South Carolina road, 
Portsmouth and Roanoke, 
Petersburg road, 
Baltimore and Ohio, 
Baltimore and Susquehanna, 
Utica and Schenectady, 
Philadelphia and Columbia, 
New York and Erie, 
Reading road, 
Norwich and Worcester, 
Western road. 
Providence road, 



Year. 



1842 
1842 

1842 
1842 
1842 
1843 
1842 
1841 
1842 
1842 
1842 
1842 
1842 
1842 



Distance 
mn by en- 
gines. 



Miles. 
152.873 
102,145 
260,324 

96,000 
131,160 
509,765 
128,349 
155,828 
261,714 

24,564 
198,055 
144,321 
397.295 
120,000 



Expense 

of 

fuel. 

Dolls. 
6,405 
4,810 

13.950 

4iroo 

8,200 
33,447 

8,981 
11,000 
22,000 

2,744 
19,002 
14,662 
50,774 
17,548 



Cost of 

fuel pr. 

mile. 



CIS. 

42 

47 

53 

49 

62 

66 

70 

71 

8-4 

111 

96 

102 

128 

146 



Remarks. 



South'n roads, 
avera<~- '^ '- 



average 5 cts. 






Roads in mid- 
1- die States, 
average 9 cts. 

^ New England 
> Roads, 
) average 13 cts. 



[Note. — The expense of fuel on the New York and Erie road includes 
the cost of sawing, and the loading of the tenders. The engines on this road, 
as well as a part of those on the Reading and Western roads, carry very 
heavy freight trains.] 

On inspecting this table we observe that the cost of fuel for each mile tra- 
velled by the engines, increases very uniformly as we proceed from south to 
north. We know, also, that the price of wood likewise increases on the 
route, though not precisely in the same proportion. Wood is worth, on the 



Cost of TratuporkUion oil Railroads. H 

average, two and a half times as much in New England as it is in Georgia 
— ^but there are roads in New England on which the expenditure for fuel is 
from three to four times as much as it is on some of those of Georgia. This 
difference is not wholly attributable to variations in price, but depends, in 
part, on the size of the engines, and the magnitude of the trains conveyed. 
The engines on the southern roads, are, in general, not quite so heavy, nor 
80 heavily loaded, as those used on several of the northern lines — a circum- 
stance which somewhat, though not very materially, influences the result. 
Waiving the influence of this consideration, and regarding the engines as of 
nearly the same average weight on all these lines, this table will supply us 
at once with a correction to the formula, which we may apply when we de- 
sire to approximate more closely to the actual expenses, ^vi'-t '•,'>' :;.UU 

The formula, for computing the aggregate annual e^-penscs of a railroad, 
is based on an average cost of fuel of 9 cents per mile run. '';" , ■';~^"''j^ 
"' In making the application, from year to year, we shall find that the re- 
sults which it supplies will need to be modified, and that this modification 
will be equal to an addition of 4 cents per mile run for the New Engknd 
roads, and a reduction of 4 cents per mile run for the Southern roads. 

Wages of Train Hands. — It is the practice of many companies to in- 
clude the wq^ges of enginemen, firemen, conductors, breakmen, etc., in the 
item of fuel and salaries ; of others to combine them with oil and repairs of 
engines and cars. Indeed, the heterogeneous mixture of items, which are 
presented to the public in a lump, cannot but lead sometimes to the conclu- 
sion that it is the object of the report to conceal the naked truth. It cannot 
be supposed that any company mingle such dissimilar items together in their 
own books ; and as it is really easier to copy off the items under their sep- 
arate heads, than to add them together and present them in a mass, it must 
be supposed that the object of the condensation of matter is to prevent an in- 
timate'acquaintance with their affairs. This inference is strengthened, in 
ray estimation, by the fact that the accounts of those companies which pur- 
sue this course, exhibit an annual, and sometimes vast, augmentation of cap- 
ital. By keeping the items concealed, the public are forbidden from ascer- 
taining what portion of the ordinary current charges go to swell the annual 
charge to construction, and the deception is thereby practised longer with 
impunity. There are certainly some remarkable exceptions which might 
be named as good models for imitation. The accounts of the Georgia road 
are always presented with clearness and accuracy ; and though they might 
be greatly improved by the addition of the net and gross tonnage, ahd travel 
conveyed one mile, they exhibit, in their present state, a much better appre- 
ciation of the importance of knowing the precise and detailed condition of 
their business, than is observable in the statements of other similar institu- 
tions. ..■,■,-.:;„:•-, :-■•.",■•-■■--■_:'-, -■.:'; :•:"•■:'-■:'■■■:-:■'■-:"■';-..■■;,-. ■■■;-■'■;■■■■■"■.-■■:■;■■ 

The report of the Baltimore and Ohio company, for the current year, 
also stands out conspicuous amidst the general confusion j and as ought to be 



jd Cost of TransporUUion on Railroads, 1 

expected, every item of expenditure on that line compares adTantageoQsIy •' 
with the same item on any other road in the country. 

The directors of the Norwich "and Worcester road in New England, 
have published a table which might be made valuable, but it is actually ren- 
dered almost useless for want of the amount of the business transacted. The 
number of tons of goods, and the number of passengers conveyed one mile, 
ought to have been stated, and the different classes of wages should have 
been separately given. It is of little use to tell us the exact amount of expen- ;, 
ses incurred in the transportation of freight without informing us of the 
amount of freight transported. 

The directors of the Western road have also presented much valuable do- „ 
tail ; but they have failed to exhibit the item of " services" under appropriate ]- 
heads. No correct judgement can be formed of the economy of the admin- ' 
istration of a line on which the salaries of agents and superintendants, pres- 
ident and engineer, train-hands and woodcutters, clerks and ticket-men, are 
condensed into one total. The separation of this column — the accurate ad- 
dition of the number of passengers carried one mile, and the quantities of : 
each sort of fuel consumed — would render the report of this company a 
most valuable document, t trust that they will not be detered from continu- 
ing this detailed exhibition of their affairs, when their road and machinery 
begin to manifest some of the effects of time and use. • 

In conesquence of this mingling of items, I am imable to separate, with 
the desirable precision, the sum paid on many roads for wages to the engine 
hands, from that paid to the conductors and brakemen. For this reason 1 
find it convenient to include the wages of all the train hands in the item of lo- 
comotive power. This item must, accordingly, be expected to vary with the 
magnitude of the train, and, somewhat, with the acclivities of the gradients : 
heavier gradients and the larger trains requiring usually a greater number 
of breakmen. . - 

The variations consequent on this cause, are, however, very small ; and 
we will come exceedingly near the truth by this formula, 

for the value of the wages to the train hands, in cents, for each mile trar- 
elled by the train — t standing for the average number of tons of freight in 
each tram. The correctness of this approximation will be seen by a glance 
at the following table. •• r-r-..i^ . - • - > ;^ | . , ,_ 



•I-/ • 



- , ^,* 


. : .' ■■ ■:;^'^l . .'^^>r/^^:-^''-:- !'. ■ 


. '■ ' .' 




■' * . - 


■^^v::r''f,\-,i'.\'.yyi:'--\'. ■-' ■ ' 






1 ( >. ■ • 


■ ■'jy;- - '•!> >.!f'AVi<i^:/ t l-tt'i-l i! ' ", ;-' 


■^\ 1 - ' 


..•.^•slsf^: -.,.;,., 


.-- : ■ / . 


.. ■' ., .•! '■' '. ni. - ;.^;:* 'j''V> »• ■■'•■[ 




■; .4>-??h ' " - 




■ ■.■■.". -,■-'' "■ 


- . ■>, 


-■&f- .. 




-. . . ■ '■ ."^ - •■ • 


; / 


■■■■^.■^f. , ■■' 




'-^f^O- fci^-r«r'>^;;<;'»< 1 -> ■ ■ - ■' 


'f --'h- 


-0:^>::.i^-^ 


^ 'y- it-» 


• ••; ■.•^.^•>ii >■'''»•'*■''-■- ■ ->■»-".'-;■...■ 


* ' ' '\ 





r>7'^.:vy^"r'V7r^ ■'7^*-- T •'^:.-V,^*'V • ^ ' '^ -^-^ *■>' 



Cost of Trausportation on Railroads. 



\ TABLE. 1 


Name of Road. 


Year. 

1841 
1842 
1842 

1843 

1842 
1842 

1841 

1842 


Miles run. 


Wages 
to train 
hands. 

Dolls. 
5,785 
17,752 
10,799 

31,161 

14,774 
12,666 

14,558 

2,814 


Wages 

P." 
mile. 

Cts. 
70 
90 
80 

61 

80 

8-3 

110 
115 


Remarks. 


Reading road, 
Reading road, 
Boston and Providence, 

Baltimore and Ohio, 

Eastern road, ^ ,^ 
Georgia road, 

Petersburgh road. 

New York and Erie, 


83,717 
198,055 
132,229 

509,765 

184,127 
152,873 

131,160 

24,564 


With moderate trains. 

With heavier trains. 

Medium trains. 

|[ Light trains and 
I heavy grades. 
Trains on both these 
roads are moderate. 

The Petersburg road was 
worked at disadvantage 
in 1810 and 1841. •rte 
» freight trains on the 
New York and Erie 
road are unusually 
large. 



The average value of wages, excepting for roads on which the trains are 
excessively large, may be safely and justly assumed at 8 cents per mile run. 
- Oil and Tallow for Engines. — The expense of oil is certainly a very 
small matter, when compared with the aggregate yearly charges against a 
railroad company ; but it is a very important matter for every company to 
know exactly what this, and every other item of expense really is, and 
ought to be, in order to judge of the possible ameliorations of their manage^ 
ment. On the Georgia road, in 1840, the mere greasing of the engines 
amounted to more than 4 per cent, of the aggregate charges of the compa- 
ny. In 1842, this item \^s reduced down to less than 1^ per cent. 

As another example of the effect of the same sort of economy in the de- 
tail — in small matters — may be adduced the curious fact, that the sum paid 
for oil by the Philadelphia and Baltimore railroad company, in 1841^ 
amounted to $6,131, and in 1842 it was reduced down to $2,151. In the year 
1841 it amounted to 3f cents per mile run, and in 1842 it scarcely exceeded' 
1-J- cents per mile run by the trains. 

The expense of oil is generally included under the head, " fuel, oil, sala- 
ries, general and incidental expenses, etc. ;" " fuel, oil, salaries, wages, load- 
ing merchandize, and miscellaneous expenses ;" " wages, fuel, oil, etc." 
This method of condensing accounts is so general, that out of the reports of 
more than thirty railroad companies for the year 1843, now on my table, I 
am able to select but the three following, from which the cost of oil, consu- 
med by the engines, can be obtained separate from other items. 



j TABLE. 1 


Name of Road. 


Year. 

1842 
1843 
1842 


Miles run 

by 
engines. 

153,873 
509,765 
261,744 


Cost of 

oil for 

engines. 

Dolls. 
1,411 

4,399 

3,104 


Cost per 
mile 
ran. 


Remarks. 


Georgia road, .. 
Baltimore and Ohio, 
Philad. and Columbia, 


Cts. 
9 

9 

12 


Cotton waste is incladad 
in the charge on the Bal- 
timore and Ohio, and be- 
lieved to be included 
in that of the Georgia 
road. 

Including oil for sta- 
tionary engines. 



6. 



tfci 



Cost of Transportation on Railroads. 



This table would seem to justify the assumption of 9 mills per mile runj 
for the consumption of oil and cotton waste by the engine and tender alona 

There is to be found a considerable list of reports in which the aggregate 
consumption of oil by engines, tenders, and cars, may be separated from all 
other items. I have also some manuscript statements from which these 
items can be obtained. The following table exhibits the aggregate cost of 
oil for various lines, and the cost reduced to the mile travelled by the train. 

I Z TABLE. i 



Name of Road. 



Central road, 
Reading road, 
Reading road. 
South Carolina road, 
Utica and Schenectady 
Philad. and Baltimore 
Georgia road, 
Norwich and Worces., 
Western road. 
New York and Erie, 
Baltimore and Ohio, 



Vear. 



Miles rnn 

by 

trains. 



1842 102,145 

1841 83,717 

1842 1^8,055 
1842 260,324 
1841 1 155,828 
18421177,859 
18421153,873 
18421144,321 
1842 397,295 



1842 
1843 



24,564 
509,765 



C'st of oil • Cost per | 


for eng's 


mile 


& trains. 

Dolls. 


run. 


Cts. 


1,103 


10 


1,621 


19 


! 3,936 


20 


2,784 


11 


3,500 


22 


2,151 


12 


1,821 


12 


1,947 


14 


9,215 


23 


481 


20 


7,201 


14 



Remarks. 



Light trains, i ' " •:c' 

Heavier trains, 

Still larger aver, trains, 

Not strictly accurate, 
Chiefly passe' g'r trains. 
Trains equal preced'g, 
Wei't of trains unkn'n. 
Heavy trains. 
Heavy freight trains, 
Lighter trains. 



The consumption of oil and tallow may be estimated, in general, at 9 
mills per mile run for the engine and tender, and an additional allowance of 
\ mill for each ton net conveyed one mile. *•' ■'-'^'>, ' ji- ^-1"^ i'i'-f --.T'- 

I have also the consumption of oil and tallow for some other lines, but 
as these statements manifest great and censurable extravagance, and cannot 
be used to show the necessary expenditure on a well conducted road, I have 
not included them in the preceding list. 

Sawing Wood, Pumping vVaier, and Loading Tenders. — It is not easy 
to collect facts which will exhibit the actual cost of the items included un- 
der the present head for many roads ; but it is very easy to estimate their 
average value by direct calculation. We know that it is worth, on the av- 
erage, about 40 cents per cord to saw the wood suitably for this purpose: 
and we know also that a cord of wood is sufficient to supply the consump- 
tion of the engine while running about 40 miles. It is, therefore, worth 
one cent per mile run, to cut the wood for this purpose. To load the tend- 
ers, where the business is regular and great, is worth about 20 cents per 
cord, or a half cent per mile run. The cost of raising the water depends 
more on the conveniences aflforded by the situation. If we assume the aver- 
age lift at 30 feet, the labor of a man will be equal to raisipg about 40,000 
pounds per diem. Engines usually consume from 300 to 400 pounds of 
water per mile run, which brings the cost of pumping to about the. j-J-jj- of 
a day's labor — or about 8 mills per mile run. These items make together 
2J cents per mile run. i , 1 '^. -^K"|- 

The result of experience lor two roads is given in the following' •' ■'-'■- 



'.• -'.'r - *; -^ .^i ■ 



Notes on Pactical Eugineenng. 



TABLE. 



Cost of sawing 

loading 
and pumping. 



Name of Road. 



Boston and Providence, 
Philadelphia and Columbia, 



Year. 



1842 
1842 



Miles run 

by 
engines. 

l2o;6oo" 

261,774 



Cost pet 
mile. 



$3,266 
6,989 



27 
23 



Average, 2^ cts. 



80 



274 



Locomotive Power. — We have now gone over the items in detail which 
compose the cost of locomotive power, and are, therefore, prepared to surn 
them up, and compare the aggregate of the averages with the amount at 
which it is stated in the formula, proposed for the computation of the aggre- 
gate annual expenses. These items are ;" " ; '^-■^':- ' ^■ 

Cents- 
Repairs of engines and tenders per mile run, ... 70 

Fuel per mile run, ->,;,;>,.,;. 3>^^«;._.^,v>^^^ » — 

Wages of train hands per mile run, .:'^: • • - 

Oil for engines and tenders, per mile run, - 
Sawing wood, loading tenders, and pumping water, per mile run, 

Cost of locomotive power per mile run, - 

It will, of course, be recollected that this result is independent of the in- 
jury to* the road, which we have considered tinder the usual head of " extra- 
ordinary expenses*" 1 , . : ■ : -is^^^A . .- •.." \ ' ■iv.k 

The only divisiojj of these expenses which is liable to material variation, 
is the cost of fuel, the price of which varies with the localities. I have al- 
ready offered an approximate correction of this item, which may be employ- 
ed for 'general investigations ; and shall shortly take occasion to present a 
more accurate formula for its computation, based upon a very extensive ex- 
perience. 

It might seem to the general reader, that after presenting the cost of re- 
pairs of the road, engines and cars ; the value of fuel and wages of train hands ; 
the consumption of oil, and the injury to the iron, that there would remain 
but little more to adduce in the premises ; but I have yet a very important 
division of the subject to discuss, which is much too frequently overlooked 
in investigations of this character. 

There are other extraojdinary expenses, and certain contingencies which 
go far to swell the annual charges on every line — without any exception in 
behalf of the most favorably situated, or of those -^hich are most economi- 
cally administered. .;v /..;'; •; ;, ' 

I proposed, in a former article, to offer an estimate of the probable expen- 
ses on a railroad in active operation for the present year, which is now the 
object of much attention and interest, in order to exhibit an application of 
the formula in anticipation of the publication of the company's next report 
I take the? Philadelphia and Reading railroad for this purpose ; and assume 
that it will this year give transit to 250,000 tons of freight, and 40,000 passen- 
gers. The application of the formula to this work — making proper allow- 
ances for its gradients and drawbacks, and facilities for unloading, and hav- 



/ 



8 . Notes on Practical Engineering. j, 

ing due respect to its age-j-will produce for the aggregate expenses, the 
sum of $265,000. i '^^^'l 

This estimate, of course, refers only to the apparent expenses, and in 
eludes no part of those reserved charges — such as the wear of iron — which 
are usually denominated "extraordinary expenses" because they are not gen- 
erally of annual recurrence. The durability of iron rails I assume at about 
800,000 tons — while they are estimated by tte enthusiastic friends of the Rea- 
ding railroad, at 12,500,000 tons. Where such immense differences ex- 
ist, time must decide the question. I trust that time may not show that I, 
even, am too sanguine and expect more from the railroad system than it is 
capable of rendering. 

'" "'' " ■■■' ■ -^fe<>' 



(To be continued.) > '. ^V- 






NOTES ON PRACTICAL ENGINEERING. ^NO. 4. 

• ■• . .. ■ ' ^ Bridges. ^ ^'^ - 

In looking back at the different kinds of bridges which have been built 
during the last ten or twelve years, it is obvious that there is a fashion which 
rages for a certain time when some particular bridge is generally adopted 
for new structures, but which soon falls out of use and is succeeded by an- 
other temporary occupant of public favor. 

Lattice bridges were much in vogue some eight or ten years since and 
were very extensively introduced on railways. Where the span does not 
exceed 100 feet and where the roadway can be carried on the top of the fra- 
ming so as to admit of vertical transverse bracing, this plan does very well. 
There is, in Weale's bridges, an engraving of one of these structures simi- 
lar to the bridge over the Hudson at Troy, built with double lattice and for 
a double track with suspending posts in the middle. The span at Troy is 180 
feet and the bridge is by no means stiff. The same remark may be applied 
'to a similar bridge of about the same span on the Harlem railway. These 
bridges require very good horizontal bracing to keep them in shape, they 
must be weather boarded, they require a large quantity of timber and they 
burn with a rapidity almost incredible. Thes disadvantages have besn the 
means of banishing them from railways in this country though an Eng- 
lish engineer introduced them on a railway in England only a few years 
since. 

A very ingeriious modification of this bridge was devised by Mr. Haupl, 
of Philadelphia and an account of it with a sketch of the bridge was pub- 
lished in this Journal. 

Col. Long's bridge is very well known throughout the Union. It is a 
good specimen of carpentry, is very stiff, does well without boarding in, but 
after a few years the pressure of the braces splits off the shoulders of the 
posts against which they abut, that is if the posts nearest the abutment, the 
pressure of course diminishing towards the centre of the span. 

In order to obviate this difficulty, Messrs. Hazard & Co., contractors, in- 
troduced a set of braces radiating from the abutment to the head of each 
post, or rather pair of posts, and occupying the space allotted to the coimter 



1iiCm»M •^■'■^ii Wt-I-M' ----•''•*'-' ■*■ ' i-- 



Notes 0% Practicai Engineering. • 

brace in Long's bridge. Numerous structures of tjiis kind have been put 
up and are well spoken of. 

Another contractor, Mr. Howe, designed and erected the railway bridge 
over the Connecticut at Springfield in which iron rods supply the places of 
the posts ; the braces, which are of timber, cross each other in the style of 
lattice work. There are, however, two braces and one counter brace, the 
vertical rods passing on either side of the latter. There is perhaps less work 
on this bridge than on any other, and the braces and rods may be very easi- 
ly replaced. It is not screwed in. The wood work of this bridge is a son 
of compound of the bridges of Town (lattice) and Col. Long. 
* The architectural effect of these different bridges is what might be expec- 
ted from an enormous square box and, whether boarded in or not, may be 
safely put down as a minimum. They all avoid the arch, which adds so 
much to the strength of Burr's bridge, a structure which the \vriter has gen- 
erally found deficient in stiffness, though it is proper to say that his acquaint- 
ance with it is less extensive than with others. Although generally roofed 
and boarded in, the arches take off something of the dull rigid outline by 
running beneath the floor at the haunches. Where, however, floods ap- 
proach the floor of the bridge, this springing of the arches lower down on 
the abutment is obviously attended with inconvenience and even danger in 
some cases. 

In short spans it will be generally admitted that the old plan with two 
queen posts and good iron straps is the cheapest and at least as good as any 
other. For common road bridges, this mode of construction has been used 
in spans of considerable length and is applicable to railway bridges at least 
as far as 60 feet. It is a good plan to carry iron rods from the ends of the 
braces and straining beam near the head of the queen post down through 
the strings, instead of merely passing them through the strings or tie beam 
and bolting them to the lower end of the queen posts. 

Indeed too little iron has been used in many American bridges, and al- 
though Dr. Robison says, " a skilful carpenter never employs many straps, 
considering them as auxiliaries foreign to his art," the experience of this 
country in Fattice bridges. Long's bridges and others where reliance has been 
placed on the lateral cohesion of the fibres in the shoulders of the posts in 
Long's and Burr's plans, and on the close fit of the pins in lattice bridges, 
would appear to indicate the propriety of introducing a greater quantity of 
iron as well as bestowing greater attention on the dimensions and minor de- 
tails — as heads, washers, threads — than has been done in many instances. 

In looking at the various parts of an English wooden bridge, an experi- 
enced eye sees at a glance that no labor has been spared on details ; that the 
minutiae have deen carefully weighed even in designing a bridge 5 or 6 feet 
•wide to enable the horses to cross a canal. Although their comparative du- 
rability cannot well be known, it must be admitted, that with the same quan- 
tity of material and but little if any more labor in the construction, they pre- 
sent an appearance of neatness, finish and adaptation to the object aimed at, 



Remarks on Mr. Ellei's Formula.' 

which will be found in very few American wooden bridges. It would, how- 
ever be unfair to the American engineer to stop here. It is unfortunately 
the custom* here to give a preference — in the case of road bridges — to some 
builder or contractor, often a patentee of some plan infinitely more ingenious . * 
than judicious, over the educated and experienced engineer, whose promises, 
before the conunencement of a work, fall as far short of those of his rivals 
as his actual performances exceed the crude and almost invariably more cost- • 

ly productions of these people. 

■'Now the English bridges with which we become familiar through the 
various publications of the day, are all or nearly all designed by members 
of the profession or persons well qualified by education, experience and char- : 
acter, and the result is precisely what might be expected. In the case of - 
stone arches on some American railways, the design and execution of the 
work would confer credit on any engineer in any country, but such opportu- 
nities are of rare occurrence. This very circumstance shows what might 
be expected from the profession in this country were arches of stone more 
generally adopted, and the excellence, abundance, and almost infinite variety 
of the material must at some future day cause many of the smaller streams to 
be adorned with these unrivalled structures. Many wooden bridges on railways 
are brought down by the grade of the line as near as possible to high water 
mark, hence there is comparatively little opportunity for architectural effect 

in such ca.ses. With road bridges this is not generelly the case, and a rise 
of a few feet in the centre of the span is no objection. There is a very good 

specimen of a road bridge in the Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal, 
vol. I, p. 177, and all must recollect the elegant and graceful " Pont du Ca- 
rousel" by M. Polenceau, constructed of 'cast iron and timber, a combination 
which may be introduced in an endless variety of ways and proportions, and 
which the great improvement in the quality and the gradual reduction in the 
price of American castings renders well worthy of our attention. ^ 

New York, Dec, 1843. W. R. C. 

For the American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. 

I have read with some surprise a series of articles which have appeared 
in the Journal on Uie " Cost of transportation on railroads, by C. Ellet, Jr. 
C. E." Had the statement been perfectly correct and Mr. E. had succeed- ; 
ed, as I do not doubt he has, in producing a formula which will come with- . 
in 12 per cent of the expenses from the known business on any particular > . ^ 
road, I am still to learn to what use it can be applied. My object, however, 
at present, is not to discuss the formula but to correct some gross mis-state- 
ments which have appeared in the last two articles, in relation to the South ( 
Carolina railroad, and then leave your readers to judge how much confi- 
dence is to be placed in what he says of the other roads. If what he ad- 
vances in relation to the cost of renewing the iron on railroads be true, rail- - 
road companies cannot too soon get rid of such unprofitable property. 

In his comparative statement of the actual and calculated expenses of the 
South Carolina railroad for 1842, the through tonnage is put down at 27,- ^ 



■ "V ... - . . • - - .•■■.._-f ■• .- J- _■■'.'■" • .▼' .--,, wt.' ■ 



i2«i»arA5 071 Mr. Ellefs Formula. -.-'■■tMk 

000, and through passengers at 24,000. The income from freight during 
that year was $192,823, which divided by $8, about the charge for trans- 
porting a ton over the road, gives 24,000 ; and the receipts from passen- 
gers for the same time were $127,684, and this divided by $8, the charge 
for a through passenger, gives for the total through passengers 16,000. The 
expenses calculated by the formula for 24,000 tons and 16,000 passengers, 
will be $200,500, in place of $214,000, or an error of 12 per cent, in place 
of 6 per cent. In the same statement, the expenses of the Western road are 
quoted at $256,619, in place of $266,619, as stated in the company's report, 
or an error of 4 in place of 0. 

To the statement of the cost of repairs of engines on the Georgia railroad, 
Mr. E. appends this note — " This company have added to the usual division 
of their expenses into ordinary and extraordinay repairs, the new classifica- 
tion of ' improvements to engines ;' " not being able to conceive that a small 
stock of engines could run 153,000 miles and be matei^jally improved by it, 
I regard these " improvements" as expenses. I cannot conceive how any 
stock of engines could be improved by running 153,000 miles ; neither do the 
Georgia railroad company say that theirs were, but they do say that two of 
their engines were improved by expending $950, in substituting " small driv- 
ing wheels and large cylinders" for " large driving wheels and small cylin- 
ders," and that these and other improvements have enabled them to dispose 
of one of their " small stock" of 12 engines. Moreover, the company have 
charged these improvements to " cost of repairs of engines," and have not, 
as they might have done, credited the " cost of repairs," with the proceeds 
of the engine which these improvements enabled them to part with. 
' Mr. EUet says, " the first iron used on the South Carolina road was des- 
troyed in less than six years — after it had borne about 130,000 through tons 
and 120,000 through passengers, and the locomotives had made 10,000 
through trips." The iron was destroyed in less than six years ! The com- 
pany in their report of November, 1833, state that the iron delivered on the 
road cost $109,453 80 ; in their report of July, 1841, and in all their sub- 
sequent semi-annual reports, there is credited to cost of construction " old 
iron sold $92,321 75," the sum which was received for 1,800 or 2,000 tons, 
three-forths of the original weight. From this it will require no prophet to 
inform Mr. Ellet that the iron which originally cost the company delivered 
on the road, $40 per ton, was sold by them for nearly $50 ! after^it had been 
" destroyed in less than six years." Of the remainder of the iron, a large 
portion still remains in the depot tracks and turn outs on 136 miles of road, 
little short, I should suppose, of 10 miles ; much has been used in the work 
shop in the construction and repairs of locomotives and cars, and many other 
purposes ; and lastly, some of it was loaned to the contractors for earth work 
on the Louisville, Cincinnati and Charleston railroad, and bore a transporta- 
tion of 40,000 or 50,000 cubic yards of sand and hard pan, equivalent to 
^ghty thousan(l tons besides the cars, (as some of the contractors, much 
to their sorrow, can testify,) or more than one-half the tonnage which wsi 



9 I Aattimore ani Ohio Railroad tteport. 

sufficient to destroy it, and this, mind you, after it had already been de- 
stroyed, and what is quite as wonderful, the company were foolish enough 
to receive it back again without making any charge for the use of it, con- 
sidering that it had not been materially injured. Here, at least, is one iron 
rail that could not be considered " bad." From what I have here stated, I 
think it will not be a very unfair conclusion to draw, that the iron which 
" was destroyed in less than six years," afterwards brought the company in 
cash, and in other shapes, as much as it originally cost them delivered on 
the road ; and that in this case, ■_:;i--—r-(~.':s^.-^'---^:.^- 

a N+ft T+c P=0. 
'This may be no exception to the rule, but like the engines on the Worcester 
road, is certainly a case in which the formula does not apply. Trusting 
that your correspondents will furnish you with sufficient authentic data to 
come within $1,000 of the value of the above expression, I will conclude 
these remarks with the following quere. Recollecting that " the destruction 
of the T or H rail will be greater'^ than that of the plate rail, in other 
words, the heavier the rail the faster it wears, if a plate rail weighing 12 or 
13 lbs. per yard can bear the transportation of 80,000 tons after it has been" 
- destroyed, without being materially injured by it, how much can be trans- 
ported over a rail weighing 60 lbs. per yard, (like that on the Reading road) 
, without rendering it unfit for use ? * "^ d. 

;,.: \ : -'■- '\—}^ 

BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD REPORt FOR 1843. 

For this report, as for many other favors, we are indebted to Mr. B. H. 
Latrobe, the chief engineer, who will please accept our thanks. 

From this report we learn the following facts, viz : T^^'f-'f^ ' • 

1st, That on the main stem the rates were reduced on passengers 25 per 
cent., and on tonnage 30 per Cent. ; and that the number of passengers has 
more than doubled, and the tonnage nearly doubled ; while on the Wash- 
ington road the number of passengers has fallen off 17 per cent, and the ton- 
nage 8, where the rates were not reduced, notwithstanding the roads south of 
Washington materially reduced their rates, and thus gave this road the benefit. , 

2nd. That the cost of transportation has been reduced on the main stem, 
on feight, fifteen per cent., and on passengers fifty-six per cent. ; while on 
the Washington road the cost of working the road, during the past year * 
with d^ reduced business, is only $46 less than the previous year. 

3d. That the excess of nett revenue, on thfe main stem, this year over the I 
past, is on passengers $93,440, and on freight, $55,401 ; while the nett re- 
venue on the Washington road is less than last year. It is to be borne in 
mind, however, that the ^ extension of the main stem to Cumberland hat 
mainly, or largely, contributed to this increase. 

The report shows an encouraging state of affairs, and calls loudly on the ".; 
citizens of Baltimore and of Maryland to push forward this important work, ;.- 
and we hope to learn soon that efficient measures have been adopted for e^ 
tending the road to the Ohio river. 



-:*^^JAi"l^;*^JlrI>^•-J.'W.■^!*u 



>-j; ;■;;;':..: :::-;^-,:. _; 7 TSdtlmort; df^X)kio ReMrbad Re^&^'y' :^-\ ^^'^[.'.'9-' 

We have watched, with deep interest, for nearly fifteen years, the progress 
of this work ; and it is nearly twelve years since the reports of the company' 
((Pre published in this Journal, and although exceedingly anxious to exam- 
ine the work, yet, not until the past summer was the writer able to visit and 
pass over it, though frequently invited so to do. In June last, while on a 
short visit to the monumental city, we availed ourself of a polite invitation 
from the chief engineer to accompany him over the road to Cumberland, 
'.which afforded us an opportunity to form a better idea of the labors performed 
by this pioneer company. It has truly been a herculean work, especially 
when we consider the difficulties to be surmounted, and the limited experi- 
ience in relation to the construction and working of railways when it was 
, commenced. But the main difficulties are overcome, and the vast impor- 
tance to Baltimore of its speedy completion are becoming daily more evident 
»and of course renewed efforts will be made this winter to provide the means 
-for prosecuting the work vigorously next season ; and it is to be hoped that 
••'the citizens of Baltimore, who have done so much in the cause of railroads, 
may, at an early day, derive all the benefits which they have anticipated from 
this noble work. 

With the facts contained in this report before them, it is to be hoped that 

.'the legislature of Maryland will adopt measures authorizing the company 

to reduce the fare on the Washington road, in accordance with the spirit of 

^ the times, and thus increase the profits next year. Of one result they may 

rest assured, and that is, that if they do not reduce their rates, the travelling 

'^community will avoid this road, when they can do so, and thus reduce their 

income. It is a fact now well established, that in most cases, where the 

, rates have been reduced, the travel has so increased as to augment the nett 

V revenue ; and it will be so on this road, we have not a doubt, as it would be 

*ibetween New York and Philadelphia by a reduction of the fare to $3,*or 

even to $2 50 — which we hope may soon be done. ^ ^i 

[: At a meeting of the stockholders held pursuant to the charter, on the se- 
i, cond Monday of October, 1843, in the city of Baltimore, the president and 
^directors of the Bahimore and Ohio railroad company submitted the foUow- 
:^ ing report and statement of the affairs of the company : 
*. In the last annual report it was stated that the road would be completed 
„to Cumberland between the first and tenth of November, 1842. It was ac- 

cordingly opened on the fifth of the month, and has ever since been in oper- 
x^ ation from that point ; thus accomplishing another, and by far the most im- 
..portant step towards the extension of this great work to its final destination. 
X The new part of the road west of Harper's Ferry may be said thus far 
\\o have answered the expectations of the board * and, independently of the 
, necessary expense of keying up the bridges, requiring an inconsiderable ex- 
'"'penditure in the adjustment of its parts. 

During the past season, however, many parts of the country between 

. Harper's Ferry and Cumberland have been visiled with several freshets of 

' unexampled power ; the water suddenly rising on two occa^ons some feet 

higher than was ever before observed ; and either sleeping away or materi- 
ally injuring various works and descriptions of property throughout the 
^country, which had successfully withstood all previous floods. 

, - ^ • ' • ' ., 'ij ,. 

-» I 



Ill Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Report. 

At three points within three miles of Harper's Ferry, one of the freshets 
did considerable damage to the railroad, by carrying away three of the cul» .;> 
verts and portions of the embankment. At one of the culverts near the Ut^ 
tie Cacapon, some slight damage was also sustained. The injuries, hdP* 
ever, were temporarily repaired with such despatch as that the travel was 
interrupted over those parts of the road for a few hours only, and the trans- 
portation of burthen for not more than three days. 

To repair permanently the damage, and to place the culverts beyond 
the reach of even a higher rise in the water, may be expected to increase the 
expense of repairs in the current year about $15,000, being upwards of 
82,000 less than the surplus on hand from the year just ended. 

All the other part of the road withstood without injury the force of these 
unexampled floods ; and their strength may be considered sufficiently testefi 
to inspire new confidence in their future stability. 

In consequence of the opening of the road to Cumberland, and upon the 
commencement of the spring trade and travel, the charges for transportation, 
both of passengers and merchandize, upon the Pennsylvania lines were 
considerably reduced, and throughout the year have been kept at rates which 
it is believed are not required by the public nor justified by the true interests 
of the works. Nevertheless, to meet such competition, and to enjoy any 
share of the trade, it became necessary that the board should reduce the 
charges upon the Baltimore and Ohio railroad ; and they were accordingly 
reduced, for passengers about 25 per cent., and for tonnage about 30 per 
cent below the rates of the previous year. For some time after the openr 
ing of the road to Cumberland, the difficulties of wagon transportation over 
the National road, both as to capacity ^nd rate of charge, also interposed se- 
rious obstacles to the trade upon the railroad ; and these it will not be possi- 
ble wholly to surmount until the road can be extended to the Ohio river. 

Notwithstanding these impediments, the operations of the road between 
Baltimore and Cumberland since the 5th of November, 1842, have been al- 
together encouraging, fully warranting the expectations which urged its 
completion to that point ; and calculated to inspire the stockholders and the 
board with renewed zeal in their future exertions to carry it onward. 
'•*^The statement B exhibits the revenue and expenses of the main stem dur-^ 
ing the year ending on the 30th of September. 

It is deemed proper also on the present occasion to submit a tabular state" 
ment, prepared by the engineer of machinery and repairs, exhibiting in de- 
tail the operations and various actual expenses incident to the working of the 
main stem during the year, together with the amount of receipts from all 
sources during the same period. 

These statements exhibit a gratifying augmentation in the trade and travel 
upon the road ; and as proportioned to the work done, a continued reduction . 
in the cost and expenses of transportation. 

The excess of revenue for the past over the preceding year, for passen- 
gers, is $93,440, and for tonnage, $55,401, amounting together to $148,841. 

The nett earnings of the main stem, independent of the Washington road, 
over and above the expenses of working the road, amount to the sum of 
$279,401 55, being equal to 4 per cent, upon the capital. 

The railway east of Harper's Ferry has been considerably improved, 
both in adjustment and material during the year ; and that west of the same i 
point, with the exception of the injuries already mentioned, is in better adr . 
justment than at any time since it was opened. 

During the year, one new engine has been added to the moving power, 
and another will soon be placed upon the road. The entire complement 



■. -r^'V ■- , Lf ^ 



, :-_• ,'c' . ■*'' • v" 1 = ■. ■^••-•*^•'/'?^^« ■>:<!?■"' S™"'"/'-"' ..*.-;•'. ^•■.''--.;^*- V,-.';; f ',^- ..^f,' 



Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Report. 



will then consist of twenty-eight locomotives ; and the present business of 
the road will require, upon the average, at least twenty-two to be in actual 
daily operation. It is not doubted that in the present state of efficiency, the 
moving power will be adequate so an increase of at least fifteen per cent. 
, .nupon the business of the past year. 

The passenger and burthen cars, and the depots and watgr stations are in 
good condition. There are also on hand duplicate parts of machinery, and 
• a stock of materials for general repairs, and for the construction of burthen 
rars, exceeding those of any previous year ; amounting in the aggregate- to 
more than $40,000. As a general result from these statements, and the 
operations of the year, it may be stated that during the past, as compared 
with the preceeding year, the number of passengers transported one mile 
has been more than doubled, and the amount of tonnage nearly so ; that the 
cost of transportation of passengers has been fifiy-six per cent., and of trans- 
portation of tonnage fifteen per cent, less than in any previous year ; and 
that if consistent with the competition with other works the board could 
have maintained the original rates of charge, with the same economical cost, 
an equal amount of business would have yielded a nett revenue of little less 
than seven per cent, upon the capital employed. 

? The board having reason to believe that their present power might be 
beneficially employed in the transportation of coal from Cumberland to dam 
No. 6 on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, to be carried thence by the canal 
to the District of Columbia, have consented, upon the application of the ca- 
nal company and others, at present to fix the charge upon coal between 
those points, at two cents per ton per mile ; and will be ready as soon as the 
canal may be navigable, to engage in the transportation of that article upon 
these terms. The present rate is of course fixed with reference not only to 
the quantity offered for transportation, but to the permanence of the trade. 

Wiih a satisfactory assurance that the business would be permanent, the 
company might engage in it at a less charge than two cents per ton per mile, 
on any part, or for the whole extent of the road. The board, however, 
would not be justified in the expenditure of a large sum to augment the mov- 
ing power and provide machinery not adapted to other purposes, if upon the 
completion of their preparations, they might encounter competitors even at 
no lower rate of charge. 

All debts due from the compan)'^, and not in dispute, during the past year, 
including $50,000 of principal and 23,355 of interest to the Messrs Baring, 
under the arrangement for the iron rails communicated to the stockholders 
in the last annual report, have been discharged ; and those remaining unpaid 
do not in all exceed the sum of 40,700 dollars. * 

The nett revenue of the main stem (including the sum of $46,467 received 
from the Washington road) after paym«it of the foregoing debts, amounts 
to 172,479; of which the board have determined to appropriate $15,000, 
according to the pledge in the last annual report, as the commencement of 
a sinking fund on account of the loan of $1,000,000, for the Washington 
road. 
■*' Of the ballance they have determined to divide among the stockholders 
$2 upon each share of stock, payable on and after the 1st day of November 
next, reserving a surplus of 17,479. 

Before passing from the accounts of the main stem, the board deem it pro- 
per to remind the stockholders that in the operations of the past year, they 
nave not only encountered the competition and impediments already adverted 
to, but have been exposed to the heavy charge incident to the employment 
of horse power in the introduction of passengers, as well as burthen, mto 



4M^ Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Report. 

the city. The amount of such charge, with the present travel, may be esti- 
mated at from 12,000 to $15,000 annually. It must of course increase in 
proportion to the augpnentation in the number of passengers, unless the pre- 
sent system be abandoned, or the city authorities should think proper to per- 
mit the introduction of the locomotives ; as is now permitted in some other 
cities, and partially in Baltimore, without injury or inconvenience. 

The nett earnings of the Washington road for the year ending on the 30th 
September, ] 842, authorised a dividend of five dollars per share, and left a , 
surplus of 8,834 40. 

The nett earnings for the year ending on the 30th ultimo, are 61,691 46^ 
which added to the surplus of the preceding year amount to $80,525 86, 
of which the board have decided to divide among the stockholders four dol- 
lars and fifty cents per share, payable on and after the 1st day of Novembei 
next, retaining a surplus of 6,275 86. 

From this it will be seen that during the past year the company have paid 
on account of the subscription to the Washington road $13,533 more than 
they have received from its earnings. 

The sum paid to the State for the six months from the 1st of January to 
the 1st of July, 1842, being one-fifth of the gross receipts from passengers 
amounted to 20,500 26, and from the 1st of July, 1842, to thelst of Jan- 
uary, 1843, to 18,125 69, together $38,625 95. The amount paid to the 
State on the same account for the half year from January to July, 1843, 
was 15,439 88 dollars. 

It is also to be remarked that if the sum of 33,565 57, paid to the State 
on the 1st of January and 1st of July, 1843, the one-fifth of receipts from 
passengers, there be added the sum of 24,750, the dividend of the Washing- 
ton road, 10,000 from the main stem, and 1,269 60 regularly remitted by 
the board to London as the interest upon $5,250 sold of the subscription of 
$3,000,000, it will appear that the State has received during the year the 
sum of $69,585 17, being nearly seven per cent upon her entire actual in- 
vestment in both roads. 

The railway, the pcssenger and burthen cars, and depots and water sta- 
tions of this road are in good condition ; and the expenses of repairs, and 
cost of transportation in the aggregate vary in a small degree from those of ' 
the preceding year. The aggregate value of materials on hand for repairs 
of railway, locomotives and cars may be estimated at 5,900 dollars. 

A comparative statement of the operations upon the W^ashington road dur- 
ing the past and preceding year, is appended to this report. 

It shows that, although the cost of working the road in both years has 
been nearly the^me, the falling oflf in passenger;^ has been at least 17 per 
cent., and in tonnage about 8 per cent. ; and, consequently, that the diminu- 
tion in the revenue is mainly, if not wholly, attributable to a decrease in the 
passenger travel. Such result was apprehended last autumn as likely to 
arise from the cheaper competition by the bay line of boats from Bahimore 
to Norfolk ; and a application was made to the legislature, at the last session, 
by parties concerned with the southern portions of the inland route, to au- 
thorize a reduction of th^ charge for passengers on the Washington road 
The application proved successful ; and although this board thought the ap- 
prehension well founded, and concurred in the justice and propriety of co- 
operating with the southern companies in a fair reduction throughout the 
line, they had no power to alter the rate of charge for passengers between 
the two cities, or to bear any proportion of a reduction by others, withom 
the authority of the legislature, or, in the recess, of the Governor of the 
State. 



Baltimore and Ohio RaUroad Report. ":" ' ' ' 11^' 

The charter also makes it lawful fcr the legislature, upon the application ; 
by the railroad company for any reduction in the established rate, so to reg- - 
ulate the charge as without reducing the proportion of one-fifth at present 
reserved to the State, in fact increase it, and reduce only the share of the 
compEmy. 

Unwilling to expose the interests of the stockholders to the operation of 
this provision, the board declined preferring any direct application. They, 
however, caused a communication to be made to the Governor on the 2nd 
of August acquainting him with the actual falling off of the busir>ess of the 
road, subsequent to the adjournment of the legislature, and calling his atten- v 
tion to the causes which it was supposed had contributed to it. To this let- 
ter an answer was transmitted by the secretary of State on the 5th of Sep- ■ 
tember, acquainting the board that, in the opinion of ^e Governor, the char- > 
ter authorized him to consent to a reduction of charges for temporary ob- 
jects only, without power to provide for the case to which the company had 
called his attention ; and that, besides, he did not feel justified in interfering • 
in the present instance, inasmuch as the ^gislature at its last session, had the 
whole subject under consideration and did not think proper to act. 

It is proper to add that without the co-operation of this board, some of the 
companies connected with the inland route, in the course of the summer, re> \ 
duced the charges upon their respective lines ; and that subsequently there 
has been an evident improvement in the travel. 

We omit, for want of room, the argument of the president in fovor of vigf- 
orous measures being adopted to complete the road to the Ohio river. We 
may add, however, that it is, as might be expected from the able man at the 
head of the company, directly to the point. 

The application of the power of steam upon the water and on land haia 
already produced incalculable effects throughout the world. It is of too 
ready adoption, and too successful in operation to escape the attenti(Na of any - 
enterprizing conununity ; and all who expect to acquire superiority or main- 
tain equality in agriculture, commerce and manufactures must rely upon its 
aid. They must embrace the remotest points btf ike shortest distance and at 
the least cost of transportation. Nature has placed the city of Baltimore 
within the shortest geographical distance of the trade of the western cotm- 
try ; and any proper connection she may form with the Ohio river becomev^ ' 
as matter of course and above all competition, the direct and cheapest chan- 
nel of communication, not only with the intervening country, but with th© 
entire vallies of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. 

The growth and prosperity of any of our Atlantic cities depeiMl up<Mi the 
extent of foreign and domestic trade which they may be able to command ; 
and these again require the facilities of a certain market, reached at the least 
cost, and offering the best prices. 

To regain her former advantages, Baltimore must resort ta the same arti- 
ficial power by which they have been superseded — as stated in the last an-' 
nual report, she must unite the pow^r of steam on land with that on the 
water, from New Orleans to this city. 

The successful operation of finished railroads judiciously located and econ- 
omically managed between desirable points, is satisfactorily established by' 
experience both in the United States and in Europe ; and that a railroad from 
Baltimore to the Ohio river, comprehends the most important intercourse be- 
tween the various parts of the Union will not be denied. While the con- 
siderations which in a public point of view, warranted the original enterprize 
have lost none of their importance, the board venture the opinion that tb». 



■Jp Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Report. 

capabilities of the work, and the claims it prefers to the public favor are al- : 
ready fully established. Wholly and peculiarly calculated to improve the 
trade and augment the wealth ofevery part of the State, they must continue 
to regard it as one of chief magnitude. 

It is not to be disguised that many portions of the State, already heavily 
taxed for the maintenance of public credit, have little interest in any pub- 
lic work beyond what -they incidentally derive from the prosperity of the 
commercial emporium ; and ii the Baltimore and Ohio railroad can in any 
'sense be deemed a rival of any other enterprize, it can only be from its ten- 
dency to concentrate in the Maryland market the resources which by differ- 
ent channels would be diverted to other cities. 

Already, in its unfinished state, it has imparted a new impulse to the trade 
and capital of the city of Baltimore. In the first year of its extension, after 
little more than ten months operation from Cumberland ; subject to the rival- 
ries of the works of other States at reduced rates of transportation, and with- 
out aid from the Washington road, it has earned a nett revenue of four per 
cent, upon the capital employed | and had it been extended, would have 
needed no greater amount of trade at prices which might have been charged 
without inconvenience, to have earned at least seven per cent. 

Fully impressed with the necessity of making every exertion for the fur- 
ther prosecution of the work, it is a source of regret that, from causes be- 
yond their control, the board have been unable during the past year to adopt 
jutiy efficient measures for that purpose. The charter of the company both 
in Maryland and Virginia, by its original terms, is perpetual ; but without 
additional legislation, the board had no authority, aftei^the 4th of July last, 
to occupy any greater extent of the territory of either State for the extension 
of the road. Although the legislature of Virginia adjourned without remov- 
ing this obstacle, the board have reason to believe that at the ensuing session 
an application for that purpose will be more successful. 

In Maryland, the legislature allowed a further period of twenty years ; 
but at the same time incorporated the permission in the law authorizing a 
sale of the public works, and in such manner as that, unless the State's in- 
terest in the work should be sold, the authority could not be exercised. 

The board would not be unwilling to co-operate with the legislature in 
any equitable disposition of the State's interest in the railroad company ; as 
a meahs of lessening the public debt, and to that extent effecting some imme- 
diate relief to the people from the burthen of taxation. 

By the terms of the late law, however, there were grounds to apprehend 
that the period of twenty years would operate as a limitation, not upon the 
completion of the work only, but upon the duration of the charter ; and 
that, notwithstanding the guarantee of a perpetual annuity of 30, COO dollars 
from the Washington road, the State would also be entitled to receive, in 
addition, one-fifth of the gross receipts from all passengers passing over the 
road to and from the city of Annapolis. 

Under these circumstances, if in any other respects it had been objection- 
able, the board did not feel warranted, in recommending the law to the ac- 
ceptance of the stockholders. 

From these causes, the board have been constrained to limit their mea- 
surel for the extension of the road, to further reconnoissances of, the country 
west of Cumberland through the State of Virginia, in the well founded be- 
lief that in that direction, should it become advisable to seek it, a better and 
cheaper route to the Ohio river may be obtained. 

They also look forward with confidence to more auspicious legislation i^ 
both States during the ensuing winter ] and it is their intention in that event, 



Form of a Statistical Table. -^IP ~ ;J< 

in the same sjMrit which has animated them in the past, to take such mear t 
siiresj as with the resources adverted to in the last annual report, may er»able 
them to recommence the prosecution of the work committed to their man- 
agement. By order of the board, Louis McLane, President. 

For the American Railroad J(^nal and Mechanics' Magazine. 

To the Editors — Gentlemen — I have prepared, and respectfully submit, • 
through your paper, to the consideration of the several railway companies 
of the United States, the accompanying form of a statistical table, intended* ,;". 
for an annual exhibition of the character, cost and operation of their respec- - : 
live works. The collection and arrangement of railway statistics has here- 
tofore met with serious obstacles in the irregular and incomplete manner in - 
which most railway reports are presented to the public. Many details,' es- ;\. 
sential to the derivation of general principles and practical results from .the ; 1 
actual working of the railway system, are altogether wanting in their re- ,, 
ports, and those particulars which are given, are often expressed and ar- v. 
ranged so as to be useless, or available only at the expense of much time ; 
and labor. Believing that all railway companies would desire to make their ■ 
reports as useful as possible, I have taken the liberty of proposing the pre- ;; 
sent formula as a guide, which, if universally followed, will be eminently ■, 
advantageous to them all individually ; for each will have its contribution to , 
the capital of knowledge, thus built up, repeiid an himdred fold by the shares 
contributed by the rest. The value of this aggregation of the experience 
of the country, in this department of its institutions, will be incalculable. _^ . 

I suggest, that in addition to the publication of this in the Journal, the ta- ^ 
bular form be printed on a loose sheet, and sent forthwith to each railway 
company ; and, thereafter, annually, a convenient time before the period of 
the publication of its annual report. The expense of this will be trifling to. 
the Journal, to which most of these companies subscribe. Should any of ?. ; 
them not see fit to attach the table to its annual report, they may perhaps be , 
nevertheless willing to fill it up and let it appear in the Journal. Upon re- .1 : 
ceiving all the tables from the several companies contributing them, a gen- 
eral table could be made out under the same heads, in which the contents of : 
all the individual statements would be contained. 

In the preparation of the form submitted, I have embraced elementary 
facts only, the proper deductions from which can be drawn by calculation. 
It is believed that no element, necessary to the knowledge of any important 
particular, respecting the work which may be under consideration, is omitted, i ■ 
while, at the same time, the companies furnishing the facts are asked for no 
more than is essential, as premises, to the conclusions which every one in- 
terested will draw for himself The arrangement of the table may not per- 
haps be the very best, although it seems to make the most of the space in- 
cluded within the outlines. This is a matter of minor importance. The 
relative positions of the columns can be shifted to suit the judgment or taste 
of the party concerned. It is hardly to be expected, that the whole of these 
columns can or will be filled by all railway companies, some of which may 



f(^ Columbia and Philadelphia Railroad. 

'•■ /• ■-■■: . .-f :■: .>.:^ K - i..v,V.-.-V 

not have so kept their accounts as to render so minute a sut^vision practi- 
cable. In such cases, approximations might be made which would answer 
the purpose, or, if these are out of the question, the specific detail called for 
will appear as a part of some more general heading. There may also be 
an unwillingness, in some corporations, to make so full an expose of their 
affairs as the formula calls for. From these causes the statements may not 

.^ be as complete as could be wished, especially with regard to past operations. 
But, if imperfect, they will still be valuable to the extent to which they may 
reach, and should the form of record, now recommended, be approved ol^ 
they will for the future be as ample as is desired. 

Knowing that you already appreciate fully the importance of this mea- 
sure, and will not be backward in forwarding it, I now leave it in your 
hands, and remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Baltimore, December, 1843. Benj. H. Latkobe, Civ. Eng. 



iiCiJ' d/.^t i<> COLUMBIA AND PHn.ADELFHIA RAILROAD. 

The following statement, from the Weschester, Penn., Republican, and 
Democrat, gives a more favorable account of the management of this road 
than we have before seen ; and it, at the same time, establishes, beyond a doubt, 
^ the fact often asserted, that there has been gross mismanagement of its af- 
- fiurs, if not the most barefaced robbery of its funds, by those who have had 
the coatrol of it This statement shows a daily saving in the motive power 
alone, for a continuous period of twenty-one months, of $409 33, or $261,- 
-^W) 27, when compared with its management from February 6, 1839, to 
February 28, 1842, a little over three years. 

We would not be understood as intimating that the whole of this enor- 
mous difference between $760 18, the average daily expense from 1839 to 
1642, and $250 88, the average daily expenses of the past twenty-one 
months, was misappropriated. There have been, or should have been, im- 

' portant lessons learned in the economy of managing railroads and their ma- 
chinery, within the last five years, as we find by the annual reports of the 
dififerent companies ; not, however, in the ratio exhibited in this statement — 
yet it establishes the correctness of our theory, that it is trv^ economy to em- 
ploy, and pay liberally, none but men of proved integrity, and unyielding 

: energy in the management of all public works — sycophants, iimc-servers and 
politicians n^ver. Will not States and companies learn wisdom ? 

" Some time sinca^ we requested of Mr. Morehead, the superintendant of 
: this branch of the public works, that, at the close of the financial year, he 
would furnish us with an abstract from his annual report, showing the re- 
ceipts and expenditures for the past year. In compliance with that request, 
he has communicated the following statement, which, with his accompany- 
: ing remarks, cannot fail to be highly interesting and gratifying to every 
Peofisylvanian : 

ABSTRACT STATEMENT, 

Showing the total receipts and expenses on the Columbia and Philadelphia 
.>-^failroad, from December 1st, 1842, to November 30th, 1843 — one year. 



PROPOSED FORM OF TABULAR STATEMENT DESIGNED TO EXHIBIT ANNUALLY THE STATISTICS OF THE SEVERAL RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES 





DISTANCES. 


HEIGHTS. 


GRADES. 


CURVhS. 


CHARACTER 

jam 
DESCRIPTION 

OF THE 


Length in 
miles and 
decimals, 
of main 
stem be- 
tween ter- 
mini. 


Length 
of 

branch- 
es, in 
miles. 


Length Total 
of ascents 

single and 

track desc'nts 
in in 

miles. feet. 


Height 
in feet 
of one 
termi- 
nus 
above 
the 
other. 


Length 
in miles 
& deci- 
mals,of 
grades 
under 
10 feet 
pr mile. 


Do. 

b'tween 

10&20 

do. 


Do. 

b'tween 

20&30 

do. 


Do. 

b'tween 

30&40 

do. 


Do. 

b'tween 

40&50 

do. 


Do. 

b'tween 

50&60 

do. 


Do. 

b'tween 

60&70 

do. 


Do. 

b'tween 

70&80 

do. 


Do. Do. 

b'tween b'tween 
80&90 90&1C0 

do. 1 do. 

1 


Length 
& incli- 
nat'nof 
highest 
grade 
in feet 
prmile. 


Length 
in miles 
& deci- 
mals,of 
curves 
under 
500 feet 
radius. 


from 

m 

to 
1000 


Do. 
from 

leoo 

to 
2000 


Do. 

from 
2000 

to 
3000 


Do. 

from 
3000 

to 
4000 


L»o. 

from 
40C0 

to 
5000 


Dj. 

over 

5000 

feet 

radius. 


RAILROAD. 


























-.<-■■ 


:', . '-:: ^ 


■■■ ;. / . i 










- :.■■■■.- 






GRADUATION. 


MASONRY. i 


WOODEN BRIDGING. 


COST 

CONSTRUCTION, 


Cubic yards 
of earth. 


Cost of 
earth work. 


cubic yards 

of rock 

and 

tunneling. 


Cost of 
roc'iC work 

and 
tunneling. 


Total 
cost 
of 
Graduation. ; 


No. oi 
) ridges 
arched 
with 
stone 01 
wood. 


Perches 

of 

bridge 

masonry. 


Cost 

of 

bridge 

masonry. 


1 No. of 
square 
culv'rts 

or 
drains. 


Perches of 
culvert or 
drain and 
dry wall 
masonry. 


Cost of 

culvert and 

dry wall 

masonry. 


Total 

cost 

of 

masonry. 


No. of 
wooden 
super- 
struc- 
tures. 


Least 
and 

great' SI j 

span in 

feet. 

1 


^ff No Total 
°V-"'^' cost of su- 
^^^'^y^- perstruc- 
perstruc- \^^^^ 

tures. 


^ Oit 
















■. ■ '■. ■ 


; : 


1 - . 






■ . -;:-' .--■-■: 


1 
1 






CAPITAL 


WA'iEtt-S'lA 
TIONS. 


BUILDINGS. 


itAL ESTATE, 

viz: depot ground. 


fUlGHT 0) 

fi^ncing nnd 


^ WaY, 

damnffps. 


AACHINERY. 


INVESTED 


No. 


Cost. 


Station houses. 


Eno'ine and car ,,7. , , 

houses. ^^^-^'^ ^^°P^- 


No. of} 

"";^ 1 - Cost 

of 1 
ground 


No. of 
acres 

of 
land. 


Cost. 


Locoiiiotivts and 
t^'ndprs. 


Passenge- cars. 


Burthen cars. 


HuiSrS iiVA 

h:3rnf5>s. 


IN THE 

WORK. 


No. 


Cost. 


No. Cost. 


No. 


Cost. 


No. 


Cost. j No. 


Cost. 


No. 


Cost. 1 r 


nTo. 


Cost. 




-. 










■..- ■.,..,.,■■••■■.1 


-, ■ 








i 


! 




'•:• '^ ■■ ■ r'\ 


^^ 


.- 



Length 

of 

straight 

line in 

ihs 



Length 

and 

radius 

of 



High- 
est 
grade 
occur- 
ing 
on 



milts 1 , . 
and de- ^^""'^^^^ shortest 



citnals. 



curve. 



curve. 



Width 

of 
road- 
bed, av- 
erage 

for 

cuts 

and 

fills. 



RAILVVAY IRACK. 



Form 

of 

cross 

section 

of 

iron 

rail. 



Weig't 

of 

rail 
in tons 

per 
mile. 



Wtig't 

of 
fasten- 
ings of 
rail in 
tons per 
mile. 



Number 
and 

sizes of 

cross-ties 

per 

mile. 



rSuniber 
of fett 
boa id 
measure 
of longitu- 
dinal tim- 
bers per 
mile. 



Perchfs 
(bf25cub. 
It.) of gra- 
vel or blo- 
ke n stone 
jhlling per 
mile 



' Gauge 

or width [ 
of tiack 
bttwetn 
rails, in 
feet and 
inches. 



RAILWAY TRACK 



Cost of 
cross-tie 
timbers. 


Cost of lon- 
gitudinal 
timbers. 


Cost of 
iron rails. 


Cost of 

fastenings 

of rails. 


Cost of 
gravel 01 

broken 
stone bal 

lasting. 


Cost of 
workman- 
ship r.nd 

labor. 


Turntables. 

switchfs 
and conlin- 

gcncits. 


Total 
cost of tracks. 








' 


- . "■ ■ 








ENGINEERING. 


Griiciul and 

contingent 

expenses 

under 

all other 

heads. 


Total 

cost of work 

to 

(late. 


AVCVNT 

f'f 
capital stock. 




Piilimiujiy 
j surveys 
and 
loc;!iion. 


Superiiiitn- 

dance 

of 

construction. 


A urouKT 
of loans. 

• 


t '. ^:-:..:-j' :■::;. 


- ■ - " 


1-; 








MUi'lVE POWER. 



litl^\ll<S Ul KUAU. 



OPERATION 

OF THE 

ROAD, 

viz: 

WORK DONE, 

RECEIPTS 

AND 

EXPENSES, 
PROFITS 

AXD ■ 

DIVIDENDS. 



EXPENSES. 



Repairs and 

renewals of 

engines and 

tenders. 



FUEL. 



Co ids 

of 
wood. 



Cost. 



Tons of 

coal or 

coke. 



Cost. 



Oil for 
tngines 

and 
tenders. 



Cotton 
waste for 

engines 
& tenders. 



Tools 

for engn's 

and 

tenders. 



WHges of 

cnginemen 

and 

firemen. 



Hirse 
power 

;ii 
str'ets. 



Total 

cost of motive 

power. 



Graduation, viz. |_ 
ditching, remov'gj 
slips and raising j 
embankments. ! 



BRIDGES. 



RAILWAY TRACKS. 



Stone 

or 
Brick. 



Wood. 



Timber. 



Stone. 



Iron rails. 



Fastenings. 



Woiknan- 
ship. 



Contingen- 
cies.' 



REPAIRS OF CARS. 



Passenger 
cars. 



Burthen 
cars. 



Total. 



Repnirs 

of 
depots. 



Repairs 
of water 
stations. 



Watch injj 
wooden 
bridjres. 



Pumping 
water. 



Oil and 

grease 

for 

cars. 



S.\L.AKiES AND WAGES 



Gtneral | Conduciois ! Conductors 1 Libor uTuT 
superintendant,. and brakemen land brakemen j horse power 
ajjents and of passenger of burthen 



Conlir.g'l 

expenses Sularus ot pi« 



GENERAL EXPENSES 



clerks 



:|-.. • I 



cars. 



cars. 



at 

depots. 



of 

transpor- 
tation. 



sidtnt, .«ecreta-j 
ry, treasurer j 
& office clerks.i 



Taxes on 
property. 



Rents, j I 

insurance, 1 Contingencies ! 



law 
expenses. 



of all kinds. 



I 



Total 

rxpfnfe of 

woiking the 

road. 



RECEIPTS OR GROSS REVENUE. 



WORK DONE BY THE ROAD. 



jEARNlNGb OF THEj 

ROAD, or Nftt Revenue. | 



For 

transportation 

of passengers 



For 

transportation 

of tonnage. 



For 

irryin 
mails. 



From other Railroads 
for carrying. 



carrying 



Passengers 



Tonnage. 



Tolls for 

use of road 

by 

cars of 

other roads 



I 



Tolls for 
tise of cars 

'/ 
other 

roads. 



Revenue 
from all 

other 
sources. 



Total 
Revenue. 



Miles run by 

pa sspn get 

engines. 



Miles run by 
tonnjge 
engines. 



Passengers 

carried 
one mile. 



j Tons ol fuel 
Tons of freight & miiterials on 
carried one jcompany'sown 
mile. account carritdl 
I OUR mile. 



Clear 
Receipts. 



jPrr cent.j 

dividend j 

j for the I 



Nctt revenue from 

the commencement of 

operations. 



Number 
of 

years 

since 

opening 

of 

road. 



LEGAL RATES UF 
TOLL 



Per 

passenger 
per mile. 



I 



Per 

ton per 
wile. 



iVOTiS. — Descriptive of the plan of the Bridges. The number, dimensions and plan of the Tunnels, if anj-. The number, length and annual cost of i\'orking Ferries, if any. The plan and weight of the Engines and Cars. Relative amount of Trade and Travel m each direction. 
The number, causes, extent and pecuniary amount of damage to road and machinery from Accidents, within the year. Also, a Tariff of the existing rates of Toll on Freight and Passeng ers, and a statement of the number of Tons carried one mile, of each description of Tonnage ;— 
with any other particulars that may be of interest to the public 



Columbia and PhUadelpia Railroad. 



91 



RECEIFTS. 



< %^^ 



:W 



vi^V. 



Amount of road tolls collected, as per reports of collectors, $199,274 61 
Amount of motive power toll, 190,510 ^ 

Amount due from post office department, for carrying United 

States mail, 2,733 33 

Amount received for rents, and old materials sold, 2,173 48 

$394,692 17 



. /iLi/i \'.i XiM 



EXPENSES. ^"' ■■' ■ i^.'^-i,-^.■ 



For repairs of road, from Dec, 1st, 1842, to Nov. > \ ." 

30th, 1843, 55,082 09 

For maintenance of motive power during the same 
time, 135,292 99 

Excess of receipts over all expenses, for the year 1843, 

To which may be properly added the difference in value of stock 
in the motive power department, Dec. Ist, 1842, in favor of 



190,375 08 
204,317 09 



:.?-^r 



Dec. 1st, 1843, 

Nett profit. 



VAc-iji; .=^-?? ;«f-;r::iV',;,y?*s<^|j7W^vil.::tnr^ r.^'"?.^!" 



9,481 38 



$213,798 47 

" Messrs. Price Sf Strickland — The above statement may be relied on as 
strictly correct. The expenses of the year are greater than was anticipated ; 
principally owing to the increased amount of business done this year, but 
which does not show a corresponding increase of receipts, in consequence 
of a reduction of tolls made by the canal commissioners, equal to about 
30 per cent, on the whole business done. In addition to this, the expense of 
maintaining the State trucks to carry section boats over the road, the fixtures 
necessary to transfer them to and from the railroad and canal at Columbia, 
(which cost about 4,000 dollars,) are all included in the above expenses of 
motive power and repairs. 

" It will be a matter of great gratification to the tax-burdened citizens of our 
Commonwealth, to learn that our public works are capable of producing a 
revenue equal to the cost of repairs and management, and the interest on the 
cost of construction. I confidently believe, so far as the Columbia and Phil- 
adelphia railroad is concerned, that, with proper management, no tax will be 
necessary to pay any portion of the interest on its cost, much less to pay the 
expenses of management Yours, etc., "J. B. Moorhead, Sitp't.^* 

We cannot permit the preceding statement to go, by itself, before the pub- 
lic, although in and by itself, it is entirely satisfactory. It is due, however, 
to the people at large, to the public interest and to justice, as well as by way 
of encouragement to faithfulness to duty, on the part of those engaged in the 
management of the State improvements, that a comparison between past and 
present management on this railroad should should be made. That com- 
parison is exhibited in the following statement, based upon information de- 
rived from official sources, and others, in which, we believe confidence may 
be reposed. ' statement. 

Comparing the expenses of motive power, from Feb. 6th, 1839, to Feb. 

28th, 1842 ; with the expenses from March 1st, 1842, to Dec. 1st, 184a . 
Expenses settled in auditor general's office, up to March 31st, ' 

1843, contracted under the superintendency of Jas. Cameron 

and Thos. Tustin. See Senate Journal, page 291, $810,164 43 

Expenses settled since that time by present superintendent, im- 

der present creditor law, 17,708 28 

Expenses paid since that time, by present superintendant, 21,260 62 



Total expenses of motive power for 3 years ttnd22 days, as far 



as 



settled. 



$849,1^33 



22 '^ Remarks on Mr. Ellet's Formula. 



'*- 



Expenses from March 1st, 1842, to Nov. 30th, 

1843, settled in auditor genenal's office, $216,070 83 t' 

Liabilities contracted during same time, and ,V 

unpaid, . 8,496 65 % 

Total expenses for one year and nfne months, $224,567 48 

Average expenses per day, from Feb. 6th, 1839, to March 
1st, 1842, 760 18 

Average expense per day, from March 1st, 1842, to Nov 30th, 

1843, 350 88 

Difference per annum in favor of present management, $149,394 50 

Difference per month in favor of do., 12,449 54 

Difference per day in favor of do., 409 30 

• ~~- ' 

For the American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. ■% r 

DURATION OF RAILROAD IRON REMARKS ON JIR. C. ELLEt's FORMUlJL 

I have noticed; vvrith much surprise, that neither your valuable Journal- — 
the Journal of the Franklin Institute — or any of our engineers, have yet 
questioned the formula of Mr. C. Ellet, in the position he assumes, viz, that 
no fiat bar railway can transport over it to exceed 150,000 tons, without 
the iron rails being crushed — destroyed, and that even with the best T rails, 
such as are used on the Philadelphia and Reading railroad, he doubts their 
capacity to sustain the traffic of 800,000 tons without the necessity of their 
entire renewal. He uses the following language: 

"The rails of the Reading road are, by common consent, acknowledged to be good; the pattern is 

considered, by the advocates ot edge rails, to be unexceptionable ; and the mode of manufacture adopted 

— that of making the lamina horizontal — is considered to render them almost proof against wear. 

" In regard to these rails — with all their merits, and all their superiority — I affirm, ^ 

*' 1st. That tliey will not withstand the' rolling of the trade of the Schuylkill for one year. ' 

" 2nd. That before 800,000 tons of coal have passed down and the empty cars have been retnmcd on 

them, the present track will be entirely unfit for safe usage.'* 

Perhaps our vision may be obscure from having taken up the opinion, 
some years back, that railways, such as the Reading, or a road to be located 
on a descending line from Buffalo to the Hudson, were destined to supercede 
— if not materially relieve — ^the profitable canals to which these lines are 
parallel, from the plethora of their increasing business. -^ 

- In this Statej the canal interests have " black balled!^ railways in legisla- 
tive reports, and have stifled all inquiry into their merits, compared with ca- 
nals. As we have a great respect for Mr. Ellet's talents, we would not 
wish to charge on him that the Schuylkill canal atmosphere of Philadelphia 
may have led him to view the cause of railways in the desponding vein he 
treats the success of the Reading railroad. If his positions be true, the ca- 
pitalists of England, who have invested upwards of $250,000,000 in 1500 
miles of road, and those of this country $100,000,000 in 400 miles completed 
have committed sad blunder^. If Mr. E. is correct, in " using up" the flat 
bar after 150,000 tons has passed over it, or the edge with 800,000 tons, the 
sooner we burn up our rails, and send the iron to the blacksmith the better. 
The doctrine of Mr. E. goes to prove, that . the more business done on rail- 
ways, the worse they are off, while he roundly asserts that one year's busi- 
ness of the Erie canal, or of the Schuylkill canal, would annihilate the Read- 
ing railroad. It would appear, however, that while the Schuylkill canal, 



•'■>■ Wear of Iron Rails. '•■' 23 

during the last year, brought down from the mines 447,050 tons, the Read- 
ing railroad, with a deficient-motive power, and cars, added to an insufficiency 
of double track in the centre, carried over it 229,01.5 tons — we, therefore, 
venture little in predicting, that ere two years, 800,000 tons will have passed 
over it, without any serious injury to the iron rail, and disprove Mr. Ellet's 
assertion of the durability of this road. . , , -. • , 

A, We draw this conclusion, from the fact presented in the ^^ Report of the 
ttanagers of the Delaware and Hudson canal company to the stockholders" 
published 7th of March, 1843, and circulated in Philadelphia, that over the 
f to f flat bar railroad, that connects this canal with the Lackawana coal 
region, there has been transported, without renewal, since it was laid do\vn, 
in 1829, 1,627,250 tons. ^ 

^ We have not received the returns for 1843, from the Mauch Chunk and 
Lehigh railroad, but placing the quantity transported in 1843 at the same 
rdte as 1842, we have since 1828, (when the light flat bar was laid down,) 
1,794,611 tons carried over this road.. 

As Mr. E. calls for facts of the capacity and durability of iron rails, we 
would refer him to the Stockton and Darlington railroad, built expressly to 
transport coal, where stationary power is used, and the grades are fifty feet 
to the mile, and the load 65 tons. In a report prepared from parliamentary 
documents — quoted in " Sketch of a railway," p. 58 — we find that the Stockton 
and Darlingtonrailroad has taken 690,000 tons and 200,000 passengers, or up- 
wards of 700,000 tons in one year, an amount nearly equal to the destruction 
of the Reading railroad, according to the theory of Mr. E. We believe it is 
now more than ten years this road has exceeded the average of 600,000 
tons per annum. ,i.iMUi^- ■ j*l* 

But we have a stronger fact in De Pambour, (appendix, page 288,) that 
certainly should have been before .Mr. E. We allude to the experiment on 
the Liverpool and Manchester railway, where " a flat iron bar was laid down 
the 10th May, 1831, weighing 177 lbs. 10^ oz.. It was taken up the 10th 
February, 1833, after having passed over It 600,000 tons. Its loss was 18^ 
oz. or only ^Jr °f*^ primitive weight" At this rate, it would require, ac- 
cording to the language of De Pambour, " 100 years to reduce it half its 
original strength." 

With these facts, we shall leave Mr. E. to sustain his formula with his 
brother engineers and the public. We cannot, however, close these hasty 
remarks, without returning Mr. E. our sincere thanks for the research and 
classification of the several items of cost of motive power on railways, de- 
rived from the meagre reports that have heretofore been so common, even 
when prepared by legislative requirement J. E. B. 



(Pbt the American Railroad Jonrnal and Mechanics' Magazine. ■ * 

WKAR OF IRON RAILS. 

• In Mr. Ellet's paper on this important subject, there are one or two omis- 



■ (lt,t.'r'X. ■ 






•'»'«. 



:* 



24 Wear of Iron Rails. 

sions which I find it difficult to account for. In the first place, there is no 
allusion to one of the oldest railways in the Union, and in the State of Penn- 
sylvania too, over which had passed during late years about 200,000 tons 
per annum ; and during the 12 or 14 years of its operation, at least 1,500,- 
000 tons must have passed over this thin plate rail. The railway connect- 
ing the Delaware and Hudson canal with the mines, is the road referred to. 
If it be objected, that steam power is not used on this road, and, consequently, 
that it does not come within the rule, it must be admitted that the wear from 
the engine alone is more than ten times that of the freight ; for Mr. EUet 
says, 

" The common half inch flat bar, under ordinary circnmstancet, is adequate to the trantportadoA 
of about 150,000 tons of freight." 

This is, of course, entirely out of the question. 

In speaking of the South Carolina road, the iron is said to have been ^' de- 
stroyed." (page. 359) Had it been stated how many pounds per yard it had 
lost, or that it had been crushed or broken, some engineering information 
would have been given. But, unless my memory fail me, this iron was not 
only not destroyed, but was sold for a large sum, the company desiring a 
heavier rail for the increased business which was expected from the — at that 
lime — contemplated extension of their road. Not having the official docu- 
ments, I am unable to state the exact number of tons which have passed over 
the thin plate rail of the road first referred to, nor the amount which the 
" destroyed" rails of the South Carolina road brought in, with the price of 
iron at that time. Unless given by some other correspondent, I will endea- 
vor to ascrtain the " actual" loss in the South Carolina road. 
•^ The mere fact that the rails on the Lowell, Camden and Liverpool rail- 
ways have been changed, however important in itself, gives not the slightest 
information as to the absolute wear of rails ; and it is worthy of remark that 
these changes have been most frequent on the most flourishing railways. 

** In England, however, it i* contended, people hate more experience. The best experience there, it 
that of the Liverpool and Manchester railroad, a work, which was opened to public use in the fall ot 
1830." 

Here again the " par excellence" freight road of that country, the expe- 
rience of which is worth more than that of all the other railways, perhaps 
in the world, is unaccountably passed by. The freight passing on this road 
is about equal to that of the Erie canal — ^upwards of 700,000 tons in freight 
and passengers per annum — and as the engines take only 66 tons per trip, 
the wear may be put down at twice that of a similar quantity passing over 
the Reading railway, where the engines convey three times as much at a 
trip. If the rails on the Stockton and Darlington railway are renewed every 
ten months, the old iron being comparatively worthless, then is Mr. EUet'e 
view correct In the appendix to de Pambour it is stated : 

"On Mar lUth. 1831, on the LiverpoolUne, a malleable iron rail, 15 feet lone, carefully cleaned, 
weighed 177 lbs. 10 1-2 oz. On Feb. 10th, 1833, the same rail, taken up by Mr. J. Xocke, then nisideat 
engineer on the line, and well cleaned as before, weighed 176 lbs. 8 oz. It had consequently lost in SI 
months a weight of 18 1-2 oz. The number of gross tons that had passed on the rail during that tine 
was estimated at 600,000." 

Now, assuming, with Mr. Ellet, that the upper table w^eighs 20 lbs. per 
yard, it would require more than 12,000,000 of tons gross to reduce it (nm- 



^'5^^.'S7^'^\T'^ 



Railroad Dividenas. — Prices of Pork and Poultry. 



25 



fourth in weight, on the supposition that this part of the rail is alone subject 
to wear. 

The wear of rails has received much attention at various times, and Messrs. 
Knight and Latrobe introduced into their estimates of annual cost a certain 
amount to replace the iron rails. No particular number of tons was as- 
sumed, but, judging from the number of trips, about 4,000,000 would be a 
&ir estimate. 

I believe there are several roads with the plate rail, which have sustained 
the wear of 100,000 tons in freight and passengers, with a very insignificant 
loss in weight of iron — among the number, the South Carolina, and Hud- 
son and Mohawk railroads. My object in writing, is, however, mainly to 
draw attention to the fact, that the oldest freight roads in England and the 
United States find no place in Mr. EUet's paper, and that in the instance of 
the South Carolina road, the whole case is not stated, so that the reader is 
led to the most erroneous conclusions. 

January, 1844. W R, Casey. 

v. Railroad Dividends. — We find in the Boston " Shipping Lisf^ the fol- 
lowing statistics of the dividends of the Boston railroads for the last six 
months. 



Roada. 


Amount of 
Capital. 


Awonot of 
Dividends. 

$72,000 
81,000 
66,000 
54,000 
36,000 
16,000 
12,000 
12,500 
7,500 

357,000 


Dividends 
per Share. 


CnrreDt 
PricM. 

$130 
117 
106 
108 
107 
130 
107 
120 
78 


Lowell, , -i * 

Worcester, /''■y^\^':i.'''''''^'^''' 
Eastern, ■ >;-f- ,•:;-:! ■■ '-'^ -v,'^' v\'v >-•?;- ■ 
Providence, :»:.>.■?, i .j^j 
Boston and Maine, ». ^^y -J • : '■■ 
Nashua, '. " • 
New Bedford, ■^;'' -/ 
Taunton branch, ?v - 
Charlestown branch, ». -^^ 


$1,800,000 

2,700,000 

2,200,000 

1,800,000 

1,200,000 

400,000 

400,000 

250,000 

250,000 


$4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
3 
5 
3 




11,000,000 







PRICES OF PORK AND POULTRY IN ALBANY AND BOSTON. 

r The Rochester Democrat has the following remarks in relation to the 
relative value of pork and poultry in Boston, Albany and Rochester. It 
says: 

" On looking over the prices of pork, in Albany and Boston, we notice 
they are very high, compared with the markets in western New York. 
The reason is, that seventy-two miles of the railroad, between Utica and Al- 
bany, that connects us with Boston, is not suffered to carry freight This is 
a great detriment not only to our pork raisers and wheat growers, but to all 
who raise a surplus of any kind of produce. Poultry is another article 
which always bears a high price in New England, and while our farmers 
are compelled to peddle it out here at four cents a pound, it is selling in Bos- 
ton at ten cents. Could this winter embargo be removed, while the canal ir 
closed. It would add thousands of dollars to the pockets of the farmers in this 
section. The west has suffered long enough in this respect. Prompt action 
should be had, and the Utica and Schenectady railroad company should be 
not only empowered, but compelled to carry freight in the winter." 

: We have frequently referred to this subject before, and urged the propriety 



^ . >^.i^t .. *x u« Aimospheric Railways. .^ ^ ^ .^ 

of authorizing the Uticaand Schenectady railroad to carry freight, especially 
in winter, when the canals are closed. The advantage will be mutual to 
the farmers, and the citizens, and not disadvantageous to the company ; as 
during winter, the travel is much less than in summer, and the engines are 
.seldom required to take full loads, and may always take more or less freight 

It appears to us a narrow policy to construct important works, for the* 
benefit of the people, and then to restrict them from doing that for which 
alone they were chartered. Our canals and railroads were undertaken and 
completed for the purpose o( facilitating and increasiiig business, to enable'- 
the farmers to send their produce to market, and the merchants their goods to 
the country, at cheaper rates, and the result has been all that was anticipated 
— and much more, yet not all that they are capable of accomplishing — then 
why not require of them.to extend their operations and usefulness to their 
full ability. We hope the legislature will be called upon to act on this sub-' 
ject at their present session. ;T.-r>:^; '''^"■•^'* -* 1; 

ATMOSrHERIC RAILWAYS. 

■^ We find in the November number of the Practical Mechanic and Engi. 
neers' Magazine, the following description of the atmospheric railway ; from|: 
which it appears that some interesting and successful experiments have beeni; 
made on the west London line, at Wormwood-scrubs, and also on the Dal-T 
key branch of the Dublin and Kingstown railway. These experiments are 
not given in detail, so that we can judge accurately of the pr.acticul operation 
of the system, yet they are referred to in a manner evincing no doubt of their v 
accuracy by the editor. This result is in perfect accordance with an opinion 
expressed to us ?ix years ago by Mr. Samuel Blydenburg, an intelligent 
practical mechanic, now deceased ; who spake of its practicability as beyond^. ; 
a question, and of its extensive introduction as certain. In this account we;^' 
are told that, not only the first cost of construction, but also the cost of work-'' 
ing the road is greatly reduced; which, if true, is certainly a strong argu- . 
ment in its favor ; yet, a stronger one in our opinion is, its greater safety — ^ 
a consideration altogether above dollars and cents. 

We give this article entire, and shall look with interest for further accounts 
in relation to the progress of a system, which may, at no distant day, say to v 
the locomotive, as it has said to that neble animal, the horse, '' your service* 
are no longer required on this road." 

More than a year ago, we intimated our intention of bringing this scheme 
under review ; but as time passed on, the experimentum crucis on the Dal- 
key branch of the Dublin and Kingstown railway progressed, and at length 
attained a state of forwardness, which induced us to await the completion of 
the undertaking before hazarding any prophetic opinion respecting its gen- 
eral practicability, and the advantages claimed for it by its advocates over the 
plain matter of fact modes of propulsion at present in operation on our rail- . 
way lines. The experiment has now attained maturity, and has already es- 
tablished, beyond dispute, this one important fact — that the scheme is possible. 

But before proceeding to a description of the mechanical appliances by 
which this consummation has been realized, it may not be out of place to o> , 



* -'tXtSi: ^'-'t. 



- ~, ^ ^ Atmospheric Railways.^ ''_-.■ -r _ '"wlr 

serve, that the principle of the scheme possesses much less of novelty than . 
is commonly associated with it. Even two centuries ago, the notion was en- 
tertained of producing motion economically for the purpose of transit by 
means of the pressure of the atmosphere. The original thought may, at 
^least, be traced back with certainty to the celebrated Dr. Papin. In suc- 
cession, long afterwards, came Lewis, Vallance, Medhurst and Pinkus, 
whose speculations excited in their day,- some attention and more ridicule 
Many of these are curious, and none of them are more absurd than that of 
Vallance, who actually proposed to propel his 'carriages and passengers 
through an exhausted tunnel. Medhurst, in imitation of Vallance, in his 
first speculation, proposed likewise to drive his carriages through a subter- . 
ranean 'passage, but believing that his passengers could not comfortably ex- 
ist without air, made provision, at least partially, for its supply during tho 
passage. In a pamphlet which he publishell in 1817, he describes his line 
of transit as a " hollow tube" of such dimensions as to admit a four-wheeled 
carriage to run through it, and to be constructed air-tight of iron, brick, tim- . 
ber, or other "suitable material." The carriage Avas to be of a form and . 
size nearly to fill the cross section of the tunnel, and to be propelled forward 
in one direction, by forcing air into the tunnel behind it, by means of a sta- 
tionary engine, working a huge air-pump ; and in the other, by exhausting 
the tunnel in advance of the carriage, arid allowing the pressure of the at- 
mosphere to act upon it behind. The proposal was received with ridicule, 
and for a season afforded good material for the caricaturist. But Mr. Med- 
hurst was not abashed ; nor was his ingenuity exhausted, for he speedily de- 
vised means of propelling his carriage in the open air, and of making a 
communication between the interior of his propulsion tube, and the outside, 
preserving it at the same time air tight. His scheme now began to assume 
a rational form. Its principal feature was the exchange of the subterranean 
tunnel for an iron pipe of 34 inches diameter, having a longitudinal opening 
on its underside, between two flanges of six or eight inches deep. These 
flanges were to be immersed in a channel of water, thus forming a species 
of water valve, throughout the whole length of the pipe. It is unnecessary 
to say, that this valve did not answer, but it was an approach which seems 
rather to have whetted than damped the ardor of the inventor, for he imme-, 
diately discarded it for one formed on the top of the vacuum pipe. In this 
modification, the pipe had no flanges along the opening. The valve was a 
metal plate, hinged to one edge of the groove, and had some soft substance 
as leather, fixed upon tfie other edge, to shut against a seat of a similar ma- 
terial, fastened on the corresponding edge of the groove, so as to form when 
shut, an air tight joint. The power was in this case as before, to be obtained 
by exhausting the main by an engine at one end, and to allow the pressure. 
of the atmosphere to act upon the back of a piston accurately fitted to the 
pipe, and having a projecting arm passing through the groove ; to this the 
carriage was to be attached. The piston had certain attachments for open- 
ing the valve as it advanced, and others for shutting it ; but withall the valve 
was not tight. 

In this advanced state was the contrivance, when taken up by Mr. Pen- 
kus, who suggested the rope valve, which likewise failed to keep the tube 
air tight, and was in turn abandoned- The course being thus clear, and the 
notion reduced in. some measure to a practicable form, Mr. Clegg stepjjea 
forward, and solved the difficulty. He has deviated in no respect from the 
general arrangement suggested by Mr. Medhurst, but by a closer attention 
to the conditions of the. problem and the mechanical details which these in- 
volve, has succeeded in working out the original suggestion to practical util- 



28 Atmospheric Railtoays. 

ity in a way which promises to be efficient, and capable of en(|pring the 
rough usage necessarily attendant on constant and rapid motion. . 

The atmospheric railway in its present state of development, consists of a 
cast iron pipe, laid in lengths, like water and gas mains, between the rails 
of the line, and attached to the cross sleepers which support them. On the 
top of this pipe is a narrow longitudinal opening, which for. the purpose of 
rendering the pipe pro tempore air tight, is covered with a valve as suggest- 
ed by Mr. Medhurst. This valve is* a simple flap formed of a slip of leather 
rivetted between narrow plates of iron — the plates on the exterior side being 
flat, while those on the under surface are of a segmental form to complete 
the inner periphery of the tube when the valve is closed down. On one side 
the leather is fastened down to a longitudinal rib, cast along the opemne in 
the pipe, and being flexible, forms a species of hinge. The other edge, 
when the valve is shut, falls within a ridge cast upon the pipe, and forms 
with it a channel which is filled with a composition of bees' wax and tallow^. 
This substance when melted into the channel cements the valve in its place, 
rendering it to the necessary extent air tight. The tube is of the same di- 
ameter throughout, and has a piston fitted into it likewise made air tight, by 
leather collars. At the end of the rod of the piston is a counter weight to . 
keep the rod, which is about fifteen feet in length, parallel to the axis of the 
tube. Upon this rod is also a framp which carries four wheels, the use of 
which is to open the valve as the piston advances in the tube. To it is also 
' attached the coulter, which is formed of strong plate iron, and projects through 
the longitudinal opening in the pipe, forming a connection between the pis- 
ton and the leading carriage or gtiiding truck of the train moving upon the 
- railway. The tube being exhausted in front of the piston by an air pump 
worked by a steam engine, the piston is acted upon behind, and impelled for- 
ward by the air, which finds admission into the main by the opening of the 
valve on the passing of the coulter. This opening through which the coul- 
ter passes is raised only a few feet in length at a time, and not in advance 
of the piston. By the operation of raising the valve out of its seat, the pack- 
ing is broken ; but the air tight contact is again immediately reproduced, 
when the coulter has passed. The first part of this operation is effected by 
a wheel attached to the guiding truck, which operating by a spring, presses 
the valve into its place, where it is cemented by a hot copper slide, about five 
fleet long which passing over the surface of the composition in the groove 
at the valve edge, renders it partially fluid. The valve being thus opened 
and replaced air tight as before, the tube is left ready to be again exhausted 
for the next train. 

The main pipe is prepared inside to receive the pislon in a very simple 
and economical manner. On the castings being taken from the foundry 
sand, a cutter is passed through them ; this if followed by a wooden piston, 
which spreads the unguent in a complete coating of even interior surface. 
By the frequent passage of the working piston, this tallow lining, or tinning 

■ as it were, becomes perfectly smooth and nearly as hard as Paris plaster, so 

■ that the piston may be considered, practically speaking, to work in a tube 
of tallow protected by the iron pipe as a casing. 

In this mode of propulsion, it is clear that the measure of the power for 
producing motion is the product of the sectional area of the main pipe mul- 
' tiplied by the number of pounds pressure due to the vacuum. Thus from a 
tube of twelve inches diameter under a vacuum of eighteen inches of mer- 
cury, giving nine pounds pressure per square inch, there is obtained an at- 
mospheric power of fully 1000 pounds — a result equivalent to the avera,ge 
adhesivt power of a locomitve engine j and capable with due deduction for 






Atmospheric Railway. 



29 



friction and resistance of all kinds, of propelling ten carriages of 46^ tons 
over a horizontal railway ; and two carriages of 9^ tons up an incline of so 
Steep a gradiant as 1 in 28. On the West London line at Wormwood scrubs 
where the atmospheric system has been in constant and successful operation 
under very disadvantageous circumstances, on a length of half a mile, for 
the last three years, the main pipe is only nine inches diameter. Up this 
line, which is an incline of 1 in 120. loads of 13 tons have been propelled 
at the rate of 20 miles an hour. On the Dalkey branch of the Dublin and 
Kingstowp railway, the tube is 15 inches diameter, and the gradient of the 
incline is 1 in 110. Up this three carriages loaded with passengers, have 
been propelled over a distance of If mile, at the rate of 40 miles an hour. 

With regard to the velocity attainable by trains impelled by atmospheric 
pressure, it may be regarded as independent of load and pressure, and regu- 
lated almost entirely by the proportiion between the area of the tube and that ■ 
of the exhausting pump ; that is, by the velocity with which the air is with- 
drawn from the tube by the pump ; the exhausting pump piston travelling 
at the same speed as the piston of the steam engine which works it ; that is, 
not exceeding three miles an hour. -If the trains are required to travel at 
the rate of 30 miles an hour, then the transverse sectional area of the air 
pump must be to that of the pipe as 10 to 1, and the engine power must be 
provided accordingly. This is independent of Ibad ; and gravity being prac- 
tically an equivalent augmentation of the load to be moved, it is consequent- 
ly also independent of the gradient. In practice, atmospheric leakage must 
be taken into account, and additional engine power provided for it ^ this iah 
computed to be at the rate of six horse power per mile of pipe. V 

;, To illustrate this still further : suppose the travelling load to be 50 tons, 
and the degree of vacuum necessary to obtain a given velocity, producing a 
pressure of 10 pounds per square inch on the piston ; so long as the load is 
the same and the line level, the train must move with equal velocity, because 
the speed is due to the rapidity with which the air is pumped out of the pipe. 
But if the load be only 25 tons, starting with the same pressure as with 50 
tons, the train then runs faster than the air is drawn out of the pipe, the 
power behind being so great in the first instance, as to force the load forward 
at an increasing rate. But the pump going slower in proportion than the 
train, the air gets packed as it were in front of the pistmi, and becoming less 
rarefied, must offer greater resistance ; the velocity of the train, at first great- 
ly increased, gradually diminishes, until the amount of vacuum becomes 
propbrtionate to the weight behind it : the train then goes on uniformly. 
Again, supposing the train to start with a load which is rather heavy for the 
degree of vacuum, it moves at first with less required velocity ; but the air 
in this case being withdrawn quicker than the road follows, the vacuum be- 
comes more and more perfect ; and thus the power increasing gradually, the 
train increases its velocity until it becomes balanced with the vacuum. To 
ascend an incline, may be called equivalent to adding to the load, and to de- 
scend equal to diminishing it ; when the train therefore coming to an incline, 
begins to ascend, its rate will gradually diminish until the power is brought 
up equivallent to the pressure ; that is, until the exhausting pump by going 
faster than the train, generates a power sufficient to impel it up the ascent. 
In descending inclines, the trains will start with increased velocity ; but the 
vacuum will immediately begin to diminish and reduce the effective pressure 
behind. The moment the train comes to the level, its velocity will begin to 
increase till the balance is again restored between the velocity and pressure. 
Messrs. Glegg and Samuda, the patentees of the atmospheric railway, pur- 
pose to work their lines generally by stationary power, erected at intervals 



30 ' Editorial ^ 

of four or five miles apart ; and to work the different inclines by correspond- 
ing degrees of vacuum. By this means they calculate on a large saving of 
first cost in the construction of railways on their system, and also in their 
maintenance. * The former of these items they estimate at about £22,000, 
and the latter at £1,460 per mile below the average cost of formation, and 
expense of working upon the locomotive system. In this, however, it must 
be observed, the average cost of construction is taken at £37,000 per milej 
whereas some of our most important lines have been laid down for one-third 
less, and it has been shown by Mr. Lock, that a very important line, the 
Caledonian, may be made for £17,000 a mile. 

The most important of the two savings claimed is that in the annual ex- 
penditure ; and it must he admitted, in looking at the enormous sacrifice of 
power and mater ieal in our locomotive system, that there is much room for 
economy in this department. By the application of stationary power — and 
this, in many, if not in most cases, might be water power — on the atmos- 
pheric system there is nothing to be propelled except the cJlrriage, and a 
near approximation to the full dynamical effect of the force generated is ob- 
tained. On the locomotive system, half the load on the average of trains 
consists of the engine and tender ; and on the stationary system of traction 
by rope and pulley there is ,a large expenditure of power in draging the 
rope along, in bending it round the drums, working the puUies along the 
line, and overcoming the friction of the other parts of the attendant mechan- 
ism. On the atmospheric system, is substituted a rope of air, without friction 
or weight, and capable of transferring a power that may be called inex- 
haustible and boundless. 

• But on this subject we have not as yet obtained sufficient practical data to 
waraant a strict comparison. We know that the locomotive system is ex- 
pensive in the extreme, and that the mode of traction by rope and pulley is 
attended with practical difficuUies and inconveniences, which prevents its 
adoption wherever it can be avoided, A short experience on the Dalkey 
branch, now on the eve of being regularly opened, will decide the question 
to full satisfaction ; we await the result with some confidence. 

In conclusion, we may remark that the atmospheric system seems to hold 
out one paramount advantage in its perfect safety from collisions and similar 
accident, which on railways, even with double lines, worked by locomotive 
engines, are always liable to occur. j 

Since the above was in type, a Dublin correspondent writes that the traiili 
on the Dalkey branch have been running regularly with perfect success, 
during the last three weeks, (Nov. 10th,) and that a speed of fifty miles an 
hour has already been obtained. So elated are the promoters of the atmos- 
pheric system, that arrangements are in course of preparation for extending 
the line to Bray. 

The series of communications from Charles EUet, Esq., C. E., in several 
of our late numbers has attracted much attention and remark. From vari- 
ous quarters we have been urged to make some comment upon these articles, 
expressive of our dissent from the positions of Mr. Ellet. For several rea- 
sons wc have abstained from doing so, and chiefly because — differing as he 
does from many, if not most of the other distinguished members of the pro- 
fession — we wished that his opinions should be heard without any bias, and 
without any note or comment on our own part. This end has now been 
answered, and we feel at liberty to express our opinions with the same fre- 
dom which we have always felt disposed to grant to others. 



« 



EdiLonal. ^ ..^r - ^^Pf* 

views, no matter how warmly, — provided this is done with decency and 
propriety — \ye not only cheerfully give place to him, but urge a continuance 
— convinced that if any error is advocated, it can easily and readily be re- 
futed by members of the profession, all of whom are welcome to our pages. 
Moreover, the discussion of error, if not childish or trifling in its character, 
is sure to end in good ; and when the life and soul of the railroad system 
are at stake, it certainly must prove jm inducement for sovie one to engage 
in its defence. 

In several previous articles we have alluded to the manner in which this 
subject should be discussed, and we must confess that Mr. Ellet has ap- 
proached more nearly than any one else to the spirit in which we desire to 
see the question taken up. We differ from Mr. Ellet, however, as to the 
value and correctness of his data, at least in one of the most important points 
— ^the deterioration and wear of iron. The articles of Mr Ellet show a ^ 
vast deal of research, and labor; they are therefore entitled to a respectful - 
and careful examination. But if the whole amount of railroad statistics in 
our possession had been used as data in the formation of the rules or formu- 
la proposed, much more general satisfaction would have been given. For- 
tunately, the precise and systematical method of Mr. E. allows of the readi- 
est correction of his own errors, for such do undoubtedly exist.' 

The great and vital mistake, in our opinion, is the enormous, and as we 
imagine, unwarranted amount of deterioration assigned to railroad iron. 
vWe do not hesitate to say, that if the opinions — for they are but opinions — . 
of Mr. Ellet are correct upon this point, the whole railroad system in this 
country must fall to the ground, and in Europe should by this time have al- ']. 
ready been abandoned. This is not the case, and we have from this circura- , 
stance alone a reasonable doubt as to the correctness of the position assumed 
by Mr. E. His data for this are taken from two roads, in themselves unfair 
examples, and not correctly stated. Any inference, based upon so narrow a 
foundation, and leading to such momentous consequences, has been well 
characterised by a celebrated writer as an inverted pyramid, with the apex 
to the ground — a fair case of unstable equilibrium. 

But it is not our intention to enter into this discussion, which should be, 
as we have before said, based upon strict argument upon all the data in our 
possession. If the cause of railroads in general is at stake, its defence cer- 
tainly must depend upon better qualified and more influential advocates than 
ourselves. The pages of this Journal are open to all, and we urge upon 
ail concerned to take part in the settlement of the most important question 
ever presented to the profession. It is not in our power at present, even if ; 
80 disposed, to fight single handed the battles of railroads in general ; in this ~ 
matter we feel quite independant ; we are under no obligations to railroads 
generally, and all our labors on their behalf have hitherto been so miserably : 
ewarded, that we think it a hard case to fight without pay and furnish our : . 
own amunilion in the.lt^rgain. 



. -■) ■ 



a» 



Railroad Reports. 



We have wished to express our own individual opimon, and having so 
done, we open our pages to all who are disposed to enter into the argument 

—only asking for fair play on all sides. 

X . 

RAIT.ROAD REPORTS. 

It has been a common remark by many deeply interested persons, thai the 
manner in which the annual reports are made, by railroad companies, ren- 
ders it all but impossible to arrive at a correct understanding of their details. 
There is seldom such a classification of the various items of expense as will 
enable an uninnitiated or unprofessional reader to arrive at the true resuUs ; 
consequently the great majority of the stockholders, and others who may 
desire to become such, are unable to judge whether it is safe for them to hold 
or to purchase stock in such companies. Another common remark is that 
there would be great convenience if the reports of all railroad companies 
were made, as far as possible, in tabular form, — so that the various items of 
expense shall always be found in every report, in the same place, and under 
their appropriate heads ; and we speak the sentiments of thousands, when 
we say that much benefit will result to the cause of railroads by the adop- 
tion of a tabular form of report which shall give each item of expense un- 
der its appropriate and distinct head. 

Our views upon this subject have been more than once expressed in these 
columns, and repeated calls have been made upon those gentlemen, whose 
experience in the construction and management of important lines, will en- 
able them to draw out a form, comprising all the requisite heads, for publi- 
cation in the Journal. As will be seen in this number, our call has been re- 
sponded to in a manner highly gratifying to us, and we think it will be 
found an exceedingly comprehensive and valuable document to the profession ; 
and we venture, in their behalf, as we do most heartily in our own, to thank 
Mr. Latrobe for preparing it. With this form before them, we hope each 
railroad company to whom it may be sent — and we shall send a copy of the 
Journal containing it to the president of each road, both in this country and 
in Europe, where we can obtain the proper direction — will adopt the form 
in making their reports, and send us a copy at their earliest convenience — 
that we may make out a general table, exhibiting at one glance, a compara- 
tive statement of the expenses on all railroads. Such a table will be useful, 
as it will lead to a more rigid economy, and to great reduction in many 
items of expense. •• 

If desirable, we will furnish the different companies with these blanks, 
in such numbers as they may desise, at any time, without delay, on receiv- 
ing their order, as it is stereotyped. ' '-• '-*i' 

Jl3*Subscribers will please recollect that this number commences a new 
volume ; and they will do well to apply soon for missing numbers of the past 
volume. Those who are in arrears for subscription will relieve their own 
consciences, and our necessities by an early remittance. i 

ERRATUM.— Article— "Dnration of railroad iron"— 8th line from bottom of page, for "400 milu 
completed," read 4000 miles completed. 



CONTENTS: 



Page. Page. 

Transportation on railroads — by Charles Eilet, iDuration ot railroad iron — remarks on Mr. El- 

Jr, civil engineer, 1 let's formula — .I.E. B., 2S 

Notes on practical encineerinj:, 8 Wear of iron rails — remarks on Mr. Ellet'g for- 

Remarks on Mr. Ellet's formul«— <l,. 10] mula— W^. R. Caney. 23 

Baltimiirn and Ohio railroad report, Vi Railroad dividends.— Price* of pork & poultry, 26 

Form of a statistical table, 19 Atmospheric railways, S$ 

Coluaibi* and Iltiladelphia railroa<l, . .,-' SOEditorial, 



..f 



AMERICAN 

-" RAILROAD JOURNAL, 

AND 

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. ,i;l 



Published Monthly at 23 Chambers-st New York, ; ^ By GEO. C. SGHAEFFER, and 

at 92 a-yeax, in advance, or 3 copies tot 95. \ ( D. K. MINOK, Editors. 

'^Si^ries.'^ j ~ FEBRUARY, 1844. r\t.x>aF 

.^ — .^ — — ^ —^ — a 

For the American Railroad Joornal and Mechanics' Ma^zine. 
RERCARKS ON MR. ELLET*S FORMULA COST OF TRANSPORTATION ON RAILWAYS. 

In the December number of your Journal, my remarks on this formula 
of Mr. Ellet's, were perhaps sufficient to show that it was not possible to 
construct one, which could be of any practical use for determining the pre- 
sent value of any specific railway, and still less of one in contemplation, the 
constant tendency towards amelioration in all the departments of this improve- 
ment, rendering the data of to-day no longer applicable on the morrow. It 
was there also shown, that in the very nature of the railway, the condition is 
implied that it must always be kept up in full repair, the neglect of this con- 
dition leading to its abandonment by the public, and the consequent ruin of 
the concern. Hence like old wine, a railway should be and generally is, al) 
the better for its age, and it may be broadly asserted, as the result of this 
condition., that there is not one of our earliest railways of any note, which 
is not now better than it ever was, and is, moreover, daily growing better in 
some one or other of its details. Even in the case of the Columbia, a Penn- 
sylvania State road, this is strongly exemplified, the daily expense of man- 
agement being reduced to $350 per day in 1843^38 compared with $760 per 
day in 1839 and 1840, the result as' well of improvements as of .better econ- 
omy. Every railway must thus stand on its ovm merits, no two being found 
stifficiently under a parity of circumstances to admit of the one being any 
rule for the other, this being long since received as an axiom with all intelli- 
gent railway engineers. 

I shall now continue my remarks upon the further article which appeared 
in your December number, from Mr. Ellet, in support of his formula. 

In the first place he gives another table of the repairs and expenses o( en- 
gines and cars for several roads, which is good, so f^r as it shows a variance 
in this item of from five to ten cents per mile run, or of 100 percent. ; but of 
what »]f"; is an average for 'particular application from such extremes as this ? 

In Jhe next place he gives another table of the repairs and expenses of 
&irfuiid- engines hr several roads returned in one itepi^ ^ which he pro- 



. /',. ^; -i-^r.^ i-'\:M. ■ V_- .V-^- . 



Remarks on Mr. Ellefs Formula. 

perly remarks, " it is the custom of many companies to publish the cost of 
repairs of their engines and cars in a specific item, so as to make it impossi- 
hU for the reader to determine from their accounts what portion of the bill 
was created by the engines, or the difference between the repairs due to dii- 
ferent sorts of cars." Nothing daunted by this incongruous mixture, he 
proceeds with his deductions, and tojix laws for these expenses, giving and 
taking as it suits his purpose, and reduced also occasionally to the hard ne- 
cessity of being obliged to suppose. 

A seeming approach, now and then, to some agreement between the actu- ' 
al expenses and the calculated ones, by his formula, has naturally the effect 
of misleadiog him, -when it is only the result of accident, and comes from 
the roads compared by him being nearly all alike in the small ratio which 
the actual business done by their establishments and machinery, bears to the 
much greater amount they would be equal to, did the business exist for them. 
This feature is strongly marked on all his tables, and is at first inseparable 
from a railway, which in itself and its equipment must be a good deal ahead 
of the business existing for it at the outset, but as experience shows that un- 
der the influence of a railway, this business has a constant tendency to el- 
pansion, while at the same time all the parts of the machine, getting to be 
worked more in unison and towards the one single purpose of economy, its 
earnings increase, and the proportion of. its expenditures diminish. This 
has been signally manifested in the case of the Columbia road just adverted 
to, as well as in that of perhaps the earliest pioneer in this improvement with 
steam power, the Baltimore and Ohio railway, which, after narrowly escap- 
ing the trials of infancy, has been of late years gradually approaching to- 
wards a. fullness of business, and of this even Mr. EUet could not help being 
struck, when he remarks, that the actual cost for the road fitlls considerably 
below the computed cost for 1843, but without perceiving, or being willing 
to acknowledge, that it was owing to this expansive tendency ; another re- 
markable instance of which I find in the Georgia railroad report for 1843, 
in which it is stated, that with an increase of only 353 miles run by ^e en- 
gines, it delivered in that year 23,000 bales of cotton more than in 1842. 
At this rate Mr. EUet's formula would be kept for ever at feult In Eng- 
land, in the midst of its dense population and business, few railways suffered 
long in a disproportion of iheir establishments, and the work for them to do ; 
but here, in this cotmtry, where these essential elements of success are sparse 
and small, much disappointment had to be suffered and patience borne, before 
in most cases, that evil could be overoome. This expansive principle is ever 
active on railways, and, tinder loio charges, being more particularly in- 
fluenced by it than any of its rivals, its chances of survival and of ultimate 
triumph are generally the best in cases where it may have to contend against 
strong and unusual competition, and the business is not more than enough 
for one. No bettor evidence can he adduced of any extended confidence with 
the public in this improvement, than the rise in the stock of most railways, 
the Reading included, in the last few months, some of them bearing the high- 



Remarks on Mr. Ellefs Formula. |. • 

est premiums of any on the stock list While on this part of the subject, we 
cannot do better than quote what is said of it in England, where the interest 
being large, it is likely to be best understood, and where the most unbounded 
reliance on its permanent safety as a profitable investment is being constantly 
manifested, which could not be, either there or here, if Mr, EUet's theory 
were true. 

" Other things being alike, if the receipts are higher, the percentage of expense will be 
le«8 — and vice versa ; again, the more business, the less in proportion is the expense at 
which it can be dsne, simply because the standing expenses will bear a less proportion to 
the receipts when great than when httle. In det«nmning the comparative value, or the 
per centage of profit on different lines of railway, the first consideration is to look at their 
reactive amounts of capital, as the smaller this may be, the more likely is it to pay weU. 
This is affected by many circumstances, not always controllable, but in respect to which 
It is now only of use to remark, that after a vast amount of dear bought experience, the 
first outlay can now generally be kept down to a saving of one-third of the old limits, and 
for & very superior article. Between recently built railways, and still more so with those 
which may be contemplated, and their pioneer progenitors, comparisons in first cost and in 
Useful and profitable effect vnll no tonger hold, where they connect equally suitable points." 

Thus for England at least the railway system is considered not only per- 
manently safe, but can be relied upon as continuing to maintain a progessive 
. career. Here, however, this encouraging view is not so general, and the 
counter interest of canals, is forever busy in repressing it — and not satisfied 
with endeavoring to make it the most self-devouring machine by its ordinary 
expenses. Mr. Ellet thinks he has brought ag^ainst it a "- wear of iron," 
which alone would be beyond compensation by any probable amount of 
business, and under which the whole system must inevitably break down. 
But on this main item of the wear of the rail let me quote his awn words, 
that he may not be misunderstood. 

As a sort of summary of his views on this head, he remarks : 

1st. " That great errors have been committed in the consideration of this subject, m 
overlooking the fact, that the progress of the wear is rarely ascertained, or in the least ap- 
preciated, until the rail is destroyed. The annual charge for iron is very small, because in 
general the track does not appear to give way until it is nearly unfit for use. When re- 
pairs really commence, the aestruction is so far advanced that the iron must be renewed, 
and if the directors assert, as they usnaHy do, in their next report to the stockholders, that 
experience has shown that the original iron is ver^ bad, and has all been crushed, the ex- 
planation is satisfactory, and the cost of the new iron is forthwith charged to the account 
of construction." 

In order to show the estimate of loss he* has arrived at on a particular 
form of rail, and after distinctly stating that he considers the so catted im- 
proved edge rails as more perishable, he remarks, 

2d. " That the common half-inch flat bar, under ordinary circumstances, is adequate to 
the transportation of 150,000 tons of freight. Such a bar on the Petersburg road, where 
the freight amounts to some 25,000 tons, would resist the wear of some six years' business; 
but if the trade of one year of the Schuylkill canal (say 7 to 800,000 tons) were poured 
along it, the iron part of the track would need entire renewal six times in one year. 

But few of our readers can fail to be struck with the novelty of the idea in. ■ 
the first quotation, that the destruction of a rail thus steals upon one like a 
thief in the night, and not being in the least appreciated, until the whole track 
breaks down at once ; and still more novel will it seem to them, that the cost 
of renewal is all supplied forthwith in a lump, by merely asking for it. 
This is a readiness of means, which few, if any, of our railways ever sus- 
pected themselves of possessing, under ordinary circumstances ; and und^ 



* i-: 



-^s,'* -'■. -■»♦ 



Remarks on Mr. Elhfs Formnla. 



such effects as Mr. Ellet attributes to a Schuylkill freshet of tonnage., not 

one of them would hope to escape, in the money line, utter extinguishment. 

In my own justification, however, 1 should state, that I doubted much 

' whether these quotations should be treated seriously, as carrying in them 
their own refutation ; but as the public in general look but seldom into this 
subject, or have the means of much correct information in respect to it, I 

, have thought it as well to show that it is only by an entire ignorance or per- 
version, through misunderstanding I hope, of the facts in the case, that Mr. 
fillet has been able to concoct such results. 

Everybody knows more or less of the origin of steam railways for the 
purpose of quicker travel and transportation. Not knowing better, they com- 
menced with a light plate rail, but soon found out, that the stringer or con' 

, timunis support it required, could not be kept continuous, but was forever de- 
caying and leaving the rail unequally, by which it was sooner or later b«it 
into ridges, according to the weight of the then more destructive locomotive. 
This soon induced the use of a thicker flat bar, and so on from the plate rail 
of 16 pounds, the weight has been gradually increased to 80 pounds per 

. yard, disposed'of in various shapes to produce the greates possible strength, 
principally to meet a continued increase, until lately in this country, of weight 

. of locomotive, the best form of rail for this purpose being yet an open ques- 
tion, and in which further improvements will continue to be made as sug- 
gested by experience. It is in the course of these transitions during the last 
fifteen years, from light to heavier rails, in search in fact of the adequate — 
and towards which, in England, the Liverpool and Manchester, as the pio- 
neer, contributed so liberally — that Mr. Ellet has thought to find his cases 
of destructiwi, and to assume upon these mere replacements of a heavier for 
a lighter rail, that a serious dead loss was incurred, when in feet the old and 
merely defaced iron often, in the case particularly of the flat rail, always Te- 
alized first cost, and sometimes a profit ; that on the Mine Hill road having, 
as one instance, sold at 870 per ton. Here, then, is found the true version 
of the several cases of rails destroyed, as adduced by Mr. Ellet, and that this 
is so, as well as that there may exist not even a shadow of ground for the 
very perishable character he attributes to it, but on the contrary, that it has 
abundantly proved itself to possess a suitable durability, I subjoin a list of 
roads on which the rails were laid some time prior to those cited by Mr. El- 
let as long since destroyed, which are still in use, and likely to remain so 
until the concerns can aflTord to change them, or for an indefinite period. 
The following are those, among several others, that I will refer to, as having 
still down their original iron, either in whole or in part: 



The Mohawk «tnd Hadsoa, Flat rail In ast> for 10 years, 6team power. 

The Baltimore and Ohio, do. <40 milet of old track) 12 " " 

The Harlem railroad, 'do. 11 " Horse and steam power. 

The Utica and Schenectady, do. 7 " Steam power. 

The Columbia road, Edge rail 9 " 



\r' 



All these roads have had their iron put to the severest test, the Harlem in 
particular, over the city part of the track, some 300,000 tons in human flesh 
ajid cars passing annually, suid which must by this time have borne over one 



V 



'ii:^.':.x 'm 



^« Remarks on Mr. Ellefs Formukk^/: . |p| 

inillion of tons. The other roads have all been battered by the heaviest lo- 
comotives, and made to suffer especially on their curves, from which few are 
exempt, and ahhough made ho account of by Mr. Ellet, are the most fruit- 
ful source of wear and tear to both road and machinery, particularly on the 
<^olumbia railroad. But as establishing the fact of the little injury sustained 
by the flat rail from the rolling of mere tonnage over it, we find by reference 
to their reports that there have passed up to this time over the ^^* 

MancK Chunk Lefaigh railnnd in coal descending and ascending cars a tonaaee of 3,160,000 tpns 
Lackawanna « « u iT 2,600,000 " 

MineHUl n u u « 1,600 000 " 

Nqw as, the rail could save nothing hy rest, the wear would be the same had 
the above tonnage passed over it in a month, or in a series of years, and 
therefore for Mr. Ellet to assert that such a mere bagatelle, comparatively, 
as 160,000 tons, would destroy the Petersburg rail in six years, and that the 
tonnage of the Schuylkill for one year, about one-fourth of that already 
passed over the Mauch Chunk road, would require it to be renewed six timts 
in one year, is utterly preposterous. Neither do the parties concerned in. 
the above roads entertain a doubt of the iron on them continuing to be use- 
ful for many years to come, all of them showing annually an increased 
transportatibu. ButVhat is most singular, is to find Mr. Ellet maintaining 
that all the world have been asleep in this matter of the sudden breaking 
down of the iron gn railways, and that as it were, it has been left to him to 
give the first alarm and wake them up. It would indeed be marvellous, if at 
this late day, no notice had been taken of this very important fact, or that it 
would not indeed have proclaimed itself and have arrested the furt^r pro- 
secution of the railway, particularly in England, where the iron is treated 
without mercy - as regards weight of locomotive, length of train and above 
all in the highest speeds — 30 miles for travel, and 15 miles per hour foi 
freight What took so many of the Cofftinental engineers to England, and 
afterwards brougiit tliem here, but to learn how it stood in particular, in re 
spect to this vital part of the system. And does not the spread since of rail 
ways over all the Contenent, establish the fact, that the cost for renewal nrom 
wear of the rail, as I stated in my former remarks, was ascertained by them 
to be compassable by a moderate annual charge after allowing for old ma- 
terial, generally worth two-thirds of the new ; and this without limit to the 
trade to be passed over it ? This being most particularly important to the 
Continent, where iron is generally expensive, pains were in consequence 
taken to be sure of the fact. The latest reference we can fead to the subject 
in England, where it is now no longer matter of cwicem, is in a lecture of 
Professor Vignoles, and he there says : 

" That the result of a variety of experiments on the malleable iron nils of the Stockton 
and Darlington colliery railway gives one-tenth of a pound per yard per annum, as the ab- 
solute amount of fair abrasion. Some statements, however, made it much higher, beiiv 
one-sixth of a pound per yard. On the Killing worth colliery it was one-eighth of a pound. 
On the Liverpool and Manchester some years ago, the wear was fiiund constant at about 
one-tenth of a pound per yard per annum. At Xim rate it woiild take 100 years to wear 
away a rail froni^ mere abrasion ; but later experiwjce shows that the increased weight of 
the iocomotive acts very destructivdy od rails whose appez wcbe are not suffidently •troog 



•P" Remarks on Mr. ElM s Formula. 

and of the beat manufiicture. We may take ten tons aa the present average we^ht on 
one pair of driving wheels of EngUsh kxiomotives." j 

The colliery railways here alluded to by him pass annually 700,000 to 
800,000 tons by steam pdwer, and confirm the experience here that from 
mere abrasion the loss to the rail is the merest trifle,, and which is only of 
any moment, when in the case of inferior iron it is- liable to be partially torn 
and exfoliated by the slipping, principally on the curves^, of heavy locomo--! 
tives. A good deal of bad iron of both flat and edge rails was at first imposed 
on railways, both here and in England, forming the exception and not the 
rule in the case. This arose partly in the attempt of the English to make 
as cheap rails as the Welsh manufacturers, without having as good mineral, 
and leaving out some of the refining processes, and this was not at first so 
much cared, for, until the hammering of the locomotive taught them that the 
top tables of the rails at least could hardly be too good and malleable, and 
to these the proper degree of toughness is now given. In England the iron 
on railways is like the wood in this country, cheap and not so much an ob- 
ject, and hence they coufd be liberal fn the weight of rail, rather than seek 
to diminish that of the locomotive, which would there involve a loss of 
power they could not afford. But here our interest has been to economise 
iron in the rail, and to this end all the mechanical ingenuity in thia line has 
been turned, imtil the desideratum has been at last attained of making all 
the weight of the engine useful, at the same time, so distributed that with 
treble the power of the old style of machine, it presses but little more on the 
riil than an ordinary car — ^that is, the pressure from any single driver need 
not exceed two tons, while in England it is four to five tons, with only half 
the efficiency. The economy of this improvement must pervade the whole 
system, and may be said to make a new era in it, at" which Mr, EUet'S for- 
mula, based on old or obsolete data, must cease to be applicable, if at any 
time it were good for anything. The thanks of all the lighter roads and 
with unfavorable grades, and indeed of all sorts of railways are fully due to 
MesMS. Baldwin and Whitney for this their latest ingenious effort; and 
many have already given more substantial proois of acknowledgment, by 
the adoption of this admirable engine, and all of them, after several months 
trial, testifying to their unequivocal superiority. It will be at once per- 
ceived how great may be the. saving of iron on a road using these locomo- 
tives, with which 50 pounds to the yard would be our maximum. 

I would here notice the very crude notions entertained commonly as to 
the relative cost of transportation on a railway of passengers, merchandize, 
minerals and other heavy products, !he impression being that travel is that 
which costs least, when, according to Professor Vignolea, whose experience 
is not small, he states it to be twelve times dearer than minerals, and six 
times dearer than merchandize, carrying weight for weight, or reducing 
them all to tons. This, in the case of minerals, as coal, arises in its being 
the only species of transportation which always affords full loads, and the 
saving generally in the comparatively low speed at which it is carried ; and 



.»»'l.>^' .i. ^iK- 



1 



iienarhson Mr. JBitef&Formui^^ " l|p 

this explains why the coilvery railways in England pay best, notwithstanding 
the very low rates at which they carry, even with indifferent gradients and 
for their weights, comparatively inefficient engines for so doing. Some there 
are, who, when its carriage is associated with a railway, entertain the school 
day notion, that a ton of coal, in particular, is heavier than a ton of feathers^ 
when in fact the latter, not any lighter of course, is the more cumbrous to 
carry, as may well be imagined of a train of 800 to 1000 bales of cotton, 
now a common sight on our light southern roads, since the introduction of 
the locomotive just alluded to, and equal to 320 tons gross load, over 90 and 
"37 feet grades, at a speed of 10 miles per hour, the engine weighing about 
12 tons on 6 drivers. 

It would appear, however, that the great aim of Mr. EUet, ui all this sta- 
tistical diligence and research, is to prove the certain failure of the Reading 
railway, in its present attempt to wrest the coal trade from the Schuylkill 
canal, to which it runs parallel, between Philadelphia and Pottsville. If 
railways could be kept in a state of infancy, and coniined to mere travel and 
a small amoutU of freight, Mr. Ellet's attention might not perhaps have beai 
aroused ] but this is not so, and as he expresses it — "Railways are now 
constructed to take the place of important canals, and to furnish the means of 
transport for the keavy froducts of the earth at exceeding low rates." As 
the consequence of this attempt of the Reading railway, Mr, EUet asserts, 

1st. •' That it will not withstand the rolling of the trade of the Schnylkill (7 to 800,000 
tons) tar one ^ear. 

2a. " That it will cost from 50 to 75 cents to replace the il-on which is destroyed by each 
ton of coal that descends from Pottsville to Richmond on the present track." 

As to the first assertion, the testimony already adduced by me, proves the 
flat bar rail to possess sufficient durability, and might suffice for all other 
forms, but as the rail on the Reading road is of the edge pattern, and pro- 
nounced by Mr. EUet to be the feebler of the two, it will be useful to. show 
that this, like all else that he asserts of the railway, is marked by the same 
inverted and therefore perverted, view of the subject, which misleads him 
and all kindred reasoners, while the improvement is flourishing all arotmd 
them, into the mistaken belief that its days are nigh being numbered. It 
happens, unfortiUiately for him, however, that this very Reading railroad al- 
ready furnishes itself the test of a competency fer beyond what Mr. EUet 
would allot to it, and comes very Apropos to the overthrow of his kind pre- 
diction of its early fate. 
Thus the records show that from its opening at the end of 1838, * ' ' ' 

to the end of 1843, there has passed already oret it a nett ton- 
' nageof 600,000 

Besides which there has passed, in descending and ascending'oars, 

and in locomotive weight, a further tonnage in these five years, 

of at least 500,000 

■ Total, 1,000,000 

' making a gross tonnage of at least one million which has rolled over this 

Reading road in the past five years, thus afi!brding in itself pro(tf positive 



r 1 ,'£^-iJ 



.r 



^ - , Remarks on Mr. Ellet's Fermuta. 

that it can more than survive one year's business of the Schuylkill canal,- 
its rail being still as good as new. 

As to the second assertion, it is only of use, after this, to notice it with the 
view of holding up the enormities, of which Mr. Ellet is capable, towards 
a railway. Thus at 75 cents per ton on 800,000 tons, the wear would W 
equal to $600,000, and at $55 per ton to near 11,00Q tons of iron consumed 
per annum ; while the lohole track does not contain much over 7,600 tons. . 
At this rate it would not be possible to supply a new track as fast as the old 
Avas destroyed, not even were saw and roLLing mills to be provided alternately 
with the water stations on its whole line. But with the help of my present 
expose, I may fairly trust it to the common sense of the reader to see t^^t 
no such condition of things could ever happen. I 

Let me, however, look a little more particularly into this matter of the 
wear of the rail, and by reverting to the data given by Mr. Vig^oles, assist 
the reader to understand it. The Stockton and Darlington does a large 
coal business of 700,000 to 800,000 tons per annum, besides 10 to 12 pas- 
senger trains daily,, and the Liverpool and Manchester does also an immense 
business. The wear on both these roads is stated by him to be about one- 
tenth of a pound per yard per annum ; each yard weighing say 60 pounds ; 
the wear would then eunount on a double track of 4 rails to four-tenths of a 
pound per yard, equal to 704 pounds of iron per mile, or for 94 miles 66,176 • 
pounds ; say 30 tons annually, and at $55 per ton, makes only $1,650 per 
annum, for the cost, on this data, from mere abrasion of rails. There will 
always be defective rails on a long line of railway, which will display them- 
selves at intervals ' for several years, by exfoliation, until they are all 
expelled, and which may be estimated as about equal in cost to the abra- 
sion. The road once freed from these imperfect rails, but little trouble is 
afterwards experienced ; and the whole expense for renewals, less .value of 
the crushed material, worth say two-thirds of the new will not then much 
exceed, say $30 to $35 per mile of road per annum ; which will cover a 
,very long period before the whole first cost of the iron is thus expended ; and 
in the -mean time this will no doubt be rendered the easier by the rails be- 
ing, ere long, produced in the Schuylkill valley, on the very line of the road 
itself, the expense being then only the cost of re-rolling the rail and a small 
loss of weight — making it at least as cheap as they have ever been imported 
free of duty. 

The fragility of the rail, therfore, is but a poor dependance on which to 
rely for getting rid of the competition of a railway, and so far from this be- 
ing likely to be diminished hereafter, in the case of the Reading railway, its 
proprietors have lately determined on completiag forthwith the double track 
with a 60 pound rail, and otherwise in wharves and additional cars, increas- 
ing its facilities for accommodating the coal business in particular, for which 
it was mainly constructed. The canal proprietors on the Schuylkill and 
the Lehigh are also said to be preparing themselves for the most determined 
resistance, so that coal, already reduced by this contest from six to three clol- 



~«^.--^.'.rtL-l 



' Remarks on Mr. Ellei^s Forrnidai^ .■ > - 4Br 

lars per ton, is not likely to rise soon, if it do not fall to a still lower mark. 
The dividends of the railway may in consequence be somewhat impaired 
for the moment, by this and other competition, but it will always be there as 
the main regulator of the coal trade, and until this is acknowledged^! no per- 
manent and just standard of charge, either by railway or canal, can be ar- 
rived at, by which all may at least, more or less, live and prosper. This is 
irrisistible so long as in the plan of the present lateral car and boat re- 
. quired on the canal, the railway supplies a car as a substitute for the two 
' first, and carries the same to a cheaper and more convenient point of delivery 

>'■ V than is done by the boat. The continuance of low prices for coal in the 
./ ; next five years, must have the good efl!ect of at least doubling the present 

'%:': '•■■. annual consumption, estimated to be 1,200,000 tons of anthracite alone. 

From some cause, Mr. Ellet would seem to have bound himself to^/brce a 

•'>■'■ ;, -conclusion that railways are yet of very, limited .capacity, and particularly 

J:j^ unfit for the profitable carriage oi heavy freight, as well because they would 

.'■ . «oon break down under it, as that they cannot afford to carry it as cheaply 
as its small value generally requires, which faculty, he would persuade us, 
€md for hardly a better reason, however, than old custom, belongs only to csmals,; 
and with a Chinese reverence in this respect, opposes through thick and 
thin all innovation upon it There was a time when this position had some 
slight color of support, but the ruthless progress of the age has overturned 
it, and now in the generality of cases, in this country particularly, it may be 
safely assumed that hereafter the railway will have the preference over the 
canal, even though its main object be that of heavy freight, in the sound of 

'■■■/, .- • which, as before explained, there is far more terror than ifl its carriage, in.' 
the instance of the Reading railway, now so noxious in certain quarters, 

> there is a peculiar adaptedness to this heavy business, there being here a 

imioH of steam power and gravity, with an unbroken connection in its ter 
minations for the coal business, and what must give it an easy triumph over 

- > its rivals, the canals, in so far as becoming ultimately the great eegdlatok 
of this trade. 

If I have now raiLzd. too long at Mr. EUet, I must plead in excuse the 
nature of the subject, and the very great importance of having it rightly un- 
derstood by the public. Even in the great State of New York, against the 
experience around about them, this exploded doctrine of the cheaper charac- 
ter of canals is maintained — or pretended to be so — taking care, however, 

'. to fetter the railways which run parallel to their great Erie canal ; this was 

'■■ '^ a great project in its day, but its enlargement afterwards could only be ef- 
fected by a constant and diligent circulation of the same erroneous views in 

: respect to railways, which at this late day I find Mr, Ellet so zealous to keep 

■■:■'. alive. Ten millions have already been wasted in this enlargement, and fif- 
teen millions of dollars more would be required to complete it, for which 

^'■f.: there are yet advocates, while two-thirds of this last sura would suffice not 
only to prepare the line of railways between Buffalo and Albany to do the 
whole business of the canal, but would suffice to carry the line down to 



/ ,. 



Notes on Practieat Sngineering. 



Goshen, and from thence, by railways already made, connect Bufialo and 
New York. The opponents of a railway to Albany always refer to the 
competition of the steamboats on the Hudson, as insurmountable. Now by 
steamboat the through traveller can only be delivered either way between 
Albany and New York at a loss of the whole day and part of the next, be- 
sides the expenses of laying over, which may all be estimated at $1 50 to 
each ordinary traveller, and more to a business one ; therefore, if the steam- 
boat carried for nothing, this extra expense must be entailed, and would 
amply pay the railway in summer, and in winter it could have no opposition, 
being always able to make the trip between these great central business 
points in five or six hours. On the Erie canal there is now annually taken 
in tolls two — in freight two and a half — and in passage money one million 
of dolkucs, or in all about Jive aird a half millions of dollars, between Buf- 
falo and Albany, a distance of 363 miles. Now wereihe railways on this 
line allowed so to adjust themselves, as to do this large business, I believe 
they could do it aU^ at a good profit, for three millions of dollars, or efiect- 
ing a saving of the present entire freightj of two aitd a AaZ/ millions of dol» 
lars, with greater accommodation to the immense business on the line oi the 
canal and railroads themselves, by not restricting it to a part of the year 
only. Any reform of this sort, may do to speculate upon^ with little hope 
now of its being ever effected, the contrary interests having too strong a 
hold, besides an impenetrable ignorance of the comparative merits of these 
improvements generally, which cannot be suddenly dispelled. Both these 
obstacles, in the community which it most benefits, have done their worst to 
fru^rate the Reading railway, but it has now attaii>ed a safe position, and at 
an outlay of say eight millions of dollars, will, in its way, represent the 
most formidable engine of transportation in the world. A vast dependant 
population, cm the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania, should be ever grate- 
fid to it, for having freed them entirely from the monopolizing gripe of the 
canals, and wiUi the all pervading economy of which the railway system is 
the source, to the poor man in particular, we should all be eager to lend it- 
a pushing hand; rather than, imitate Mr. Ellet in underrating its capacity 
anid its usefulness. ' ;jy.s^te^7-rr?;PiV: F. a^ 

'■ ■ — :^^AMi: ■ 

Cor th» Americas Railroad Journal and Meohanics' Magazine. .-'■<:; 

NOTES ON PRACTICAL ENGINEERING.: — NO. S.'.,;; \ 

" • -. . .<r . .' Bridges. 

The suspension bridge of wire across the Schaylkil!^ at Philadelphia, 
IVir. C. Ellet, Jr., engineer, offers an. admirable illustration of a position as- 
sumed in the last number : that the employment of engineers of education 
and experience to project a structure suitable- to the locality^ and adapted to 
its objects, would be attended with vast benefit to all interested ; the commu- 
nity as well as the proprietors. The patentee of some particular mode of 
construction recommends his plan in all situations, and, to take the most fa- 
vorable view of the case, let us suppose a bridge on Howe's plan, the beat 



Notes on Practical Enigineering. '■ ' '""Wf 

patented American bridge, to occupy the place of the suspensron bridge at 
Fairmount. It is unnecessary to draw any comparisons — ^the statement of 
the case is more than sufficient 

The cost of the wire bridge is said to have been under $60,000 : less than 
half the cost of the wooden bridge, which was burnt down ; but, never hav- 
ing seen any other than newspaper reports, I am unable to offer any re- 
marks on the subject, beyond stating that a saving in first cost and subsequent 
annual expenses will generally result from the employment of competent 
men. Besides this, I hold that neatness of appearance, and some little de- 
gree of harmony with surrounding objects, should not be neglected: indeed,^ 
1 believe that these will — in the generality of cases — follow, to some extent, 
a judiciously projected bridge, without in any way increasing the cost. 

Every traveller must have noticed the deplorable structures on which he 
often enters a beautiful village, and which, not unfrequently, disfigures its 
most populous thoroughfares. Here is an immense amount of employment 
which the profession should secure to itself and which in other countries forms 
no small part of the business of the engineer. In this country, however, 
where bridges are more required than in any* other, and where limited means 
strongly indicate the propriety of ascertaining the capability and cost of 
different plans, all is left to chance, and in place of adorning, the bridge is 
only too often the only drawback on the scene. For example, the lattice 
bridge across the Hudson, at the city of Troy, is in many positions of the 
spectator a complete " blur," in a view otherwise rather interesting. Nu- 
merous instances will suggest themselves to the reader, and I will only ob- 
serve, that any engineer who will take the -trouble to study any particular 
site for a bridge — ^be the span only 40 or 50 feet — will almost invariably 
Strike out some particular plan, which, in his opinion, is superior to all ther 
others he has considered ; taking into consideration the nature of the traffic, 
the amount appropriated, the quality of the tiniber and stone and the sur- 
rounding scenery. Without exactly regarding this as the best possible plan, 
it will, in nine cases out often, be superior to the off-hand suggestions of an 
engineer of fiir greater pretensions. 

The nimierous bridges on the enlarged portion Of the 'Erie canal offered 
numerous opportunities for improvement in these structures, and the experi- 
ence acquired on that work had abundantly demonstrated the want of more 
efficient and lasting bridges. It is impossibleto conceive anytkmg more in- 
congruous than the new bridges generally. The abutments are beautifully . 
constructed of cut Jime^tone, and are surmounted by a lattice'bridge boarded 
and shingled. The abutments are not only permanent but costly, convey- 
ing no idea of limited means or even economy ; the bridge itself is unsight- 
ly, perishable and combustible, and together they form a capital specimen 
of the " shabby-genteel" in engineering. Taking the cost of abutments and 
superstructure together, we should have had a sum sufficient to have adorned 
the route of the canal with a great variety of bridges, superior to the present 
structures in durabili^, economy of repairs and appearance, if in the hands 






it 



Noies on Practical Engineering. 



of competent persons ; the Schuylkill bridge, already referred to, will suP 
ficiently explain my meaning. With the exception of the bridge at Utica, de- 
signed by Mr. Whipple, engineer, I do not know of any attempt to inttoduce 
a bridge substantially new or differing from those in ordinary use. 

Mr. Wipple's bridge consists of a flat cast iron polygonal arch, from which 
the roadway is suspended by vertical wrought iron rods, stiffened vertically 
hy similar rods crossing each other and acting as struts as well as ties from 
their shortness. The strings or tie-beams are replaced by iron rods, so that 
the floor beams and the plank are the only perishable parts. The details 
are very neatly arranged, the bridge is remarkably stiff and < may be easily 
rendered, practically speaking, fire-proof Still the effect is not what it might 
he. A circular or elliptical arch would have looked better, and being of 
cast iron, a reasonable degree of ornament would not have added to the cost. 
But this might have prevented its adoption " in toto" by the canal commis- 
sionftrs, who, reckless of expenditure, have a most democratic dread of any 
design which can, from any cause — even simple beauty of proportion — give 
pleasure to, or elevate the feelings of) the beholder. This principle has 
been carried out to some extent on the Croton water-works. For example, 
the great arch at Sing Sing, built of granite in the best manner and at great 
cost, shows hoAv much may be done towards reducing the architectural effect 
of a struct^are where the magnitude of the span, the nature of the material and 
the surrounding scenery conspire to produce a work which should do honor 
to the nation and to the profession, a praise which all must accord to the 
" distributing reservoir," though built mainly of rubble masonry, and of the 
simplest form. 

The distinguishing characteristic of English bridges is that the timbers 
are all, or nearly all, subjected to compression ; American bridges depend- 
ing generally on a string or tie-beam. Now, where it is difficult to keep-, 
the grade high enough to clear floods, the English plan of placing arches 
beneath the roadway becomes impracticable, though I still think that there 
is vast room for improvement here, not excepting Mr. Howe's very cre<jyitar 
ble arrangement of braces, iron rods and abutting blocks. - 

It is common in Europe to pave wooden bridges, and I believe the bridge- 
in the city of Providence was paved, and found to answer well. Where the 
traffic is great, the plank wear out fast^and a thin coating of loose gravel is- 
very injurious, by admitting moisture and heat to the plank and preventing 
evaporation. If the plank be covered, the materials- should be put on in suf- 
ficient quantity to prevent the percolation of the water. On railway brieves- 
where the roadway is not subjected to the action of wheels and horses' hoofs^ 
a thick coating of gravel and tar does very well. Whei^ the frame work 
of a bridge is not covered in, it is a good plan to put on two or three coats 
of paint and sand which serves as a protection in some degree against fire 
as well as against the weather. I look forward with much interest to the 
results of Kyan's, Earle's and Payne's process for preserving timber, and it 



Notes on Practical Engineering: ' lH^ 

eertainly appears that sufficient time has elapsed to test their value in some de- 
gree. The bridge represented in the wood 
cut wa» designed in the autumn of 1841, 
and built during the following winter, to 
replace a lattice bridge destroyed by fire. 
The span is 70 feet, the rise 15 feet, out- 
side width 20 feet. There are 4 arches 
12 by 20 inches, formed of 10 two inch 
planks, planed, covered with^egetable tar, 
and bolted together with 2 three-fourths 
inch bolts every 4 feet The vertical rods 
are of one and one-fourth inch kon, and 
the arches and floor are braced horizon- 
tally in the usual manner. The arrange- 
ment of the floor timbers is not good, but 
I was compelled to suit the design to cer- 
tain dimensions of material on hand. -^ 
For engines, exceeding 7 to 6 tones in 
weight, the arches should be 24 inches 
deep, and with the most suitable dimen- 
sions of longitudinal and floer timbers, 3 
arches would be sufBoient for 10 or 12 
ton engines. It will be seen at a glance 
that the gre.at difficulty is to give suffi- 
cient slifTness in the centre. The object 
was to guard against fire, and the arch- 
es and strings were to have been covered 
with sheet iron. They were, however, 
protected by three coats of paint and sand, 
and with the heavy covering of clay and 
gravel on the floor, the bridge is tolerably 
safe from the incendiary — a more formidable, and perhaps more frequent 
enemy than the sparks from the engine. ,- .. y , ■-• (, »?*•» 

Arches built this manner have a strong tendency to retain their form. 
During the erection of the above bridge a sudden risfe in the river disturbed 
the centering and forced the arches back at the springing, increasing the 
span as it were, but on restoring the centering to its position the arches 
sprung back to their original form with great violence. Though built in 
the plainest manner and of trifling span, the efiect is greater than can well 
be believed without-inspection. The use of plank arches is of old date in 
this country for susp^iding the road way, and there are fine specimens of 
large urches of plank under the roadway in Weale's bridges. The arrange- 
ment of the spandrels is however. diff*erent, and I believe the arches described 
above were put together in a more substantial manner ; no wooden pins 
were used, the plank were only ten inches thick and well planed and firmly 
bolted together without feh. -'I'^S'^ ^ 




■ ',^'S 



'Hi:^CK^'.-iiii:J't vf;^ 



46 ; Failure of Railways. — Editorial 

This bridge has little or no thrust, is far superior in appearance to any 
wooden bridge I have seen, admits of considerable ornament and is well 
adapted to sites, where civilization has had sufficient time to produce its le- 
gitimate effects on the taste and feelings of the community. 

New York, Janttary, 1844. W. R. C 



For the Ajnerican Railroad Journal and Mechanic*' Magazine. 

FAILURE OF RAILWAYS. 

When M# Ellet first advanced his unheard of doctrine, proposing to 
make the cost of railroads and their fixtures, with an eye to the business 
which they were likely to obtain — ^urging the propriety of making little 
roads for little business, and large and strong roads for a heavy trade — a very 
learned critic assailed the monstrous idea in your Journal of January 1st, 
1842. From this valuable paper I copy the following, paragraph*: 

" Still another conparigon may be made between the Schuylki%canal, which costs $S8,- 
000 per mile without boats, and the Philadelphia and Pottsville ndlway, which costs $50,- 
000 per mile, including cars and motive power. Is it not this additional cost which makes 
it the superior and cheaper work of the Xv/o V 

It will doubtless be gratifying to your correspondent, to learn that this 
great railway has augmented its superiority, since that period, to the amount 
of $26,000 per mile. The present cost of the railway appears, by the com- 
pany's last report, to be no less than $7,119,295 51, or, in round numbers, 
$T6,000 per mile. - 1; - 

Its great merit was its great cost It has increased this merit in the brief 
space of two years fifty per cent. r 

The road is not yet finished, but the company have just obtained a loan 
of $1,000,000, with which they hope to complete it. This sum, added to 
the interest now unpaid, and the airrent year's interest, will add $1,500,000 
to the present cost of the work, or, in round numbers ag^in, $16,000 per 
mile. This is equivalent to an additional increase in the merit of the road, 
for the present year, of 33 per cent. Its merit, accordingly, at the end of 
this year, will be simply that of having cost $92,000 per mile. 

Verily, Mr. Ellet was "behind the age," to use the lang^ge of your tor- 
respondent, and the Reading railroad company are fast colung up with the 
age Y. 



We commence the publication, in this number of the Journal, of a very 
extensive series of tables for calculating quantities of excavation and em- 
bankment These tables will be completed in the next number, and will be 
followed by a general description of the mode of calculating them as well 
as a rigorous investigation of the principles on which they are founded. 
They are prepared for different slopes and bases. The transverse and lon- 
gitudinal inclinations of the ground are also allowed for *" 

When completed, we shall, if sufficient inducement o^r, publish them 
in pamphlet form, for the convenience of those who may desire to have them 



V. •■ 



) 



Report of the Schuylkill Navigation Company. * ^ 

, aeparatelyy and we believe that they will form a valuable present to the mem' 
bers of the profession, who will also duly estimate the skill and industry of 
the gentleman by whom they have been calbnlated and arranged. As it is 
OUT intention to make the Journal as useful as possible to the engineer, we 
cheerfully contribute the additional labor and expenditure incurred on our 
jMirt, in brmging forward these elaborate tables. . f - .' '- ■ -J :f'^?!4r;:^f-V 

We cheerfully give place to the report of the Schuylkill Navigation Company, exhibit- 

' ing the result of their operations for the past year. This company has been many years 
in very successful operation, and its stock was at one time esteemed the most productive in 
the country, having paid, we believe, for several years about 20 per cent, per annum ; of 
this, however, we a^e not sure, as this is the first of tiieir reports which has cmne under 
euf observation. From this report it appears that the company are enlar^ng the capacity 
of the canal, to enable them to reduce their tolls still more, and thus retain the coal trade, 
for which, the Reading railroad has become a competitor. Competition in business, whiie 
it oflen produces general good by the reduction of expenses common to aU, the poor as well 
as the rich, not un&equently operates disadvantageously to individuals ; and such has pro- 
bably been the case in this instance, as the stockholders in this canal company now receive 
only six per cent, on their investment instead of 15 or 20 as formerly : but the competition 
of the railroad has reduced the cost of transportation of coal from Pottsvillc to Philadelphia 
full one dollar per ton, thus effecting an annual saving to the consumers of coal in this 
country, of at least one and a-half millions of dollars a year. It does not, however, fol- 
low, that the canal is to lose its business because the railroad obtains a portion of the cool 

- trade — far otherwise — as their competition alone, if no other cause operated, would produce 
a large increase in the consumption. In 1834 there was 226,692 tons of coal shipped from 

• Pottsville ; the past year, 1843, it has exceeded 680i000 tons, or trebled in nine yean. Of 
course there will be a continued increase in the business, which will require both works to 
extend their means for accommodating it ; and our greatest apprehenaon is, that they will 
not be able, at present rates of transportation, to keep up the competition and give the 
shareholders a &ir return for their investment ; and would say to the managers of both 
companies, come to a fair price, say $1-40 or $1*50 per ttm, and then let your rivalry be 

. which shall get most business at that. 

; REPORT OF THE SCHUYLKUX NAVIGATION COMPANY TO THE STOCKHOLDERS. 

The president and managers of the Schuylkill navigation company, re- 
spectfully submit to the stockholders their annual report for the year 1843, 
which has just ended. 
' The unusual lateness of the spring prevented the opening of the naviga- 
tion until the 10th of April ; after which it continued uninterrupted and m 
excellent order until closed, in December, for the winter. The supply of 
water has been good, rendering unnecessary a resort to the ample stores con- 
tained in the reserveirsi ) 

I.— OF THE STATE OF THE WORKS. 

The works generally are in good order ; and the repairs required this 
winter are not heavy. Throughout the line of 108 miles, from Port Car- 
bon to Philadelphia, the works are much more substantial than formerly, 
having been gr^tly improved and strengthened within the last few years, 
while the canal banks have attained great solidity by time. The wooden 
portions of the mechanical structures are the principar causes of expense for 
repairs. 

The new dam recently erected at Fairmount, under the authority and at 
the expense of the city corporation, to replace the old one, which had stood 
twenty-two years, and had become very leaky, is an excellent piece of worl^ 



.1 

♦ • 



48 



Report of the Schuylkill Navigation Company. ' 



and relieves the company's navigation, for more than five miles, from the 
injury caused by the defective and sunken condition of the old dam. 

That pool has been the most defective part of the line, and has been the 
cause of more trouble and expense to the boatmen than any other. As the 
water could not be drawn dowh to deepen the channel, the construction of 
coffer dams has been required ; and in former years several portions of the 
pool have been thus improved, so as to give a depth of five and a-half feet^ 
when the river is at its ordinary stage. During the past season, shallow 
places, amounting in the aggregate to the length of 2,288 feet, have been 
thus deepened ; and it is believed that the boatmen will hereafter be able to 
pass through this pool with the same facility as the re^ of the line. 

Most of the dams on the lower part of the Schuylkill, where the river is 
large, have been rebuilt by the compainy within a few 3«Bars, in the most 
substantial manner, and so as to give an increased depth of water. During 
the past season it has been the policy of the managers to maintain the works 
in the most efficient state, at as small an expense as the length and importance 
of the line, and the large amount of mechanical work upon it would permit ; 
and they think that they have succeeded to a gratifying extent — as the great 
reduction, amounting tq $31,064 33, in the annual current expenses for re- 
pairs, salaries, and lock-tenders' wages will indicate ; which has been ef- 
fected without impairing the efficiency of the police of the line, or the means 
for the rapid passage of the boats. 

The new outlet lock at the cross-cut, fourteen miles from the head of the 
works, has been completed this season. The foundation was laid, and the 
cut stone walls carried above the level of the pool in 1841, when its com- 
pletion was postponed. This is now accomplished in the best manner, over- 
coming a lift of twelve feet two inches, which formerly required two locks. 

II. OF THE TRADE OF THE PAST SEASON. 

The toll on coal has been retained at the rate of five mills, or half a cent, 
per ton per mile, at which it was fixed in 1842 ; and the tolls on most other 
articles at the former rates of three and four mills per 1,000 pounds per mile 
— although some have been transferred from the higher to the k)wer class. 
The highest class at the rate of six mills, which contained but a small amount 
of tonnage, has been abolished, and the articles placed in the other classes, 
so as to simplify the classification. A uniform toll of two cents per mile 
has been charged on all empty boats, but no toll on any boat when the cargo 
which it carried paid a toll of five dollars or upwards. 

The total tonnage of articles ascending the river, exceeds that of 1842 
by ten per cent., in which there is a small incr-ease of grain, salt, lumber 
and iron. 

The total tonnage of miscellaneous articles descending the river, exclud- 
ing coal, lime and lime stone, exceeds that of last year by thirteen per cent, 
having increased from 46,392 to 52,425 tons. Tfiis increase is mainly in 
grain, flour, iron and nails. In lime and lime stone descending, there has 
been a falling off of 15,328 tons, which is owing to a temporary fluctuation 
in the general amount of the trade in those articles. 

The quantity of coal brought down this season is 44T,058 tons — which 
is nine per cent, less than the trade of last year. This diminution has been 
caused by diverting a portion of the Schuylkill coal trade from the natural 
channel of the navigation, and forcing it upon the Reading railroad ; which 
y^as been effected to some extent by those having the control of that work, 
by means of a scale of prices far below what is known upon any other rail- 
road, and which has been repeatedly varied and reduced, for the appareitf 
purpose of diverting the coal trade from the canal.****- ""'' 



Report of the Schuylkill Navigation Company. ■ 49 

• • Notwithstanding' this extraordinary competition, the pecuniary results of 
"Ais year's business have been highly gratifying, and they may be briefly 
stated as follows : 

Amount of tolls received in 1843, S260,724 38 1 Current expenses for repairs, salaries 

Rents " 19,070 25 and lock tenders' wages, S71,856 67 

' T» • . " M^,^^n. „o Expenses completing new lock at 

^«<^»F^S' $279,794 631 cross-cut ^ ^ 5 093 06 

Deduct expenses and interest, ^77^57346 j^j^^gg^ ^^J^^y^t lOO^GaS 73 

Surplus, 102,221 171 Expenses and interest, 177,573 46 

Leaving a surplus of §102,221 17 from the business of 1843, after paying 
expenses and interest, and completing the new lock ; yvhich is more than six 
per cent, upon the capital stock of the company. 

The reduction of tolls upon the Union canal has increased the tonnage 
iderived from that source. . J. 

The income received from rents is $19,070 26, being $2,070 25 more 
than the estimate given in the last annual report ; and the company possesses 
a large amount of valuable water power, still undisposed of 

The whole number of Schuylkill canal boats in use in 1843, has been 

about 800 — of which 770 have been registered as passing the Fairmount 

' locks. Of these, 278 are covered boats, adapted to the direct trade from 

Pottsville to New York : 434 are open coal boats, and 58 lime boats and 

miscellaneous. 

The direct trade to New York amounts this year to 119,^72 tons, taken 
through the Delaware and Raritan canal, consisting of 2,045 boat loads^— 
averaging 58 tons 18 cwt. each. 

III. OF THE FINANCES OF THE COMPANY. 

The present amount o^ the loans of the company is $1,791,020 19 ; and 
the annual interest accruing upon them, $96,533 70. Of the '$300,000 
loan of 1837, $120,000 have been paid off in the past year, and the residue 
extended until the first of January, 1854. 

It has been the fortune of this great work, from its commencement to the 
present time, to meet occasionally with obstructions and difficulties, calling 
for patient fortitude on the part of the stockholders. 

During the last two years, the state of the trade, the general prostration 
of credit and confidepce, together with an extraordinary competition, occur- 
ring at a period when loans were falling due, which under ordinary circum- : 
stances could have been easily renewed, have obliged the board to apply the 
revenue of the company, diminished by the reduction of the toll, to the pay- 
ment ef4ebt ; and thus the two years have necessarily passed without a divi- ■'' 
dend, though the income afforded an annual surplus of more than six per ; 
cent. There could be no hesitation about the obligation so to apply the re- :, 
yeaue. The debt due was a demand of justice, to be paid to the utmost ex- 
tent of the company's means. The stockholders have borne this privation ' 
with their usual firmness ; and the profits which have been disbursed ^y the \ 
company, since the-lst of January, 1841, besides paying all current charges* 
and mterest, and $105,089 71 for new work, damages and real estate, have ■ 
reduced the permanent debt of the company $321,156 03, and the annual 
interest $17,262 30. 

Thus in 1841, the permanent debt was - - - - $2,112,176 23 ' 

New it is only . . ~ j. . . . 1,791,020 19 

DifiFerence, - - - - - . $321,156 (0 

In Sept'r and Dec'r, 1841, the interest payable was ^ual to vet annum, $113,796 00 

Now it is 96,533 70 '■ 

. Difference, - - - . . . - ^ $17,262 30 ' 



:-^:i.lv^- 



4||> Report of the SohuyVnll Navigation Companf. 

Each share of stock has therefore been relieved from a debt to the amoant 
of $9 64, and is intrinsically worth $9 64 more than it would have been* 
if such payment had not been made ; and the saving in the aDDual interest is 
equal to more than one per cent, per annum upon the whole capital stock. 

By reducing, at the same time, the current expenses, these two items,, (in- 
' terest and expenses.) formerly amounting to $224,596 a year, are now, when 
the accounts are similarly stated, but $172,480. 

If the revenue of the year 1844 should be equal fo that of 1843, and" the 
same system be pursued, there will be a further reduction of the permanent ,. 
debt, so that the capital stock and debt will be made nearly equal, and wilt ^ 
amount together to about $3,350,000, and the annual interest will b^ furthec 
reduced. Whether or not this course will be the most expedient, must de« ' 
pend upon future circumstances. If it should not, still there will be an an- 
nual appropriation to a sinking fund, for the payment of the debt, sufficieni 
to extiaguish the whole of it in a reasonable time — an end 'which ought 
steadily to be kept in view. 

A loan of $153,887 19, at six per cent, will become due on the 1st day. 

of December^ 1844 ; and a loan of $141,100, at five per cent., on the 1st of 

January, 1845 ; and an ordinance has been prepared, and will be submitted 

. to the stockholders, to give to the beard of managers the necessary power 

to provide for these loans. r, % 

IV. OF THE CAPACITY OF THE NAVIGATION. 

The total tonnage transported upon the Schuylkill navigation sittce it was 
first opened for public use, is nearly equal to eight millions of tons ; and the 
line has been in better working order during the past season than ever be- 
fore. , The waters of the river, which nature constantly renews, do not 
perish in the using, like artificial roads. 

In the year 1841, in 29 weeks, the canal carried 737,517 tons, which fo* 
the usual season of 35 weeks, would be equal to 890,106 tons. And this is- 
fax below the capacity of the existing mivigation,. the present practical limit 
of which may be estimated at about a million and a half of tons descending 
and which may easily be much increased. 

The work is a public highway ; the boats upon it belong to individuals ;. 
and any one, on paying very moderate tolls, and conforming to a few simple 
regulations, is entitled to use it, alt times, and in such way as may best suil-i 
his convenience. This has made it of great importance to the counties ". 
,, through which it passes, and to the people who live along its borders, who. 
: have found in the canal a most valuable home market for their produce. At 
r the same time, it has left the company without the power of regulating the 
rates of freight, although they have largely exercised their right of reduc- 
ing the tolls. For several years after the canal was opened, the load of a> 
canal boat was about 25 tons, and the time required for a trip from Pottsville- 
. to Philadelphia, -and back, was about two weeks. 

A large part of the boats now carry 60 toas ; and the trip is often made 

in eight days. The increasing of the loads, and the shortening of the time, 

'.} are both important elements in reducing the expense of transportation. The . 

'; former is mainly due to the increased depth of water, and the latter to the 

doubling of the locks, and the improvement of the towing paths. Consid- 

. crable improvements have also been made in the construction of the boats. 

The load which a boat can carry being equal to the difference between the' 

weight of the boat and the weight of the water which it displaces when 

f x)aded, the lightest boat, other tljings being equal, can carry the largest load. 

'■'. Many persons interested in the coal trade, having expressed" a strong desire 

. that a boat adapted to the Schuylkill navigation should be built of iron, sev- 



lUtu. 61 



«ral stockholders subscribed to the fundfor the purposeof building such an iroa 
boat, which has been done by I. P. Morris & Co., of this city ; and the boat, 
which is of good model and very substantial, has made a successful trip to the 
coal region and back ; but as she has proved to be but littie lighter than a 
good v»rooden boat of similar dimensions, her tonnage is not materially more. 

(To be continued.) 

Manumotive Railway Carriage. — We are informed that a machine of 

this description is in use upon the London and Croydon railway, having been lately made 
fOT Mr. Gregory, the resident engineer, by Mr. Gfeorge England, engineer, well known as 
the inventor of the patent traversing screw jack, and other unportant improvements. The 
machine is light and elegant in appewance, and will cany seven or eight persons at the 
rate of eighteen miles an hour. It was propelled on Monday week by Mr. Roberts, dep- 
uty chairman of the CrojAion company, ana Mr. Elngland, the inventor, from the New 
Cross Station to the Dartmouth Arms — a distance of three miles up an inclined [Jane of 1 
in 100, in seventeen minutes, and upon the level line at the rate of twenty miles an hour. 
It is intended to be used by Gregory and his assistants to traverse the line, inspecting any 
repairs or other works going on connected with the railway ; and will, in our opinion, be 
found particularly useful for this purpose, and more especially so in connection with those 
works upon the line which it is necessary to cany on during the night. We have no 
doubt that these machines will come into general use, as they will effect a considerable 
saving to the company in the expense of running an engine for the purposes which they 
will supfdv- We hail with pleasure anything calculated to reduce that most important 
item in railway accounts — the locomotive expenses, — [Railway Times.] 

Stuffing Boxes. — A great economy in the tallow usually required for stuf- 
fing boxes is effected by encircling the rod by a {riece of sheet brass, the joint being a di- 
agonal one, and the bottom edge turned up all round like the brim of a hat. This brass 
tube is packed with hemp at the back, and extends from the bottom of the stuffing box to 
-within three quarters of an inch oft he top, so as to admit of the gland being tightened, and 
the umier edge of the tube is bevelled off, so as to prevent the packing from catching upon 
it. Tiiis improvement is due to the engineer of the Tagus, in which vessel it has been in 
-successful operation for many months past ; its effect is to keep the jHston rods in the beet 
'posnble comition, and to effect a saving of three-fourths of the tallow.— [Artizan.] 

English Locomotives on the Continent. — In Germany, says a Leipzig 
.paper, exclusive of Austria, there are 180 locomotives of English manu&cture running. 
Of these, Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Co. made 81, which are distributed ovei^l4 linoe 
of railway ; Sharp & Co. made 49 which are running on 10 lines ; Turner & Co. made 
11 ; Rothwelli 10; Langridge & Co., 5; Forrester & Co., 5; Kirtly, 5; Tayleur & Co^ 
1 ; Bury & Co., 4i Fenton & Co., 2; Qaakell, 2; Rennie, 1 ; Hawthorn, 1^ Total 180. 

Helix Propeller. — Seme accoimt was lately given to the Paris Academy 
X)f Sciences of experiments made with a helix propeller on the Napoleon steamboat. The 
•engines were of 120 horse power, and 'the results were that she would go 10 knots an hour 
br steam alone in calm weather, and that in a voyage from Havre to Cherbourg, and from 
'<5herbourg to Southampton, against a strong north wind and heavy sea, she went, with 
her lofty mast, from 8-7 to 9 knots an hour. Under the same circumstances, Uie re- 
poiter alleges that ordinary paddles would not have exceeded 5 to 6 knots. With the a»- 
nstance of the wind she went 12 1-2 and 13 knots in the sea. The reporter also affirms, 
that this vessel, the Napoleon, beat the Pkito, fitted with the Archimedean screw, half a 
knot an hour; and that the Pluto beat the Archimedean nearly a knot an hour. Of course 
therefore, this Napoleon 'would beat the Archimedean 1 1-2 knots an hour.— {Herapath's 
Journal.] • 

Profit&blt Paterit — The Mining Journal remarks that it is a curious 
'&ct in sdentific discovery, that the most profitable invention that was ever patented in this 
or any other country accidentally arose out of an application to Grovemment to admit sugar 
for Agricultural purposes. The government apphed to Mr. Howard, the accomplished 
chemist, brother to tne late dnke of Norfolk, to t^ some^experiments for the purpose of as- 
certaining if sugar could be so effectually adulterated that it could not be again converted 
into culinary uses. For this purpose he mixed all kinds of noxious materials with it, but 
Jbe question remsdnid whether tney could be again separated, and in the experiments to 
ascertain this, he discovered that not only could they be separated, but the sugar was better 
■and purer. Out of this arose Howard's patent ■for sugar refining and the use of the vacuum 
pan ; the annual nett income of which, from Ucences granted for its use, at the rate of la. 
per cwt., yielding in some years between £29,000 anu £30,000. One house in London 
alone paid £4,00tfet annum. 



Ha 






aib 



■■r 

3f. 



y' 






f\ 



t 

TABLE No. I. 

SLOPE i TO 1. 
CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DBPTH8, BASB 16 FEET. 



T5f 
1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 






31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
591 



Oi 

57 

119 

183 

252 

324 

400 

480 

563 

650 

741 

835 

933 

1,035 

1,141 

1,250 

1,363 

1,480 

1.600 



1 

c. ydg. 



1,7^4 
1,852 
1,983 
2,118 
2,257 
2,400 
2,546 
2,696 
2,850 
3,007 
3,168 
30| 3,333 
3,502 
3,674 
3,850 
4,029 
4,213 
4,400 
4,591 
4,785 
4,983 
5,185 
5,391 
5,600 
5,813 
6,030 
0,250 
6,474 
6,702 
6,933 
7,168 
7,407 
7,650 
7,896 
8,146 
8,400 
8,657 
8,9ia 
9,183 
9,452 
9,724 



63 

125 

190 

259 

331 

408 

488 

571 

659 

750 

845 

943 

1,046 

1,151 

1,261 

1,374 

1,491 

1,612 

1,737 

1,865 

1,99 

2,132 

2,271 

2.414 

2;561 

2,711 

2,866 

3,023 

3,185 

3,350 

3,519 

3,691 

3,868 

4,048 

4,231 

4,419 

4,610 

4,805 

5,003 

5,205 

5,411 

5,621 

5,834 

6,051 

6,272 

6,497 

6,725 

6,957 



2 

c. ydg. 



11 

69 

131 

197 

266 

339 

416 

496 

580 

668 

759 

854 

953 

1,056 

1,162 

1,272 

1,386 

1,503 

1,624 

1,749 

1,878 

2,010 

2,146 

2,286 

2,429 

2,576 

2,727 

2,881 

3,039 

3,201 

3,367 

3,536 

3,709 

3,886 

4,066 

4,250 

4,438 

4,629 

4,*24 

5,023 

5,226 

5,432 

5,642 

5,856 

6,073 

6,294 

6,519 

6,748 

6.980 



3 

c. yda. 



7,1921 7,216 



7,431 

7,674 
7,921 
8,171 

8,426 
8,683 
8,945 



6010,000 



7,456 
7,699 
7,946 
8,197 
8,451 
8,709 
8,971 



9,210 9,237 

9,479 9,506 

9,751 i 9,779 

IO,(K^ 10.056 



17 
75 

138 
203 
273 
346 
423 
504 
589 
677 
769 
864 
963 
1,066 
1,173 
1,283 
1,398 
1,515 
1,637 
1,762 
1,891 
2,023 
2,160 
2,300 
2,443 
2,591 
2,742 
2,897 
3,055 
3,217 
3,383 
3,553 
3,726 
3,903 
4,084 
4,269 
4,457 
4,649 
4,844 
5,043 
5,246 
5,453 
5,663 
5,878 
6,095 
6,317 
6,542 
6,771 
7,003 
7,240 
7,480 
7.723 
7;971; 
8,222| 
8,4771 
8,735| 
8.9971 
9,263| 
9,5331 
9,806l 
I0,083i 



4 

c. yd». 



23 

81 

144 

210 

280 

354 

431 

512 

597 

686 

777 

874 

974 

1,077 

1,184 

1,295 

1,409 

1,527 

1,649 

1,775 

1,904 



5 

e. ydi. 



28 

87 

150 

217 

287 

362 

439 

521 

606 

695 

786 

8^4 

984 

1,087 

1,195 

1,306 

1,421 

1,539 

1,662 

1,787 

1,917 



6 

c. ydt. 



2,037 2,050 



2,174 
2,314 
2,458 
2,606 
2,757 
2,912 
3,071 
3,234 
3,400 
3,570 
3,744 
3,921 



2,187 
2,328 
2,473 
2,621 
2,773 
2,928 
3,087 
3,250 
3,417 
3,587 
3,762 
3,939 



4,102 4,121 
4,287 4,306 



4,476 
4,668 
4,864 
5,064 
5,267 
5,474 
5,685 
5,899 
6,117 
6,339 
6,565i 
6,794 
7,027 
7,264 
7,504 
7,748 
7,996 
8,247, 



4,495 

4,687 
4,884 
5,084 
5,287 
5,495 
5,706 
5.921 
6,139 
6,361 
6,587 
6,817 
7,050 
7,287 
7,528 
7,773 
8,021 
8,273l 



8,562] 8,.528l 
8,76li 8,787i 
9,024; 9.0501 
9,2901 9,317 
9,560| '9,.587 
9.8341 9,863 
10,111110.1391 



M 

95 

157 

224 

295 

369 

447 

529 

615 

704 

796 

894 

994 

1,098 

1,206 

1,317 

1,432 

1,551 

1,674 

1,800 

1,930 

2,064 

2,201 

2,3® 

2,'187 

2,636 

2,788 

2,944 

3,103 

3,267 

3,434 

3,605 

3,779 

3,957 

4,139 

4,325 

4,514 

4,707 

4,904 

5,104 

5,308 

5,516 

5,727 

5,942 

6,161 

6,384 

6,610 

6,840 

7,074 

7,311 

7,552 

7,797 

8,016 

8,298 

8,5.54 

8,814 

9,077 

9,344 

9,615 

9,889 

0,167 



•7 
c. yds. 



40( 

100 

163 

231 

302 

377 

455 

538 

623 

713 

806 

903 

1,004 

1,109 

1,217 

1,329 

1,444 

1,563 

1,686 

1,813 

1,943 

2,078 

2,215 

2.357 

2;502 

2,651 

2,803 

2,960 

3,120 

3,283 

3,451 

3,622 

3,797 

3,975 



•8 

c. ydg. 



9 

c. ydg. 



461 

106 

170 

238 

309 

385 

463 

546 

632 

722 

816 

913 

1,014 

1,119 

1,228 

1,340 

1,456 

1,576 

1,699 

1,826 

1,95 

2,091 

2,229 

2,271 

2,517 

2,666 

2,819 

2,976 

3,136 

3,300 

3,468 

3,639 

3,814 

3,993 



4,157 4,176 



4,343 

4,.533: 

4,726 

4,923 

5,124 

5,329 

5,537 

5,749 

5,964 

6,183 

6,406 

6,633 

6,863 

7,098 

7,335 

7,57 

7,822 

8,071 

8,32-1 

8,580 

8,840 

9,1(« 

9,;r7i 

9,612 
9,917 



4,362 
4,552 
4,746 
4,943 
5,144 
5,349 
5,558 
5,770 
5,986 
0.206 
6;429 
6,656 
6,887 
7,121 
7,3591 
7,601 
■7,847 
8,096 
8,349 
8.606 

8;8e6 

9,130 
9,398 
9,669 
9,944 



10,19510,223 



51 
112 

177 
245 
317 
392 
471 
554 
641 
731 
826 
923 
1,025 
1,130 
1,239 J 
1,351 
1,468 
1,588 
1,711 
1,839 
1,970 
2,105 
2,243 
2,386 
2,531 
2,681 
2,834 
2,941 
3,152 
3,317 
3,485 
3,S57 
3,832 
4,011 
4,194 
4,381 
4,571 
4,766 
4,963 
5,165 
5,370 
5,579 
5,791 
6,009 
6,228 
6,451 
6,679 
6,910 
7,145 
7,383 
7,625 
7,871 
8,121 
8,374 
8,631 
8,892 
9,157 
9,425 
9,697 
9,972 
10,251 



'! » 



1 



Vi 



^ 



I 



'■' '.' f :^ ' •■ 



<> ;- 



'.i<^:':^.-i .. .v>. ; ■ 



TABLE No. II. 


SLOPE ^ TO 1. 




CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BABE 18 FEET. 


g 


. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


•7 


•8 


« 


£ jc.yds. 


c. yds. 


c.yAi. 


c. yd». 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c.yd.. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


1 


1 ( 


) •; 


13 


2C 


2't 


34 


41 


48 


55 


61 


1 


6£ 


1 76 


83 


9C 


9- 


104 


111 


119 


126 


13a 


2 


141 


i4e 


156 


163 


171 


176 


186 


193 


201 


209 


2 


211 


r 224 


232 


24C 


24« 


25€ 


264 


272 


280 


288 


4 


296 


> 304 


312 


321 


329 


331 


346 


354 


363 


371 


5 


38C 


388 


397 


405 


414 


423 


431 


440 


449 


458 


6 


46': 


476 


485 


493 


503 


512 


521 


530 


539 


548 


7 


ss-j 


567 


576 


585 


595 


604 


614 


623 


633 


642 


8 


652 


661 


671 681 


«691 


700 


710 


720 


730 


740 


9 


750 


760 


7701 780 


790 


800 


811 


821 


831 


841 


10 


852 


862 


873 


883 


894 


904 


915 


925 


936 


947 


11 


957 


968 


979 


990 


1,001 


1,012 


1,023 


1,034 


1,045 


1,056 


13 


1,067 


1,078 


1,089 


1,100 


1,111 


1,123 


1,134 


1,145 


1,156 


1,168 


13 


1,180 


1,191 


1,203 


1,214 


1,226 


1,237 


1.249 


1,261 


1,273 


1,284 


14 


1,296 


1,308 


l,320i 1,332 


1,344 


1,356 


i;368 


1,380 


1,392 


1,404 


15 


1,417 


1,429 


1,441 1 1,453 


1,466 


1,478 


1,491 


1,503 


1,516 


1,528 


16 


1,541 


1,553 


1,566 1,579 


1,591 


1,604 


1,617 


1,630 


1,643 


1,656 


17 


1,669 


1,681 


1,695' 1,708 


1,721 


1,734 


1,747 


1,760 


1,773 


1,787 


18 


1,800 


1,813 


1,827 1,841 


1,854 


1,867 


1,881 


1,894 


1,908 


1,921 


19 


1,935 1,924 
2,074 2,088 


1,963 1,976 


1,990 


2,004 


2,018 


2,032 


2,046 


2,060 


20 


2,102 2,116 


2,131 


2,145 


2,159 


2,173 


2,188 


2,202 


21 


2,217 


2,231 


2,246; 2,260 


2,275 


2,289 


2,304 


2,319 


2,333 


2,348 


22 


2,363 


2,378 


2,393i 2,408 


2,423 


2.437 


2,453 


2,468 


2,483 


2,498 


23 


2,513 


2,528 


2,543! 2,559 


2,574 


2;589 


2,605 


2,620 


2,636 


2,651 


24 


2,667 


2,682 


2,698 2,713 


2,729 


2,745 


2,761 
2,920 


2,776 


2,792 


2,808 


25 


2,824 


2,840 


2,856; 2,8"^ 


2,888 


2,904 


2,936 


2,952 


2,969 


26 


2,985 


3,001 


3,018 3.034 


3,051 


3,067 


3,084 


3,100 


3,117 


3,133 


27 


3,150 


3,167 


3,183 3,200 


3,217 


3,234 


3,251 


3,268 


3,285 


3,301 


'28 


3,319 


3,336 


3,353 3,370 


3,387 


3,404 


3,421 


3,439 


3,456 


3,473 


29 


3,491 


3,508 


3,526 


3,543 


3,561 


3,578 


3,596 


3,613 


3,631 


3,649 


30 


3,667 


3,684 


3,702 


3,720 


3,738 


3,7.56 


3,774 


3,792 


3,810 


3,828 


31 


3,846 


3,864 


3,883 


3,901 


3,919 


3,937 


3,956 


3,974 


3,993 


4,011 


32 


4,030 


4,048 


4,067 


4,085 


4,104 


4,123 


4,141 


4,160 


4,179 


4,198 


33 


4,217 


4,236 


4,255 


4,273 


4,293 


4,312 


4,331 


4,350 


4,369 


4,388 


¥ 


4,407 


4,427 


4,446 


4,465 


4,485 


4,504 


4,524 


4,543 


4,563 


4,582 


36 


4,602 


4,621 


4,641 


4,661 


4,681 


4,700 


4,720 


4,740 


4,760 


4,780 


36 


4,800 


4,820 


4;840 4,860 


4,880 


4,900 


4,921 


4,941 


4,961 


4,981 


37 


5,002 


5,022 


5,043 5,063 


5,084 


5,104 


5,125 


5,145 


5,166 


5,187 


38 


5,207 


5,228 


5,249 5,270 


5,291 


5,312 


5,333 


.5,353 


5,375 


5,396 


39 


5,417 


5,438 


5,459 5,480 


5,501 


5,523 


5,544 


5,565 


5,587 


5,608 


40 


5,630 


5,651 


5,673[ 5,694 


5,716 


5,737 


5,759 


5,781 


5,803 


5,824 


41 


5,846 


5,H68 


5,890| 5,912 


5,934 


5.956 


5,978 


6,000 


6,022 


6,044 


48 


6,067 


6,089 


6,1111 6,133 


6,156 


6;i78 


6,201 


6,223 


6,246 


6,268 


43 


6,291 


6,313 


6,336 6,359 
6,565 6,588 


6,381 


6,404 


6,427 


6.450 


6,473 


6,496 


44 


6,519 


6,541 


6,611 


6,634 


em 


6;680 


6,703 


6,727 


45 


6,750 


6,773 


6,797 6,820 


.6,844 


6,867 


6,8* 6,914| 


6,938 


6,961 


46 


6,985 


7,009 


7,033 7,056 


7,080 


7,104 


7,128 


7,152 


7,176 


7,200 


47 


7,224 


7,248 


1,272 7,296 


7.321 


7,345 


7,369 


7,393 


7.418 


7,442 


48 


7,467 


7,491 


7,516 7.540 


7,565 


7,589 


7,614 


7,639 


7,663 


7,688 


49 


7,712 


7,738 


7,76.31 7;788 


7,813 


7,837 


7,863 


7,888 


7,913 


7,938 


50 


7,963 


•7,988 


8.013; 8,039 


8,0fr4 


8,089 


8.115 


8,140 


8,166 


8,191 


51 


8,217 


8,242 


8,268j 8.293 


8,319 


8.345 


8;37I 


8,396 


8,4^ 


8,448 


52 


8,474 


8,500 


8,526i 8.552 


8.578 


8,604 


8,630 


8,656 


8,683 


8,709 


53 


8,735 


8,761 


8,788 8,814 


8,841 


8,867 


8,894 


8,920 


8,947 


8,973 


54 


9,000 


9.027 


9;053 9,080 


9,107 


9,1.34 


9,161 


9,188 


9,215 


9,241 


55 


9,269 


9,296 


9,323 9,350 


9,377 


9,404 


9,431 


9,459 9,486 


9,513 


56 


9,541 


9,568 


9,596 9,623 


9,651 


9,678 


9,706 


9,733 9,761 


9,789 


57 


9,817 


9,844 


9,872 9,899 


9,927 


9,955 


?,984 


10,012 10,040 


10,068 


58 


10,0i>6 


10,124 


10,15310,181 


10,209 


10,237 


10,266 


10.294 10,323 


10,351 


59 


10,380 10,4081 


10,437i 10,465 


10,494 


10,523 


10,551 


10,58010.609 


10.638 


60 10,607 10 696110,72510,753! 10,783'10.81 21 10.841' 10,870 10,899'10,928 1 



1 TABLE No. III. 1 


1 SLOPE J^ TO 1. '1 





CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPrHS, BASE 26 FEET. 1 


g 


1 -0 , -1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


•7 


•8 


9 


s. 


c. yd». c. yd*. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 

28 


c. yds. 

37 


c. yds. 

47 


c. yds. 
56 


c.yds. 

66 


0. yds. 

75 


c.yds. 
85 


€ 


9 


19 


1 


94 104 


114 


123 


133 


143 


153 


163 


173 


183 


2 


193 203 


213 


223 


1233 


243 


253 


264 


274 


284 


2 


294 305 


315 


326 


336 


347 


357 


368 


378 


389 


4 


400 411 


428 


432 


443 


454 


465 


476 


487 


498 


5 


509 620 


532 


543 


554 


565 


5T7 


.588 


699 


611 


6 


622 634 


645 


657 


668 


680 


692 


703 


715 


727 


7 


739 751 


763 


775 


787 


799 


811 


823 


835 


847 


8 


859 872 


884 


896 


908k 921 


933 


946 


958 


971 


9 


9^3' 996 


1,008 


10,21 


1,034 


1,047 


1,059 


1,072 


1,085 


1,098 


10 


l.lll! 1,124 


1,137 


1,150 


1,-163 


1,176 


1,190 


1,203 


1,216 


1,229 


11 


1,213: 1,256 


1,269 


1,283 


1,296 


1,310 


1,323 


1,337 


1,350 


1,364 


12 


1,.378 1,391 


1,405 


1,419 


1,433 


1,447 


1,461 


1,475 


1,489 


1,503 


13 


1,517, 1,531 


1,545 


1,559 


1,573 


1,587 


1,602 


1,616 


1,630 


1,645, 


14 


1,659 1,674 


1,688 


1,703 


1,717 


1,732 


1,746 


17,61 


1,776 


1,791; 


15 


1,806: 1,820 


1,836 


1,850 


1,865 


1,880 


1,895 


1,910 


1,925 


1,940 


16 


1,956 1,971 


1,986 


2,001 


2,017 


2,032 


2,047 


2,063 


2,078 


2,094 


17 


2,109 2,125 


2,140 


2,156 


2,172 


2,187 


2,203 


2,219 


2,235 


2,251 


18 


2,267 2,283 


2,299 


2,315 


2,331 


2,347 


2,363 


2,379 


2,395 


2,4U 


19 


2,428, 2,444 


2,460 


2,477 


2,493 


2,510 


2,526 


2,543 


2,559 


2,576 


20 


2,593 2,609 


2,626 


2,643 


2,660 


2,676 


2,693 


2,710 


2,727 


2,744 


21 


2,761 2,778 


2,795 


2,812 


2,830 


2,847 


2,864 


2,881 


2,899 


2,916 


22 


2,933 2,951 


2,968 


2,986 


3,003 


3,021 


3|217 


3,056 


3,074 


3,091 


23 


3,109 3,127 


3,145 


3,163 


3,181 


3,199 


3,235 


3,253 


3,271 


24 


3,289 3,307 


3'^ 


3,343 


3,362 


3,380 


3,398 


3,417 


3,435 


3,454 


25 


3,472 3,491 


3,5(J9 


3,528 


3,546 


3,565 


3,584 


3,603 


3,622 


3,640 


26 


3,659 


3,678 


3,697 


3,716 


3,735 


3,754 


3,773 


3,792 


3,812 


3,831 


27 


3,850 


3,869 


3,889 


3,908 


3,927 


3,947 


3,966 


3,986 


4,005 


4,025 


28 


4,044 


4,064 


4,084 


4,103 


4,123 


4,143 


4,163 


4,183 


4,203 


4,223 


29 


4,243 


4,263 


4,283 


4,303 


4,323 


4,343 


4,363 


4,383 


4,404 


4,424 


30 


4,444 


4,465 


4,485 


4,506 


4,526 


4,547 


4,567 


4,588 


4,608 


4,629 


31 


4,650 


4,671 


4,692 


4,712 


4,733 


4,754 


4,775 


4,796 


4,817 


4,838 


32 


4,858 


4,880 


4,902 


4,923 


4,944 


4,965 


4,987 


5,008 


5,029 


5,051 


33 


5,072 


5,094 


5,115 


5,137 


5,158 


5,180 


5,202 


5,223 


5,245 


5,267* 


34 


5,289 


5,311 


5,333 


5,355 


5,377 


5,399 


5,421 


5,443 


5,465 


5,487. 
5,711. 


35 


55,09 


5,531 


5,554 


5,576 


5,598 


5,621 


5,643 


5,666 


5,688 


36 


5,733 


5,756 


5,778 


5,801 


5,824 


5,847 


5,870 


5,892 


5,915 


5,938; 


37 


5,961 


5,984 


6,007 


6,030 


6,053 


6,076 


6,099 


6,123 


6,146 


6,169 


38 


6,193 


6,216 


6,239 


6,263 


6,286 


6,310 


6,333 


6,357 


6,380 


6,404 


39 


6,428 


6,451 


d,475 


6,499 


6,523 


6,547 


6,571 


6,595 


6,619 


6,643 


40 


6,667 


6,691 


6,715 


6,739 


6,763 


6,787 


6,812 


6,836 


6,860 


6,885 


41 


6,909 


6,934 


6,958 


6,983 


7,007 


7,032 


7,057 


7,081 


7,106 


7,131, 


42 


7,156 


7,180 


7,205 


7,230 


7,255 


7,280 


7,305 


7,330 


7,355 


7,380 


43 


7,406 


7,431 


7,456 


7,481 


7,507 


7,532 


7,557 


7,583 


7,608 


7,634. 


44 


7,659 


7,685 


'■m 


7,736 


7,762 


7,787 


7,813 


7,839 


7,865 


7,891 


45 


7,917 


7,943 


7,995 


8,021 


8,047 


8,073 


8,099 


8,125 


8,151 


46 


8,178 


8,204 


8,230 


8,257 


8,283 


8,310 


8,336 


8,363 


8,389 


8,416 


47 


8,442 


8,469 


8,496 


8,523 


8,550 


8,576 


«,603 


.8,630 


8,657 


8,684- 


48 


8,711 


8,73§ 


8,765 


8,792 


8,820 


8,847 


8,874 


8,901 


8,929 


8,956 


49 


8,983 


9,011 


9,038 


9,066 


9,093 


9,121 


9,148 


9,176 


9,204 


9,331 


50 


9,259 


9,287 


9,315 


9,343 


9,371 


9,399 


9,427 


9,455 


9^483 


9,511 


51 


9,539 


9,567 


9,595 


9,623 


9,652 


9,680 


9,708 


9,737 


9,765 


9,794 


52 


9,822 


9,851 


9,879 


9,908 


9,936 


9,965 


9,994 


10,023 


10,062 


10,080 


53 


10,109 


10,138 


10,167 


10.196 


10,225 


10,254 


10,283 


10,312 


10,342 


10,371 


54 


10,400 


10,429 


10,459 


10;488 


10,517 


10,547 


lt),576 


10,606 


10,635 


10,665 


55 


10,694 


10,724 


10,754 


10,783 


10,813 


10,843 


K),873 


10,903 


10,933 


10,963 


56 


10,993 


11,023 


11,053 


11.083 


11,113 


11,143 


11,173 


11,203 


11,234 


11,264 


57 


U,294ill,325| 


11,355 


11,386 


11,416 


11,447 


1.1,477 


11,508 


11,538 


11,569 


58 


11,600 


11,631 


11,662 


11,692 


11,T23 


11,754 


11,785 


11,816 


11,847 


11,878 


59 


11,^09 


11,940 


11,972 


12,003 


12,034 


12,065 


12,097 


12,128 


12,159 


12,191 


60*12,222 


12,254 12285J12,317'12^I 


12,380 12,412112,443112,475112,507 1 



r/ 



/ / 





•»>.- 


-■•*»"-- 




• 




m^j; . ««-.£.' 


^-i.'ii« 




* ;-■•.■ -i'f^iw. L--_---... 


-*_•.'. '4 '- .- 1 






TABLENo.IV. 


( 


J 


!'■'"':■■:'. SLOPE i TO 1. i. V ^''- . ■ ^ "= . -^. 


r 




CONTENT FOR A,VERAGE UEFTHB, BASE 28 FECI. 






i 


O 


1 


2 


3 


4 5 


6 


•7 


•8 


9 






s. 


e.jim. 


c. ydi. 


c. xdi. 


c. yd*. 


c. yds. 


c. ydi. 


c. yd*. 


c. yd*. 


c. yd*. 


c. yd*. 












10 


21 


31 


42 


52 


63 


73 


84 


95 






1 


106 


116 


127 


138 


149 


160 


. 171 


182 


193 


204 






2 


215 


, 226 


237 


248 


260 


271 


282 


293 


305 


316 






3 


328 


339 


341 


352 


364 


376 


387 


399 


411 


423 




'■ 


4 


444 


456 


468 


480 


492 


504 


516 


528 


540 


553 






5 


565 


577 


589 


602 


614 


626 


639 


651 


654 


666 






6 


689 


701 


714 


727 


740 


752 


765 


778 


791 


804 






7 


817 


830 


843 


856 


869 


882 


895 


908 


922 


935 






. 8 


948 


961 


975 


988 


1,002 


1,015 


1,029 


l^ 


1,056 


1,070 






9 


1,063 


1,097 


1,111 


1,125 


1,138 


1,152 


1,166 


1,194 


1,208 






10 


1,222 


1,236 


1,250 


1,265 


1,279 


1,293 


1,307 


1,322 


1,336 


1,350 




,' 


11 


1,365 


1,379 


1,394 


1,406 


1,423 


1,437 


1,452 


1,467 


1,482 


1,496 






12 


1,511 


1,526 


1,541 


1,556 


1,571 


1,586 


1,601 


1,616 


1,631 


1,646 






■13 


1,661 


1,676 


1,692 


1,707 


1,722 


1,737 


1,753 


1,768 


1,784 


1,799 




, 


14 


1,815 


1,830 


1,846 


1,862 


1,877 


1,893 


1,909 


1,925 


1,940 


1,956 






15 


1,972 


1,988 


2,004 


2,020 


2,036 


2,052 


2,068 


2,065 


2,101 


2,117 






16 


2,133 


2,160 


2,166 


2,182 


2,199 


2,215 


2,232 


2,248 


2,265 


2,281 






17 


2,298 


2,315 


2,332 


2,348 


2,365 


2,382 


2,399 


2,416 


2,433 


2,450 






18 


2,467 


2,484 


2,501 


2,518 


.2,535 


2,552 


2,570 


2,587 


2,604 


2,621 


- 




19 


2,639 


2,656 


2,674 


2,691 


2,709 


2,726 


2,744 


2,762 


2,779 


2,797 






90 


2,815 


2,833 


2,850 


2,868 


2,886 


2.904 


2,922 


2,940 


2,958 


2,976 






21 


2,994 


3,013 


3,031 


3,019 


3,067 


3;086 


3,104 


3,122 


3,141 


3,159 






22 


3,178 


3,1% 


3,2>5 


3,233 


3,252 


3,271 


3/290 


3,306 


3,327 


3,346 






23 


3,365 


3,384 
S;575 


3,403 


3,422 


3,441 


3,460 


3,479 


3,498 


3,517 


3,536 






24 


3,556 


3,594 


3,614 


3,633 


3,652 


3,672 


3,691 


3,711 


3,730 






25 


3,750 


3,770 


3,789 


3,809 


3,829 


3,849 


3,868 


3,888 


3,908 


3,928 






26 


3,948 


3,968 


3,988 


4,008 


4,028 


4,049 


4,069 


4,089 


4,100 


4,130 






:27 


4,150 


4^170 


4,191 


4,211 


4,232 


4,252 


4,273 


4,293 


4,314 


4,335 






^28 


4,356 


4,376 


4,397 


4,418 


4,439 


4,460 


4,481 


4,502 


4,523 


4,544 






i29 


4,569 


4,586 


4,607 


4,628 


4,650 


4,671 


4,692 


4,713 


4,735 


4,756 






30 


4,778 


4,799 


4,821 


4,842 


4,8&4 


4,886 


4,907 


4,929 


4,951 


4,973 






31 


4,994 


5,016 


5,038 


5,060 


5,082 


5,104 


5,126 


5,148 


5,170 


5,193 






32 


5,215 


5,237 


5,259 


5,282 


5,304 


5,326 


5,349 


5,371 


5,394 


5,416 






33 


5,439 


5,461 


5,484 


5,507 


5,530 


5,552 


5,575 


5,598 


5,621 


5,644 






,34 


5,667 


5,690 


5,713 


5,736 


5,759 


5,782 


5,805 


5,828 


5,852 


5,875 






35 


5,898 


5,921 


5,945 


5,968 


5,992 


6,015 


6,039 


6,062 


6,086 


6,110 






36 


6,133 


6,157 


6,181 


6,205 


6,228 


6,252 


6,276 


6,300 


6,324 


6,348 






.37 


6,372 


6,396 


6,420 


6,445 


6,469 


6,493 


6,517 


6,542 


6,566 


6,590 






;38 


6,615 


6,639 


6,664 


6,688 


6,713 


6,737 


6,762 


'6,787 


6,812 


6,836 






39 


6,861 


6,886 


6,911 


6,936 


6,9G1 


6,986 


7,011 


7,036 


7,061 


7,086 






.40 


7^1 
7^ 


7,136 


7,162 


7,187 


7,212 


7,237 


7,263 


7,288 


7,314 


7,339 






41 


7,390 


7,416 


7,442 


7,467 


7,493 


, 7,519 


7,545 


7,570 


7,596 




,' 


;42 


7,622 


7,648 


7,674 


7,700 


7,726 


7,752 


7,778 


7,805 


7,831 


7,857 


'•;' 


"• 


!43 


7,883 


7,910 


7,936 


7,962 


7,989 


8,015 


8,042 


8,068 


8,095 


8,121 






,44 


8,148 


^ 8,175 


8,202 


8,228 


8,255 


,8,282 


8,309 


8,336 


8,363 


8,390 


^ 




'45 


8,417 


8,444 


8,471 


8,498 


8,525 


8,552 


8,580 


8.607 


8,634 


8,661 


• 


^ 


;46 


8,689 


8,716 


8,744 


8,771 


8,799 


8,826 


8,854 


8,882 


8,909 


8,937 






47 


8,965 


8,993 


9,020 


9,048 


9,076 


9,104 


9,132 


9,160 


9;188 


9,216 


1 




48 


9,244 


9,273 


9,301 


9,329 


9,357 


9,386 


9,414 


9,442 


9,471 


,9,499 




\ 


49 


9,528 


9,556 


9,585 


9,613 


9,642 


9,671 


9,700 


9,728 


9,757 


9,786 






50 


9,815 


9,844 


9,873 


9,902 


9,931 


9,960 


9,989 


10,018 


10,047 


10,076 






51 


10,106 


10,135 


10,164 


10,193 


10,223 


10,252 


10.282 


10.311 


10,341 


10,370 


' 




52 


10,400 


10,430 


10,459 


10,489 


10,519 


10,549 


10,578 


10,608 


10.638 


10,668 






53 


10,698 


10,728 


10,758 


10,788 


10,818 


10,849 


10,879 


10,909 


10,93» 


10,970 






54 


11,000 


11,030 


12,061 


11,091 


11,122 


11.152 


11,183 


if 213 


11,244 


11,275 






55 


11,306 


11,336 


11,367 


11,398 


11,429 


li;460 


11,491 


11,522 


11.553 


11,584 






56 


11,615 


11,646 


11,677 


11,708 


11,740 


11^771 


11,802 


11,833 


11,865 


11,896 






57 


11,928 


11,959 


11,991 


12,022 


12,054 


12,086 


12,117 


^2,149 


12,181 


12,213 






58 


12,244 


12,276 


11,308 


12,340 


12,372 


12.404 


12,436 


^2,468 


12,500 


12,533 






69 


12,565 


12,597 


12,629 


12,662 


12,694 


12:T26 


12,759 


12,791 


12,824 


12,866 




\ 


60I12,889'12,921'12,954'12,987 


13,020 


13;052'13,085'13,118I13,151 


13,184 





^k 



' > ■» ■ 



TABLE No. V.*' 

|. • SLOPE ^ TO 1. 

CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 30 FEET 



* 



c. yds. 



4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
5 
58 
59 
60l 





c.yds. 




113 
230 
350 
474 
602 
733 
867 
1,007 
1,150 
1,296 
1,446 
1,600 
1,757 
1,919 
2,083 
2,252 
2,424 
2,600 
2,780 
2,963 
3,150 
3,3U 
3,535 
3,T33 
3,935 
4,141 
4,350 
4,563 
4,779 
5,000 
5,224 
5,452 
5,683 
5,919 
6,157 
6,400 
6,646 
6,896 
7,150 
7,407 
7,669 
7,933 
8,202 
8,474 
8,750 
9,030 
9,313 
9,600 
9,891 
10,185 
10,483 
10,785 
11,091 
11,400 
11,713 
12,030 
12,350 
12,674 
13,002 
13,333 



1 

c. yd*. 



2 

c. yds. 



11 

124 

242 

362 

487 

615 

747 

882 

1,02* 

1,164 

1,311 

1,461 

1,616 

1,773 

1,935 

2,100 

2,269 

2,441 

2,618 

2,798 

2,981 

3,169 

3,360 

3,555 

3,753 

3,956 

4,161 

4,371 

4,584 

4,801 

5,022 

5,247 

5,475 

5,707 

5,942 

6,181 

6,424 

6,671 

6,921 

7,176 

7,433 

7,695 

7,960 

8,229 

8,501 

8,778 

9,058 

9,341 

9,629 

9,920 

10,215 

10,513 

10,816 

11,121 

11,431 

11,744 

12,061 

12,382 

12,707 

13,035 



22 
136 
253 
374 

499 

628 

760 

896 

1,036 

1,179 

1,326 

1,477 

1,631 

1,789 

1,951 

2,117 

2.286 

2,459 

2,636 

2,816 

3,000 

3,188 

3,379 

3,575 

3,773 

3,976 

4,182 

4,392 

4,606 

4,823 

5,045 

5,289 

5,498 

5,730 

5,966 

6,206 

6,449 

6,696 

6.947 

7,201 

7,459 

7,721 

7,987 

8,256 

8,529 

8,806 

9,086 

9,370 

9,658 

9,949 

10,245 

10,543 

10,846 

1^152 

11,462 

11,776 

12,093 

12,415 

12,739 

13,068 



3 

. yds. 



33 

148 

265 

387 

512 

641 

773 

910 

1,050 

1,193 

•1,341 

1,492 

1,647 

1,805 

1,968 

2,133 

2,303 

2,476 

2,653 

2,834 

3,019 

3,207 

3,399 

3,594 

3,793 

3,996 

4,203 

4,413 

4,628 

4,845 

5,067 

5,292 

5,521 

5,753 

5,990 

6,230 

6,473 

6,721 

6,972 

7,22 

7,485 

7,748 

8,013 

8,283 

8,556 

8,833 

9,114 

9,399 

9,687 

9,979 

10,274 

10,573 

10,876 

11,183 

11,493 

11,808 

12,125 

12,447 

12,772 



5 

c. yds. 



6 

c. yds. 



13,36713,400 



45 

159 

277 

399 

526 

654 

787 

924 

1,064 

1,208 

1,356 

1,507 

1,662 

1,821 

1,984 

2,150 

2,320 

2,494 

2,671 

2,853 

3,037 

3,226 

3,418 

3,614 

3,814 

4,017 

4,224 

4,435 

4,649 

4,867 

5,089 

5,315 

5,544 

5,777 

6,014 

6,254 

6,498 

6,746 

6,997 

7,252 

7,511 

7,774 

8,040 

8,310 

8,584 

8,861 

9,143 

9,427 

9,716 

10,008 

10,304 

10,604 

10,907 

11,214 

11,525 

11,839 

12,157 

12,479 

12,805 



13,101 13,134 
13,433113,467 



56 

171 

289 

412 

537 

667 

800 

937 

1,078 

1,223 

1,371 

1,523 

1,678 

1,837 

2,000 

2,167 

2,328 

2,512 

2,689 

2,871 

3,056 

3,245 

3,437 

3,634 

3,834 

4,037 

4,245 

4,456 

4,671 

4,889 

5,112 

5,337 

5,567 

5,800 

6,037 

6,278 

6,523 

6,771 

7,023 

7,278 

7,537 

7,800 

8,067 

8,337 

8,612 

8,889 

9,171 

9,456 

9,745 

10,03 

10,334 

10,634 

10,937 

11,245 

11,556 

11,871 

12,189 

12,512 

12,837 

13,167 

13,500 



183 
301 
424 
550 

680 

814 

951 

1,092 

1,237 

1,386 

1,538 

1,694 

1,854 

2,017 

2,184 

2,355 

2,529 

2,707 

2,889 

3,075 

3,264 

3,457 

3,654 

3,854 

4,058 

4,266 

4,4T7 

4,693 

4,911 

5,134 

5,360 

5,590 

5,824 

6,061 

6,303 

6,547 

6,796 

7,048 

7,304 

7,564 

7,827 

8,094 

8,365 

8,639 

8,917 

9,199 

9,485 

9,774 

10,067 

10,364 

10,664 

10,968 

11,276 

11,587 

11,903 

12,221 

12,544 

12,870 

13,200 

13,534 



•7 

. yds. 



■8 

. yds. 



79 

194 

313 

436 

563 

693 

828 

965 

1,107 

1,252 

1,401 

1,553 

1,710 

1,870 

2,033 

2,201 

2,372 

2,547 

2,725 

2,908 

3,093 

3,283 

3,476 

3,673 

3,874 

4,079 

4,287 

4,499 

4,714 

4,933 

5,156 

5,383 

5,613 

5,848 

6,085 

6,327 

6,572 

6,821 

7,073 

7,330 

7,590 

7,853 

8,121 

8,392 

8,667 

8,945 

9,228 

9,514 

9,803 

10,096 

10,393 

10,694 

10,999 

11,307 

11,619 

11,934 

12,253 

12,576 

12,903 

13,233 

13,568 



9 

c. yds. 



90 

206 

326 

449 

576 

707 

841 

979 

1,120 

1,267 

1,416 

1,569 

1,726 

1,886 

2,050 

2,218 

2,389 

2,565 

2,743 

2,926 

3;il2 

3,302 

3,496 

3,693 

3,895 

4,099 

4,308 

4,520 

4,736 

4,956 

5,179 

5,406 

5,637 

5,871 

6,109 

6,351 

6,597 

6,846 

7,099 

7,356 

7,616 

7,880 

8,148 

8,419 

8,694 

8,972 

9,256 

9,542 

9,832 

10,126 

10,423 

10,725 

11,029 

11,338 

11,650 

11,966 

12,286 

12,609 

12,936 

13,267 

13,601 



101 

218 

338 

461 

589 

720 

855 

993 

1,136 

1,281 

1,431 

1,584 

1,741 

1,902 

2,067 

2,235 

2,407 

2,582 

2,761 

2,944 

3,131 

3,321 

3,516 

3,713 

3,915 

4,120 

4,329 

4,541 

4,758 

4,978 

5,201 

5,429 

5,660 

5,895 

6,133 

6,376 

6,621 

6,871 

7,124 

7,381 

«,642 

7,907, 

8.175 

8,447 

8,722 

9,000 

9,284 

9,571 

9,861 

10,156 

10,453 

10,755 

11,060 

11,369 

11,681 

11,998 

12,318 

12,641 

12,969 

13,300 

13,635 



■ ••- .">»_! 



.*t.. > .• -^ 



'n^X' 



.■^^«#t».i ttr %^- ■^'T^-^ fi,r%,..^ 



'r'i( 



¥ 



TABLENo.VI. 


\:] ..•;,.:;■';.. Aslope ^ to 1. , ' . fi 


CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 34 FEET. 


1 





1 


•2 -3 1 


•4 


5 6 


•7 


•8 


9 


s. 


^ yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


"o 





13 


25 


38 


51 


63 76 


.89 


102 


115 


1 


128 


141 


154 


167 


180 


193 206 


219 


233 


246 


•2 


259 


273 


286 


299 


313 


3-26 3-iO 


354 


377 


391 


3 


394 


408 


422 


436 


450 


463 477 


491 


508 


519 


4 


533 


547 


562 


576 


590 


604 618 


633 


647 


661 


5 


676 


690 


705 


719 


734 


749 763 


778 


793 


807 


6 


822 


837 


852 


867 


882 


897 912 


927 


942 


957 


7 


972 


987 


1,003 


1,018 


1,033 


1,049 1,063 


1,078 


1,096 


1,110 


8 


1,136 


1,142 


1,157 


1,173 


1,188 


1,20-1 l,-220 


1,23(; 


1,252 i;267| 


9 


1,383 


1,299 


1,315 


1,331 


1,347 


1,363 1,380 


1,396 


1,412 


1,428 


10 


1,444 


1,461 


1,477 


1,494 


1,510 


1,526 1,543 


1,559 


1,576 


1,593 


11 


1,609 


1,626 


1,6-13 


1,659 


1,676 


1,693 1,710 


1,727 


1,744 


1,761 


12 


1,778 


1,795 


1,812 


1,829 


1,846 


1,863 1,881 


1,898 


1,915 


1,933 


13 


1,950 


1,967 


1,985 


2,002 


2,020 


2,038 2,055 


2,073 


2,090 


2,106 


14 


2,126 


2,144 


2,162 


2,179 


2,197 


2,215 2,233 


2,251 


2,269 


2,287 


15 


2,306 


2,334 


2,342 


2,360 


2,378 


2,397 2,415 


2,434 


2,452 


2,470 


16 


3,489 


3,507 


2,526 


2,545 


2,563 


2,582 2,601 


2,619 


2,638 


3,657 


n 


2,676 


3,695 


2,714 


2,733 


2,752 


2,771 2,790 


2,809 


2,838 


3,847 


18 


2,867 


3,886 


2,905 


2,9-25 


2,944 


2,963 2,983 


3,002 


3,022 


3,042 


19 


3,061 


3,081 


3,100 


3,120 


3;i40 


3,160 3,180 


3,199 


3,219 


3,239 


90 


3,-259 


3,279 


3,299 


3,319 


3,340 


3,360 3,380 


3,400 


3,420 


3,441 


21 


3,461 


3,482 


3,502 


3,522 


3,543 


3,563 3,584 


3,605 


3,«25 


3,646 


22 


3,667 


3,687 


3,708 


3,729 


3,750 


3,771 3,792 


3,813 


3,834 


3,855 


23 


3,876 


3,897 


3,918 


3,939 


3,961 


3,982 4,003 


4,0-26 


4,046 


4,067 


34 


4,089 


4,110 


4,132 


4,154 


4,175 


4,197 4,218 


4,240 


4,262 


4,384 


25 


4,306 


4,327 


4,349 


4,371 


4,393 


4,415 4,437 


4,459 


4,482 


4,504 


26 


4,526 


4,548 


4,570 


4,593 


4,615 


4,638 4,660 


4,682 


4,705 


4,727 


27 


4,750 


4,773 


4,795 


4,818 


4,841 


4,863; 4,886 


4,909 


4,932 


4,955 


28 


4,978 


5,001 


5,(h24 


5,047 


5,070 


5,093! 5,116 


5,139 


5,163 


5,186 


29 


5,209 


5,233 


5,256 


5,279 


5,303 


5,326 5,350 


5,^4 


5,397 


5,421 


30 


5,444 


5,468 


5,492 


5,516 


5,540 


5,563' 5,587 


5,611 


5,635 


5,65ft 


31 


5,683 


5,707 


5,732 


5,756 


5,780 


5,804 5.828 


5,653 


5,877 


5,902 


32 


5,936 


5,950 


5,975 


5,999 


6,024 


6,049 6;073 


6,098 


6,123 


6,147 


33 


6,172 


6,197 


6,222 


6,247 


6,272 


6,297 


6,322 


6,347 


6,372 


6,397 


34 


6,422 


6,447 


6,473 


6,498 


6,523 


6,549 


6,574 


6,599 


6,625 


6,650 


35 


6,676 


6,702 


6,727 


6,753 


6,778 


6,804 


6,830 


6,856 


6,882 


6,907 


36 


6,933 


6,959 


6,985 


7,011 


7,037 


7,063 


7,090 


7,116 


7,142 


7,168 


37 


7,194 


7,321 


7,247 


7,274 


7,300 


7,326 


7,353 


7,379 


7,406 


7,433 


38 


7,459 


7,486 


7,513 


7,539 


7,566 


7,593 


7,620 


7,647 


7,674 


7,701 


39 


7,738 


7,755 


7,782 


7,809 


7,836 


7,863 


7,891 


7,918 


7,945 7,973 


40 


8,000 


8,027 


8,055 


8,082 


8,110 


8,138 


8,165 


8,193 


8,220 8,248 


41 


8,276 


8,304 


8,332 


8,359 


8,387 


8,415 


8,443 


8,471 


8,#9 8,527 


42 


8,556 

8)?39 


8,584 


8,612 


8,640 


8,668 


8,697 


8,725 


8,754 


8,782 8,810 


43 


8,867 


8,896 


8,925 


8,953 


8,982 


9,01L 


9,039 


9,068 9,097 


44 


9,136 


9,155 


9,184 


9,213 


9,242 


9,271 


9,299 


9,329 


9,358 9,38/ 


45 


9,417 


9,446 


9,475 


9,505 


9,534 


9,563| 9,593 


9,622 


9,652 9,682 


46 


9,711 


9,741 


9,770 


9,800 


9,830 


9,860; 9,81>0 


9;919 


9,949 9,979 


47 


10,009 


10,039 


10,069 


10,099 


10,130 


10,16010.190 


10,220 


10,250 10,281 


48 


10,311 


10,34-2 


10,37-2 


10,402 


10,433 


10,463 


10,494 


10,525 


10,555 10,586 


49 


io,()i: 


10,647 


10,678 


10,709 


10,740 


10,771 


10,80-2 


10,833 


10,864 10,895 


50 


10,926 


10,957 


I0,98f5 


11,019 


11,051 


11,082 


11,113 


11,145 


11,17611.207 


51 


11,239 


11,260 


11,292 


11^24 


11,355 


11,387 


11,428 


11,460 


11,49211.5-24 


52 


11,556 


11,58' 


11,619 


11,651 


11,683 


11,715 


11,747 


11,779 


11,81211,844 


53 


11,876 


11,908 


11,940 


11,973 


12,005 


12,03» 


12,070 


12.102 


12,1351-2,167 


b\ 


12,300 


12,233 


12,265 


12,298 


12,331 


12,363 


12.396 


12;429 


1-2,46312,496 


55 


13,538 


12,561 


12,594 


12,627 


12,660 


12,693 


1-236 


12,760 


12,793 12,826 


56 


12,859 


12,89: 


12,926 


12,959 


12,993 


13,0-26 


13.060 


13,094 


13,12713,161 


5- 


13,194 


13,22^ 


13,26-2 


I3,29(i 


13,3-29 


l3,3(i.S 


13,397 


13.431 


13,46513,499 


58 


13,533 


13,56': 


13,60-2 


13,63(5 


13,670 


13,704 


13,738 


13,77:5 


13.807 13,842 


59 


13,87(; 


I3,91f 


I3,94f 


13,970 


14,014 


14,049 


14,083 


14,118 


14,1.53 14, IS" 


6( 


14,22£ 


14.2.5: 


!4.2;>-2 


11.32: 


14 362 


14.39:! 14.4.32 


14.467 


14..502 14.5:^7 






■ 








•aeihi^7 




-frt.^-* '- -^ 



>1 



i* 



, ./ 



-.ST.' 



TABLE No. VII 

SLOPE ^ TO 1. 







CORRECTION FOR DIFFERENCES OF DEPTHS 






1 


O 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


•7 


•8 


» 


~i 


c. yd«. 


•c. jrd». 



c<yds. 


c. yd). 


c. yd*. 


c. yd*. 


c. yd*. 


c. yd*. 


c.jrd*.' 


c.yda. 





























2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


9 


9 


4 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


« 


10 


8 


10 


10 


10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


12 


12 


19 


9 


12 


13 


ra 


13 


13 


14 


14 


15 


15 


15 


10 


15 


16 


16 


16 


17 


17 


17 


18 


18 


19 


11 


19 


19 


19 


20 


20 


20 


21 


21 


91 


99 


12 


22 


23 


23 


23 


24 


24 


25 


25 


26 


96 


13 


26 


26 


27 


27 


28 


28 


29 


29 


29 


30 


14 


30 


31 


31 


32 


32 


32 


33 


33 


34 


34 


15 


35 


35 


36 


36 


71 


37 


38 


38 


39 


39 


16 


40 


40 


41 


41 


42 


42 


43 


43 


44 


44 


17 


45 


45 


46 


46 


47 


47 


48 


48 


49 


49 


18 


50 


51 


51 


52 


52 


53 


53 


54 


65 


55 


19 


56 


56 


57 


57 


58. 


59 


59 


60 


60 


61 


20 


62 


62 


63 


64 


64 


65 


65 


66 


67 


67 


21 


68 


69 


69 


70 


71 


71 


72 


73 


73 


74 


'3a, 


75 


75 


76 


77 


77 


78 


78 


79 


80 


81 


23 


82 


82 


83 


«4 


84 


S5 


86 


87 


87 


88 


24 


89 


90 


90 


91 


92 


93 


93 


94 


95 


96 


25 


96 


97 


98 


99 


100 


100 


101 


102 


. 103 


104 


26 


104 


105 


106 


r07 


108 


108 


109 


110 


111 


119 


27 


112 


113 


114 


115 


116 


117 


118 


118 


119 


120 


28 


121 


122 


123 


124 


124 


125 


126 


127 


128 


129 


29 


130 


131 


132 


132 


133 


134 


135 


136 


137 


138 


30 


139 


14e 


141 


142 


143 


144 


144 


145 


146 


147 


31 


148 


149 


150 


151 


152 


153 


154 


155 


156 


157 


32 


158 


159 


160 


161 


162 


163 


164 


165 


166 


167 


33 


168 


169 


17t> 


171 


172 


173 


174 


175 


176 


177 


34 


178 


179 


181 


182 


183 


184 


185 


186 


187 


188 


35 


189 


IW 


191 


192 


193 


194 


196 


197 


198 


199 


36 


200 


201 


202 


203 


204 


206 


907 


908 


909 


210 


37 


211 


212 


214 


215 


216 


217 


218 


219 


920 


229 


38 


223 


224 


225 


226 


228 


229 


230 


931 


232 


234 


39 


235 


236 


237 


238 


240 


241 


242 


943 


244 


246 


40 


247 


248 


249 


251 


252 


253 


254 


256 


267 


966 


41 


25^ 


261 


262 


263 


264 


266 


967 


968 


970 


271 


42 


27? 


274 


275 


276 


277 


279 


980 


981 


98S 


984 


43 


285 


287 


288 


289 


291 


292 


293 


995 


296 


297 


44 


299 


300 


301 


303 


304 


306 


307 


306 


310 


311 


45 


313 


314 


315 


317 


318 


319 

9 


391 


329 


394 


326 



3 



/^^^ i^yC- ^ -2^*-V* e-^* 



^v^->7 / 



1 



TABLE No. VIII. 

SLOPE 1 TO 1. 
CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BA8E 15 FEET. 



\ 



i 





1 


•2 


3 


4 


•5 -6: 1 


■7 


•8 


9 


1 







c. yd*. 
6 


c. yds. 


c. yd». 


c. yds. 
23 


c. yds. 

29 


c. yd». 
35 


c. yds. 
41 


c. yds. 
47 


c. yds. 
53 


11 


17 


1 


59 


66 


72 


79 


85 


92 


^8 


105 


112 


119 


2 


126 


133 


140 


147 


155 


161 


168 


176 


184 


190 


3 


200 


208 


216 


224 


232 


240 


248 


256 


265 


273 


4 


281 


290 


299 


307 


316 


325 


334 


343 


352 


361 


5 


370 


380 


389 


399 


408 


418 


427 


437 


447 


457 


6 


467 


477 


487 


497 


507 


518 


528 


539 


549 


560 


7 


570 


581 


592 


603 


6U 


625 


636 


647 6591 


670 


8 


681 


693 


705 


716 


728 


740 


752 


764 


776 


788 


9 


800 


812 


825 


837 


850 


862 


875 


887, 


900 


913 


10 


926 


939 


952 


965 


978 


992 


1,005 


1,015 


1,088 


1,046 


11 


1,059 


1,073 


1,087 


1,101 


1,115 


1,129 


1,142 


1,167 


1,171 


1,186 


12 


1,200 


1,215 


1,229 


1,244 


1,258 


1,273 


1,288 


1,303 


1,318 


1,333 


13 


1,348 


1,363 


1,379 


1,394 


1,410 


1,425 


1,441 


1,456 


1,472 


1,488 


14 


1,504 


1,520 


1,536 


1,552 


1,568 


1,584 


1,601 


1,617 


1,634 


1,650 


15 


1,667 


1,683 


1,700 


1,717 


1,734 


1,751 


1,768 


1,785 


1,802 


1,820 


16 


1,837 


1,855 


1,872 


1,890 


1,907 


1,925 


1,943 


1,961 


1,979 


1,997 


17 


2,014 


2,033 


2,051 


2,070 


2,088 


2,107 


2,125 


2,144 


2,163 


2,181 


18 


2,200 


2,219 


2,238 


2,257 


2,276 


2,295 


2,315 


2,334 


2,354 


2,373 


19 


2,393 


2,412 


2,432 


2,452 


2,472 


2,492 


2,512 


2,532 


2,552 


2,572 


30 


2,593 


2,613 


2,634 


2,654 


2,675 


2,695 


2,716 


2,737 


2,758 


2,779 


21 


2,800 


2,821 


2,842 


2,864 


2,885 


2,907 


2,928 


2,950 


2,971 


2,993 


22 


3,015 


3,037 


3,059 


3.081 


3,103 


3,125 


3,147 


3,170 


3,192 


3,214 


23 


3,237 


3,260 


3,282 


3,305 


3,328 


3,351 


3,374 


3,397 


3,420 


3,443 


24 


3,467 


3,490 


3,514 


3,537 


3,561 


3,584 


3,608 


3,633 


3,656 


3,680 


25 


3,704 


3,728 


3,752 


3,776 


3,801 


3,825 


3,850 


3,874 


3,899 


3,923 


26 


3,948 


3,973 


3,998 


4,023 


4,048 


4.073 


4,098 


4,124 


4,149 


4,175 


27 


4,200 


4,226 


4,251 


4,277 


4,303 


4,329 


4,355 


4,381 


4,407 


4,433 


28 


4,459 


4,486 


4,512 


4,539 


4,565 


4,59a 


4,618 


4,645 


4,672 


4,699 


29 


4,726 


4,753 


4,780 


4,707 


4,835 


4,862 


4,890 


4,9 L7 


4,945 


4,972 


30 


5,000 


5,028 


5,056 


5,084 


5.112 


5,140 


5,168 


5,196 


5,225 


5,253 


31 


5,281 


5,310 


5,339 


5,367 


5;396 


5,425 


5,454 


5,483 


5,512 


5,541 


32 


'5,570 


5,600 


5,629 


5,659 


5,688 


5,718 


5,747 


5,777 


5,807 


5,437 


33 


5,867 


5,897 


5,927 


5,957 


5,987 


6,018 


6,048 


6,079 


6s 109 


6,140 


34 


6,170 


6,201 


6,232 


6,263 


6,294 


6,325 


6,356 


6>387 


6,419 


6.450 


35 


6,481 


6,513 


6,545 


6,576 


6,608 


6,640 


6,672 


6,704 


6,736 


6,768 


36 


6,800 


6,832 


6,865 


6,897 


6,930 


6,962 


6,995 


7,027 


7,060 


7,093 


37 


7,126 


7,159 


7,192 


7,225 


7,258 


7,292 


7,325 


7,359 


7,392 


7,426 


38 


7,459 


7,493 


7,527 


7,561 


7,595 


7,629 


7,663 


7,697 


7,631 


7,766 


39 


7,800 


7,835 


7,869 


7,904 


7,938 


7,973 


8,008 


8,043 


8,078 


8,113 


40 


8,148 


8,183 


8,219 


8,254 


8,290 


8,325 


8,361 


8,396 


8,432 


-8,468 


41 


8,504 


8,540 


8,576 


8,612 


8,648 


8,684 


8,72V 


8,757 


8,794 


8,830 


42 


8,867 


8,903 


8,940 


8,977 


9,014 


9,051 


9,088 


9,125 


9,152 


9,200 


43 


9,237 


9,275 


9,312 


9,350 


9,387 


9,425 


9;463 


9;501 


9,539 


9,577 


44 


9,615 


9,653 


9,691 


9,730 


9,768 


9,807 


9,845 


9,884 


9,922 


9,961 


45 


10,000 


10,039 


10,078 


10,117 


U),156 


10,195 


10,235 


10,274110,314 


10,.353 


46 


10,393 


10,432 


10,4'» 


10,512 


10,552 


10,592 


10,632 


10,672j 10,712 


10,752 


47 


10,793 


10,833 


10;874 


10,914 


10,955 


10,995 


11,036, 


ll,077jll,ll8 


11,159 


48 


11,200 


11.241 


11,282 


11,324 


11,365 


11,407 


11,4.48 


11,490 11,531 
11,91011,952 


11,573 


49 


11,615 


11,657 


11,699 


ri,741 


11,783 


11.825 


11,867 


11,994 


50 


12,037 


12,080 


12,122 


12,165 


12,208 


12,251 


12,294 


12,337 12i380 


12,423 


51 


12,467 


12,510 


12,554 


12,597 


12^641 
135081 


12,684 


12,728 


12,772 


12;816 


12,860 


52 


12,904 


12,948 


r2,992 


13,036 


13,125 


13,170 


13,214 


13,259 


13,303 


53 


13,348 


13,393 


13,438 


13,483 


13,528 


13,573 


13,618 


13,664 


13,709 


13.755 


54 


13,800 


13,846 


13,891 


13,937 


13,983 


14,029 


14,075 


M.Kl 14,167 


14,213 


55 


14,259 


14,306 


14,352 


14,399 


14,445 


14,492 


14,538 


14,585 14,632 


14,679 


^. 


14,726 


14,773 


I4y820 


14,867 


14,915 


14.962 


15,010 


15,057 


15,105 


15,152 


si 


15,200 


15,248 


15,2% 


15,344 


15,392 


15;440 


15,488 


15,536 


15.585 


15,6;« 


58 


15,681 


15,730 


15,779 


15,827 


15,876 


15,925 


15,974 


16,023 


16,072 


16,121 


59 


16,170 


16,220 


16,269 


16,319 


16,368 


16,418 


16,467 


16,517 


16,567 


16,617 


60'16,667I16,717I 16,767 


16,817116,868I16,918116,968'17,018I17,069I17,120| 



i 



T AB LE No. IX. 

SLOPE 1 TO 1. 
C0NTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 18 FEET. 



1 



"« 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


•7 


•8 


9 


& 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


C. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


e. yds. 


c. yds. 


c.yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


~b 





. 7 


13 


20 


27 


34 


41 


48 


56 


63 


1 


70 


78 


85 


93 


101 


108 


116 


124 


132 


140 


,2 


148 


156 


165 


173 


181 


190 


198 


207 


216 


224 


3 


233 


242 


251 


260 


270 


279 


288 


297 


307 


316 


4 


326 


336 


345 


355 


365 


375 


385 


395 


405 


416 


6 


426 


436 


447 


457 


468 


479 


490 


500 


511 


522 


6 


533 


545 


556 


567 


578 


5% 


601 


613 


625 


636 


7 


648 


660 


672 


684 


696 


708 


721 


733 


745 


758 


8 


770 


783 


796 


809 


821 


834 


847 


860 


874 


887 


9 


900 


913 


927 


940 


954 


968 


981 


995 


1,009 


1,023 


10 


1,037 


1,051 


1,065 


1,080 


1,094 


1,108 


1,123 


1,137 


1,152 


1,167 


11 


1,181 


1,196 


1,211 


1,226 


1,241 


1,257 


1,272 


1,287 


1,302 


1,318 


12 


1,333 


1,349 


1,365 


1,380 


1,396 


1,412 


1,428 


1,444 


1,460 


1,476 


13 


1,493 


1,509 


1,525 


1,542 


1,55^ 


1,575 


1,592 


1,609 


1,625 


1,642 


14 


1,659 


1,676 


1,694 


1,711 


1,728 


1,745 


1,763 


1,780 


1,798 


1,816 


15 


1,833 


1,851 


1,869 


1,887 


1,905 


1,923 


1,941 


1,960 


1,978 


1,996 


16 


2,015 


2,033 


2,052 


2,071 


2,090 


2,108 


2,127 


2,146 


2,165 


2,185 


17 


2,204 


2,223 


2,242 


2,262 


2,281 


2,301 


2,321 


2,340 


2,360 


2,380 


18 


2,400 


2,420 


2,440 


2,460 


2,481 


2,501 


2,521 


2,542 


2,562 


2,583 


19 


2,604 


2,625 


2,645 


2,666 


2,687 


2,708 


2,730 


2,751 


2,772 


2,793 


20 


2,815 


2,836 


2,858 


2,880 


2,901 


2,923 


2,945 


2,%7 


2,989 


3,011 


21 


3,033 


3,056 


3,078 


3,100 


3,123 


3,145 


3,168 


3,191 


3,214 


3,236 


22 


3,259 


3,2§2 


3,305 


3,328 


3,351 


3,375 


3,398 


3,422 


3,445 


3,469 


23 


3,493 


3,516 


3,540 


3,564 


3,598 


3,622 


3,646 


3,670 


3,697 


3,721 


24 


3,733 


3,758 


3,782 3,807 


3,832 


3,857 


3,881 


3,906 


3,931 


3,956 


25 


3,981 


4,007 


4,032 4,057 


4,083 


4,108 


4,134 


4,160 


4,185 


4,211 


26 


4,237 


4,263 


4,289 4,315 


4,341 


4,368 


4,394 


4,420 


4,447 


4,473 


^ 


4,500 


4,527 


4,554 


4,580 


4,607 


4,634 


4,661 


4,689 


4,716 


4,743 


28 


4,770 


4,798 


4,825 


4,853 


4,881 


4,908 


4,936 


4,964 


4,992 


5,020 


29 


5,048 


5,076 


5,105 


5,133 


5,161 


5,190 


5,218 


5,247 


5,276 


5,305 


30 


5,333 


5,362 


5,391 


5,430 


5,450 


5,479 


5,508 


5,537 


5,567 


5,596 


31 


5,626 


5,656 


5,685 


5,715 


5,745 


5,775 


5,805 


5,835 


5,865 


5,896 


32 


5,926 


5,956 


5,987 


6,017 


6,048 


6,079 


6,110 


6,140 


6,171 


6,203 


33 


6,233 


6,265 


6,2% 


6,327 


6,358 


6,3% 


6,421 


6,453 


6,485 


6,516 


34 


6,548 


6,580 


ft,6l2 


6,644 


6,676 


6,708 
7,034 


6,741 


6,773 


6,805 


6,838 


35 


6,870 


6,903 


6,936 


6,969 


7,001 


7,067 


7,100 


7,134 


7,167 


36 


7,200 


7,233 


7,267 


7,300 


7,334 


7,368 


7,401 


7,435 


7,469 


7,503 


37 


7,537 


7,571 


7,605 7,640 


7,674 


7,708 


7,743 


7,777 


7,812 


7,847 


38 


7,881 


7,916 


7,951 7,986 


8,021 


8,057 


8,092 


8,127 


8,162 


8,198 


39 


8,233 


8,269 


8,305 8,340 


8,376 


8,412 


8,448 


8,484 


8,520 


8,556 


40 


8,592 


8,629 


8,665 8,702 


8,738 


8,775 


8,812 


8,849 


8,885 


8,922 


41 


8,959 


8,9% 


9,034 


9,071 


9,108 


9,145 


9,183 


9,230 


9,258 


9,296 


42 


9,333 


9,371 


9,409 


9,447 


9,485 


9,523 


9,561 


9,600 


9,638 


9,676 


43 


9,715 


9,753 


9,792'; 9,831 


9,870 


9,908 


9,947 


9,986 


10,025 


10,065 


44 


10,104 


10,143 


10,182 10,222 


10,261 


10,301 


10,341 


10,380 


10,420 


10,460 


45 


10,500 


10,540 


10,580 10,620 


10,660 


10,701 


10,741 


10,782 


10,822 


10,863 


46 


10,904 


10,9^15 


10,98511,026 


11,067 


11,108 


11,150 


11,191 


11,232 


11,273 


47 


11,315 


11,356 


11,39(^11.440 


11,481 


11,523 


11,565 


11,607 


11,649 


11,691 


48 


11,733 


11,776 


ll,8l8|ir,860 


11,903 


11,945 


11,988 


12,031 


12,074 


12,116 


49 


12,159 


12,201 


12 244112,288 


12,331 


12,374 


12,417 


12,462 


12,505 


12,549 


50 


12,593 


12,636 


I2;680i 12,724 


12,768 


12,812 


12,856 


12,900 


12,945 


12,989 


51 


13,033 


13,078 


13,12213,167 


13,212 


13,257 


13,301 


13,346 


13,391 


13,436 


52 


13,482 


13,527 


13,572 


13,617 


13,66S 


13,708 


13,754 


13,800 


13,846 


13,891 


53 


13,937 


13,983 


14,029 


14,075 


14,121 


14,168 


14,214 


14,260 


14,307 


14,353 


54 


14,400 


14,447 


14,494 


14,540 


14,587 


14,634 


14,681 


14,729 


14,776 


14,823 


55 


14,870 


14,918 


14,965 


15,013 


15,061 


15,108 


15,156 


15,204 


15,252 


15,300 


56 


15,348 


15,396 


15,445 


15,493 


15,541 


15,590 


15,638 


15,687 


15,736 


15,785 


57 


15,833 


15,88-2 


15,931 


15,980 


16,030 


16,079 


16,128 


16,177 


16,227 


16,276 


58 


16,336 


16,376 


16,425 


16,475 


16,525 


16,575 


16,625 


16,675 


16,725 


16,776 


59 


16,826 


16,876 


16,926 


16,977 


17,028 


17,079 


17,130 


17,180 


17,231 
17,745 


17,288 


60 


17,333 


17,384 


17,436 


17,487 


17,538 


17,590 


17,641 


17,693 


17,796 



. TABLE No. X . . 

SLOPE 1 TO 1. 
CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 25 FEET; 





c. yd». 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
221 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



47 
48 

50 
51 



54 
55 
56 
57 

58 
59 




96 
200 
311 
430 
556 
689 
830 
978 
1,133 
^296 
1,467 
1,644 
1,830 
2,022 
2,222 
2,430 
2,644 
2,867 
3,096 
3,333 
3,578 
3,830 
4,089 
4,356 
4,630 
4,911 
5,200 
5,49(i 
5,800 
6,111 
6,430 
6,756 
7,089 
7,480 
7,778 
8,133 
8,496 
8,867 
9,244 
9,629 



1 

c. yd». 



10,022 10,062 



10,422 
10,830 
11,244 
11,667 
46)12,096 
12,533 
12,978 
13,430 
13,889 
14.356 



5214,83014,87 



5315,311 



9 
106 
211 
323 
442 
569 
703 
844 
993 
1,149 
1,313 
1,484 
1,663 
1,849 
2,042 
2,243 
2,451 
2,666 
2,889 
3,120 
3,357 
3,603 
3,855 
4,115 
4,383 
4,657 
4,940 
5,229 
5,526 
5,831 
6,143 
6,462 
6,789 
7,123 
7,464 
7,813 
8,169 
8,533 
8,904 
9,283 
9,669 



2 

c. yds. 



10,463 
10,871 
11,286 
11,709 
12,140 
12,577 
13,023 
13,475 
13,935 
14,403 



3 

c. yd*. 



15,800 15,849 



16.296 



16,800 16,851 



17,311 
17,830 
18,356 



e0il8,889 



15,360 



16,346 



17,363 
17,882 
18,409 
18,943 



19 
116 

222 

334 

454 

582 

716 

859 

1,008 

1,165 

1,330 

1,502 

1.681 

1,868 

2,062 

2,263 

2,472 

2,688 

2,912 

3,143 

3,381 

3,628 

3,881 

4,142 

4,410 

4,685 

4,968 

5,259 

5,556 

5,862 

6,174 

6,494 

6,822 

7,156 

7,499 

7,848 

8,205 

8,570 

8,942 

9,321 

9,708 

10,102 

10,503 

10,912 

11,328 

11,752 

12,183 

12,622 

13,068 

13,521 

13,982 

14,450 

14,925 

15,408 

15,899 

16,396 

16,9()2 

17,414 

17,934 

18,462 

18,996 



4 

c yds. 



28 

127 

233 

346 

467 

595 

730 

873 

1,024 

1,181 

1,347 

1,519 

1,699 

1,887 

2,081 

2,-^4 

2,493 

2,711 

2,935 

3,167 

3,406 

3,653 

3,907 

4,168 

4,437 

4,713 

4,997 

5,288 

5,586 

5,893 

6,206 

6,527 

6,855 

7,190 

7,533 

7,884 

8,241 

8,607 

8,979 

9,359 

9,747 

10,141 

10,544 

10,953 

11,370 

11,795 

12,227 

12,666 

13,113 

13,567 

14,028 

14,497 

14,973 

15,457 

15,948 

16,447 

16,953 

17,466 

17,987 

18,515 

19,050 



38 
137 
244 
358 
479 
608 
744 



D 

c. yds. 



1.039 

1^198 

1,364 

1,537 

1,718 

1,906 

2,101 

2,394 

2,515 

2,733 

2,958 

3,190 

3,430 

3,678 

3,932 

4,195 

4,464 

4,741 

5,026 

5,318 

5,617 

5,924 

6,238 

6,559 

6,888 

7,224 

7,568 

7,919 

8,278 

8,644 

9,017 

9,398 

9,786 

10,181 

10,584 

10,995 

11,412 

11,837 

12.270 

12,710 

13,158 

13,612 

14,075 

14,544 

15,021 

15,506 

15.998 

16;497 

17,004 

17,518 

18,039 

19,568 

19,104 



6 

c.yds. 



47 

147 

255 

369 

^2 

621 

758 

903 

1,055 

1,214 

1,381 

1,555 

1,736 

1,925 

2,121 

2,325 

2,536 

2,756 

2,981 

3,214 

3,455 

3,703 

3,958 

4,221 

4,492 

4,769 

5,055 

5.347 

5,647 

5,955 

6,'269 

6,592 

6,921 

7,258 

7,603 

7,955 

8,314 

8,681 

9,055 

9,436 

9,825 

10,221 

10,625 

11,036 

11,45^ 

11,880 

12.314 

12-55 

13,203 

13,658 

14,121 

14.592 

15,069 

15,555 

16,047 

16,547 

17,055 

17,569 

18,092 

18,621 

19,158 



•7 

c. yds. 



57 

158 

266 

381 

504 

635 

772 

918 

1,070 

1,230 

1,398 

1,572 

1.755 

1,944 

2,141 

2,346 

2,558 

2,778 

3,004 

3,238 

3,479 

3,728 

3,984 

4,248 

4,519 

4,798 

5,084 

5,377 

5,678 

5.986 

6,301 

6,624 

6,955 

7,292 

7,638 

7,990 

8,350 

8,718 

9,092 

9,475 

9,864 

10,261 

10,666 

11,078 

11,49' 

11,923 

12,358 

12,799 

13,248 

13.704 

14,168 

14,639 

15,118 

15,604 

16,09 

16,598 

17,106 

17,621 

18,144 

18.675 

19,212 



•8 

c. yds. 



66 

168 

277 

393 

517 

648 

787 

933 

1,086 

1,247 

1,415 

1,590 

1,773 

1,964 

2,161 

2,367 

2,579 

2,800 

3,027 

3,261 

3,504 

3,753 

4,010 

4,275 

4,547 

4,826 

5,113 

5,407 

5,708 

6,017 

6,333 

6,657 

6,988 

7,327 

7,673 

8,026 

8,387 

8,755 

9,130 

9.513 

9:904 

10,301 

10,707 

11,119 

11.539 

11,966 

12,401 

12,844 

13,293 

is; 

14, 

14,68' 

15,166 

15,653 

16,147 

16,648 

17,157 

17;6T3 

18,197 

18,728 

19,26' 



9 

c.yds. 



76 

179 

288 

405 

530 

662 

801 

948 

1,102 

1,263 

1,432 

1,608 

1,792 

1,983 

2,182 

2,388 

2,601 

2,822 

3,050 

3,285 

3,528 

3,779 

4,036 

4,302 

4,574 

4,854 

5,142 

5,436 

5,739 

6,048 

6,365 

6,690 

7,022 

7,361 

7,708 

8,062 

8,423 

8,792 

9,168 

9.552 

9i943 

10,342 

10,748 

11,161 

11.582 

12.010 

12;445 

12,888 

13.339 

13,796 

14,262 

14;734 

15,214 

15,702 

16,1% 

16,699 

17,208 

17.725 

18,250 

18.782 

19:321 



86 

189 

300 

417 

543 

675 

815 

963 

1,117 

1,280 

1,449 

1,696 

1,811 

2,003 

2,202 

2,409 

2,623 

2,844 

3,073 

3,309 

3,553 

3,804 

4,063 

4,339 

4,6(B 

4,883 

5,171 

5,466 

5,769 

6,060 

6,397 

6,723 

7,065 

7,396 

7,748 

8,097 

8,460 

8,829 

9,906 

9,591 

9,983 

10,382 

10,788 

11,208 

11,624 

12,053 

12.489 

12;933 

13,384 

13,843 

14;309 

14,782 

15,203 

15,751 

16,246 

16,749 

17,260 

17,777 

18,303 

18,835 

19,375 



TABLE No. XI. 

Si^OPE 1 TO 1. •-■ ' 

eONTEN'T FOR AVERAGE DEPTH8, BABE 28 FEKT. 



I 



I 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7J 

8 

9 

10 

11 

13 

13 

14 

,15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

J» 

121 



24 
35 

26 
27 
.^ 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
136 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 



c. yds. 





107 

222 

344 

474 

611 

756 

907 

1,067 

1,233 

1,407 

.1,589 

1,778 

1,974 

2,178 

2,389 

2,607 

2,833 

3,067 

3,307 

3,556 

3,811 

4,074 

4,344 

4,622 

4,907 

5,200 

5,500 

5,807 

6,122 

6,444 

6,774 

7,111 

7,456 

7,807 

8,167 

8,533 

8,907 

9,289 

9;678 

10,074 

10,478 

10;889 

11,307 

11,733 

12,167 

12,607 

13,056 

13,511 

13,974, 

14,444 

14,922 

15,407 

re,9oo 

16,400 
1^,907 
,422 



1 


2 


c. yd«. 


c. yds. 


10 


21 


119 


130 


234 


246 


357 


370 


487 


501 


625 


639 


770 


785 


923 


939 


1,083 


1,099 


1,250 


1,268 


1,425 


1,443 


1,607 


1,626 


1,797 


1,816 


1,994 


2,014 


2,199 


2,219 


2,410 


2,432 


2,630 


2,652 


2,856 


2,879 


3,090 


3,114 


3,332 


3,356 


3,581 


3,606 


3,837 


3,863 


4,101- 


4,128 


4,372 


4,399 


4,650 


4,679 


4,936 


4,965 


55230 


5,260 


5,530 


5,561 


5^839 


5,870 


6,154 


6,186 


6,477 


tt,510 


6,807 


6,841 


7,145 


7,179 


7,490 


7,525 


7,843 


7,879 


8,203 


8,239 


8,570 


8,608 


8,945 


8,983 


9,327 


9,366 


9,717 


9,756 


10,114 


10,154 


10,519 


10,559 


10,930 


10,972 



11,360| 11,392 
11,77611,819 
12,21012,254 
12,65212.696 
I3,r0l|l3,146 
13,55713,603 
14,02114,068 
14,4$2i 14,539 
14,970,15,019 
15,456 15,505 
15,95015,999 
16,45016,501 
16,959 17,010 



56 n,422 17,474 17,526 17,578 



571 n,l»44 17,997, 18,050 

18,.527' 18,581 
19,065 I'MIO 



18,474 

r9',oii 

19,536 19,610 l».660il9,720 



3 

c. yds. 



31 

141 

258 

383 

514 

664 

800 

954 

1,116 

1,285 

1,461 

1,645 

1,836 

2,034 

2,240 

2,454 

2,674 

2,903 

3,138 

3,381 

3,631 

3,889 

4,154 

4,427 

4,707 

4,994 

5,289 

5,59H 

5,901 

6,218 

6,542 

6,874 

7,2U 

7,560 

7,914 

8,276 

8,645 

9,021 

9,405 

9,796 

10,194 

10,600 

11,014 

11,434 

11,863 

12,298 

12,741 

13,191 

13,649 

14,114 

14,587 

15,067 

15,554 

16,049 

16,551 

17,061 



18,103 
lfl,a34 
19,174 



4 

c. yds. 



42 
152 

270 

395 

528 

668 

815 

970 

1,132 

1,302 

1,479 

1,664 

1,855 

2/)55 

2,261 

2,475 

2,697 



2,926 2,949 



3,167 

3j406 

3^657 

3,915 

4,181 

4,455 

4,735 

5,024 

5319 

5,6^ 

5v932 

e<Q50 

6,5*75 

6,908 

7,248 

7,595 

7,950 

8,312 

8,682 

9^^059 

^,444 

9,835 

10,235 

10,641 

11,055 

11,477 

11,906 

12,342 

12,786 

13,237 

13,695 

H,l6l 

14,635 

15,115 

15,604 



5 

. yds. 



53 
164 
282 

408 

54? 

682 

831 

986 

1,149 

1319 

1,497 

1,682 

1,875 

2,075 

2,282 

2,497 

2,719 



3,186 
3,431 
3,682 
3,942 
4,208 
4,482 
4,764 
5,053 
5,349 
5,653 
5,964 
6,282 
6,608 
6,942 
7,282 
7,631 
7,986 
8,349 
8,719 
9,097 
9,'492 
9,875 
10,275 
10,682' 
ll,097i 
11,519- 

11,949: 

12,386, 
12,831 
13,282 
13,742 
14,208 
14,682 
15,164 
15,653 



6 

,yd^ 



63 

175 

295 

421 

555 

69 

846 

1,002 

1,166 

1,337 

1,515 

1,701 

1,895 

2,095 

2304 



2;5ia 2,542 



2,742 
2,972 
3,210 
3,455 
3,708 
3,968 
4,235 



4,510 4,538 



16,099,16,149 
16,602fl6;€53 
17; 112! 17, 164 
17,630,17,682 
18,155' 18,208 
18,688' 18,742- 
19,228! 19;282 
19,775 19,831 



4,792 

5,082 

5,379 

5,684 

5;995 

6315 

6,«41 

6,975 

7,347 

7,666 

8,022 

8y386 

8,757 

9,136 

9,521 

9,915 

10315 

10,724 

11,139 

11,562 

11,992 

12,430 

12,875 

13,328 

13,788 

14,255 

14,730 

15,212 

15,702 

16,199 

16,704 

17,215 

17,735 

18,261 



•7 

, yd*. 



74 

187, 

306 

434 

989., 

711 

861 

1,018 

1,183 

1,354 

1,534 

1,720 

1,914 

2,116 

2.325 



2,765 
2,996 
3,234 
3,480 
3,734 
3,994 
4,263 



4,821 
5,111 
5,409 
5,714 
6,027 
6,347 
6,674 
7,009 
7,351 
7,701 



■8 

c. yds. 



85 

199 
319 
448 
583 
726 
876 
1,034 
1,199 
1,372 
1,552 
1,739 
1,934 
2,136 
2,346 
2,563 
2,788 
3,019 
3,259 
3,505 
3,759 
4,021 
4^290 
4,666 
4,850 
5,141 
5,439 
5,745 



6:379 
6,707 
7,043 
7,386 
7,736 



8,058f 8,094 



8,423 
8,794 
9,173 
9,560 
9,954 



8,459 
8,832 



9,994 
10,35610,39610,437 
I0,765'i0,806i0,847 
11,181^11,223 11,26* 
11,60511,64811,690 
12,036 12,079 12,123 
12,474 12,519 12,563 
12,920 12,965 13,010 
13,374 13,419 13,466 
13,83* 13,881 13,927 
14,303 14,350 14,397 
14,778 14,826 14,875 
15,261 15,310 15,359 
15,751 16,801 15,850 
16,249 16,299 16,350 
16,75416,80516,856 



c. yds. 



96 

210 

332 

461 

597 

741 

892 

1,050 

1,216 

1,390 

1,570 

1,759 

1,954 

2,157 

2367 

2,585 

2,810 

3,043 

3,283 

3,630 

3,785 

4,047 

4317 

4,694 

4,879 

5,170 

5,470 

5,776 



6,069 6,090 



6,413 
6,741 
7,077 
7,421 

7,772 
8.130 
8;49S 
8,870 



9,212 9,258 

9,599 9,639 

10,034 



17,267 17,319 17,370 
17,787 17,839 17,892 
18,314 18,368 18,421 
I8,795ii8;849 18,903; 18,957 
19,337,19,391 19,446119,501 
19,886 19,941 19,99620,062 



.4... . 






i:^^;'-'' .,' 



i^-. 



yif -^/^X '^^.-*t<*' »^-».. ^»-5?-«^.-*r 



^<^^ /^\ 



"^ 



/ 



»*ai«>rt>it»n«(f^^s5S«i*1^i^^>»*>.w<a**fc^*ff^ 



*'\..Li:-^<':g*<htt%^ifc>i.^>^*i«.S-4fci*>to"gt.-f -■ ''.-j.'.va&<'W«> ^*>A>^ 



f 



1 



TABLE No. XII. 

.:;^;-. =i. SLOPE I TO 1. 

CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 30 FEET. 



■A 
I 



1 

3 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

21 

^ 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

4718 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

€0 



O 

.yd.. 



1 

rds. 





115 

237 

367 

504 

648 

800 

959 

1,126 

1,300 

1,481 

1,670 

1,867 

2,070 

2,281 

2,500 

2,726 

2,959 

3,200 

3,448 

3,703 

3,966 

4,237 

4,515 



4;8eQ 4,829 



5,092 
5,392 
5,700 
6,015 
6,337 
6,666 
7,004 
7,348 



8,426 

8,800 

9,181 

9,570 

9,967 

10,370 

10,781 

11,360 

11,626 

12,059 

12,500 

13,948 

1,404 

13,667 

14,337 

14,815 

15,300 

15,793 

16,293 

16,800 

17,315 

17,837 

18,367 

18,904 

19,448 



•2 

c. ydi. 



11 

127 

250 

380 

518 

663 

816 

976 

1,143 

1,318 

1,500 

1,690 

1.887 

2,091 

2,303 

2,&22 

2,749 

2,983 

3,224 

3,473 

3,729 

3,993 

4,264 

4,543 



5,122 
5,423 
5,731 
6;047 
6,369 
6,700 
7,038 
7,383 



7,700 7,736 
8,eS9 8,096 



8,463 

•8,888 

9,220 

9,610 

10,007 

10,411 

10,823 



11,669 
12,103 
12,544 
12,993 
13,450 
13,913 
14,384 
14,863 
15,349 
15,842 
16,343 
16,851 
17,367 
17,890 
18,430 
18,958 
19,903 



90,000(20,056 



3 

yds. 



22 
139 
^2 
393 
532 
«78 
831 
992 
1,160 
1,336 
1,519 
1,709 
1,907 
2,112 
2,325 
2,544 
2,772 
3,007 
3,249 
3,498 
3,756 
4,020 
4,292 
4,571 
4,858 
5,152 
5,453 
5,762 
6,079 
6,402 
6,733 
7,072 
7,418 
7,771 
8,132 
8,500 
8,876 
9,259 
9,649 



4 



34 
151 

275 
407 
546 
693 
847 
1,008 
1,177 
1,354 
1,537 
1,729 
1,927 
2,133 
2,346 
2,567 
2,795 
3,031 
3,273 
3,524 
3,782 
4,047 
4,319 
4,599 
4,887 
5,182 
5,484 
5,793 
6,111 
6,435 
6,767 
7,106 
7,453 
7,807 
8,168 
8,537 
8,914 
9,279 
9,688 



10,047| 10,087 
10,452 10,493 
10,865 1 10,906 



11,242 ll,285ill,327 



11,71211,755 
12,147,12,191 
12,589 12,634 
13,039 13,084 
13,496 13,542 
13,960 14,007 
14,432 14,480 
14,91214,960 
15,398 15,447 
15,892 15,942 
16,393 16,444 
16,902 16,954 
17,419 17,471 
17,942 17.995 
18,473 18;527 
19,012 19,066 
19,558 19,€13 
30,11120,167 



45 

163 

288 

421 

561 

708 

863 

1,025 

1,195 

1,372 

1,556 

1,748 

1,947 

2,154 

2,368 

2,589 

2,818 

3,054 

3,298 

3,549 

3,808 

4,074 

4^7 

4,628 

4,916 

5,212 

5,514 

5,825 

6,143 

6,468 

6,801 

7,141 

7,488 

7,843 

8,205 

8,575 

8,951 

9,336 

9,728 

10,127 

10,534 

10,948 

11,369 

11,798 

12,235 

12,678 

13,129 

13,588 

14,054 

14,527 

15,008 

15,496 

15,1' 

16,495 

17,005 

17,528 

18,048 

18,581 

19,121 

19,678 

90, 



99216 



933130 



5 

. yds. 



6 

c.yds. 



56 

175 

301 

434 

575 

723 

879 

1,042 

1,212 

1,390 

1,575 

1,768 

1,968 

2,175 

2,390 

2,612 

2,842 

3,079 

3,323 

3,575 

3,834 

4,101 

4,375 

4,656 

4,945 

5,242 

5,856 
6,175 
6,500 
6,834 
7,175 
7;5-23 
7,^79 
8,242 
8,612 
8,990 
9,375 
9,768} 



•7 

c.yds. 



68» 
I8r7 
314 
448 
589 
738 
895 

1,058 

1,229 

1,408 

1,594 

1,787 

1,988 

2,196 

2,412 

2,634 

2,865 

3,103 

3,348 

3,601 

3,860 

4,128 

4,403 

4,685 

4,974 

5,272 

5,576 

5,888 

6,207 

6,534 

6,868 

7,209 

7,558 

7,915 

8,278 

8,649 

9,028 

9,414 

9 807 
10,168|10,'208 
10,57510,616 
I0,990jll,032 
11,442,11,455 
11,84211,8® 
12,279:12,323 
12,723 12,768 
13,275,13,821 
13,63413,681 
14,101 ; 14,148 
14,575 14,623 
15,056 15,105 
15,545 15,595 
,041 16,092 
16,54516,596 
17,<»6 17,108 
17,57517,627 
18,101118,15418,307 
18,63418,68818," ' 
19,175 19,230 19,384 
19,72319,77819,834 
,279 90,335130^1 



79 

199 

327 

462 

604 

754 

911 

1,075 

1,247 

1,426 

1,613 

1,807 

2,008 

2,217 

2,434 

2,657 

2,888 

3,127 

3.373 

3,626 

3,887 

4,155 

4,431 

4,713 

5,004 

5,302 

5,607 

5,919 

6,239 

6,567 

6,902 

7,244 

7,594 

7,951 

8,315 

8,687 

9,066 

9,453 

9,84'^ 

10,248 

10,657 

11,074 

11,497 

11,928 

12.367 

12;S13 

13,466 

13,727 

14,195 

14,671 

15,154 

15,644 

16,142 

16,647 

17,160 

17,680 



74218; 



-8 

c. yds. 



91 

212 

340 

476 

619 

769 

927 

1,092 

L265 

1,445 

1,632 

1,827 

2,029 

2,239 

2,456 

2,680 

2,912 

3,151 

3,398 

3,652 

3,913 

4,182 

4,458 

4,742 

5,033 

5,332 

5,638 

5,951 

6,272 

6,600 

6,936 

7,2r79 

7,629 

7,987 

8,352 

8,725 

9,105 

9,492 

9,887 

10,289 

10,699 

11,116 

11,540 

11,972 

12,411 

12,858 

13,512 

13,773 

14,- - 

14,719 

15,202 

15,693 

16,192 

l6,-698 

17,211 

17,732 

18,! 

I9,a39 
19.889 



,26018 



•9 

• ydfc 



24214 



103 

234 

353 

490 

633 

784 

943 

1,109 

1,289 

1,463 

1,651 

1,847 

2,050 

2,260 

2,478 

2,703 

2,936 

3,175 

3,423 

3,678 

3,940 

4,209 

4,486 

4,771 

5,063 

5,363 

5,669 

5,983 

6,304 

6,633 

6,970 

7,313 

7,664 

8,033 

8,389 

8,763 

9,143 

9,531 

9,937 

10,330 

10,740 

11,158 

11,583 

12,016 

12,456 

12,903 

13,558 

13,820 

,390 

14,767 

15,351 

15,743 

16,342 

16,749 

17,363 

17,785 

,313 

18,650 

19,393 

19,944 



30,447190,508 



■ -.-.-'■.■T.: -A ." . 



■■s>t' 



. :, TABLE No. XIII. 

SLOPE 1 TO 1. 
CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 34 FEET. 




1 
2 

3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
.18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
371 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 



c. yds. 





130 

267 

411 

573 

722 

889 

1,063 

1,244 

1,433 

1,630 

1,833 

2,041 

2,263 

2,489 

2,722 

2,963 

3,211 

3,467 

3,730 

4,000 

4,298 

4,563 

4,856 

5,156 

5,463 

5,778 

6,100 

6,430 

6,767 

7,111 

7,463 

7,822 

8,189, 

8,563 

8,914 

9,333 

9,730 

10,133 

10,544 

10,963 

11,389 

11,822 

12,263 

12,711 

13,167 

13,630 

14,100 

14,578 

15,063 

15,556 

16,056 

16,563 

17,078 

17,600 

18,130 

18,667 

19,211 

19,763 

20,322 



6020.889120, 



1 

c. yds. 

~~T3 
143 

281 

426 

589 

739 

906 

1,081 

1,263 

1,453 

1,650 

1,854 

2,066 

2,285 

2,512 

2,746 

2,987 

3,236 

3,493 

3,756 

4,027 

4,306 

4,592 

4,885 

5,186 

5,494 

5,810 

6,133 

6,463 

6,801 

7,146 

7,499 

7,859 

8,226 

8,601 

8,983 

9,373 

9,770 

10,174 

10,586 

11,005 

11,432 

11,866 

12,307 

12,756 

13,213 

13,676 

14,147 

14,626 

1.5,112 

15,605 

16,106 

16,614 

17,130 

17,653 

I8,ia3 

18,721 

19,266 

19,819 

20,379 

,946 



2 

, yds. 



3 

». ydii. 



25 

•1^6 
2)5 
441 
604 
755 
923 

1,099 

1,282 

1,472 

1,670 

1,875 

2,088 

2,308 

2,535 

2,770 

3,012 

3,262 

3,519 

3,783 

4,055 

4,334 

4,621 

4,915 

5,216 

5,525 

5,842 

6,165 

6,496 

6,835' 

7,181 

7,534 

7,895 

8,263 

8,639, 

9,022' 

9,412! 

9,810 
10,21510,256 
10,628 10,669 
11,048 11,090 
11,475 11,518 
11,91011,954 
12,352 12,397 
12,802 12,847 
13,259 13,305 
13,723 13,770 
14,195 14,243 
14,674 14,733 
15,161 1.5,210 
15,655 15,705 
16,156 16,207] 
16,66516,7171 
17,182 17,234| 
17,70517,758 
18,23618,290 
18,775 18,829 
19,321 19,376 
19,874 19,930j 
20,435 20,491 
21,003 21.060; 



38 
170 
309 
456 
620 
771 
940 
1,117 
1,300 
1,491 
1,'690 
1,896 
2,109 
2,330 
2,558 
2,794 
3,037 
3,287 
3,545 
3,810 
4,083 
4,363 
4,650 
4,945 
5,247 
5,557 
5,874 
6,198 
6,530 
6,869 
7,216 
7,570 
7,931 
8,300 
8,677 
9,060 
9,451 
9,850 



4 

c. yds. 



Sir 

184 

324 

471 

636 

788 

958 

1,135 

1,319 

1,511 

1,710 

1,917 

2,131 

2,352 

2,581 

2,818 

3,061 

3,312 

3,571 

3,837 

4,110 

4,391 

4,679 

4,975 

5,278 

5,588 

5,906 

6,231 

6,564 

6,904 

7,251 

7,606 

7,968 

8,338 

8,715 

9,099 

9,491 

9,890 

10,297 

10,711 

11,132 

11,561 

11,998 

12,441 

12892 

13,351 



5 

yds. 



64 

197 

338 

486 

652 

805 

975 

1,153 

1,338 

1,531 

1,731 

1,938 

2,153 

2,375 

2,605 

2,842 

3,086 

3,338 

3,597 

3,864 

4,138 

4,319 

4,708 

5,005 

5,308 

5,619 

5,9,38 

6,264 

6,.597 

6,938 

7,286 

7,642 

8,005 

8,375 

8,753 

9,138 

9,531 

9,931 

10,338 

10,753 

11,175 

11,605 

12,042 

12,486 

12,938 

13,397 



6 

c. yds. 



13,817 13,864 



77 
211 
352 
501 
668 
821 
992 
1,171 
1,357 
1,560 
1,751 
1,959 
2,175 
2,398 
2,628 
2,866 
3,111 
3,364 
3,624 
3,891 
4,166 
4,348 
4,738 
5,035 
5,339 
5,651 
5,970 
6,297 
6,631 
6,972 
7,321 
7,678 

8;041 

8:,412 

8,791 

9,177 

9,570 

9,971 

10,379 

10,795 

11,218 

11,648 

12,086 

I2,53li 

12.984 

13;444 

13,911 

14,386 

14,868 



7 

c. yds. 



90 
225 

367 

517 

684 

838 
1,010 
1,189 
1,376 
1,570 
1,771 
1,980 
2,197 
2,420 
2,651 
2,890 
3,136 
3,389 
3,650 
3,918 
4,194 
4,376 
4,767 
5,065 
5,370 
5,683 
6,003 
6,330 
6,665 
7,007 
7,357 
7,714 
8,078 
8,450 
8,829 
9,216 
9,610 
10,011 
10,420110,462 
I0,837i 10,879 



■8^ 
c. yds. 

~i03 
239 
382 
532 
700 
855 
1,028 
1,208 
1,395 
1,590 
1,792 
2,002 
2,219 
2,443 
2,675 
•2,914 
3,161 
3,415 
3,676 
3,945 
4,222 
4,505 
4,796 
5,095 
5,401 
5,714 
6,035 
6,363 
6,699 
7,042 
7,392 
7,750 
8,115 
8,488 
8,868 
9,255 
9,650 
10,052 




14,290 14,338 
14,771 14.819 
15,259 15,308115.358; 
15,755 15,805' 15;855l 
16,2.581 16,308! 16,359' 
16,7681 16,819 16.871 



11,260 11,303 
11,691 11,735 
12,130 12,174 
12,576 12,621 
13,02913,075 
13,490 13,5:16113,583 
13.958 14,0051 14,053 
14,43414,482114,530 



116 

253 

396 

547 

706 

872 

1,045 

1,226 

1,414 

1,610 

1,813 

2,023 

2,241 

2,466 

2,699 

2,939 

3,186 

3,441 

3,703 

3,973 

4 

4, 
4,826 
5,125 
5,432 
5,746 
6,067 
6,396 
6,733 
7,076 
7,437 
7,786 
8,152 
8,525 
8,906 
9,294 
9,690 
10,093 
10,503 
10,921 
11,346 
11,779 
12,219 
12,666 
13,121 



14,917114,965 



17,28617,33817,390 
17,81117,86417.917 
18,344 18,397 18,451 
18,884 18,93«:18,992 
19,431 19,486] 19,.541 19.597 
19,986 20,042 20.098 20,154 
20,548|20,605 20,661 20,718 
21,118121, 17521,23221,290 



15,407! 15,4.56 
15,905 1 15.955 
I6,4l0|lf,,461 
16,923^16,974 
17,44:«17,495 
17,97018,023118,076 
18,105 18,559 18,613 
19.04718,10219,156 



15,014 



15,506 
16,005 
16,512 
17,026 
I7M7 



19,65219,707 
20,21020,266 
20,775|20,8S2 
21,348I81'504 



l'- 



TABLE No. XIV. 

ELOPE 1 TO 1. 
CORRECTION FOR DIFFERENCES OF DEPTHS. 



8 


O 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


•6 


•7 


•8 


•9 


£ 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


1 











1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


C 


7 


7 


7 


7 


5 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


11 


6 


11 


11 


12 


12 


13 


13 


13 


14 


14 


15 


7 


15 


16 


16 


16 


17 


17 


18 


18 


19 


19 


8 


20 


20 


21 


21 


22 


22 


23 


23 


24 


24 


9 


25 


26 


26 


27 


27 


28 


28 


29 


30 


30 


10 


31 


31 


32 


33 


33 


34 


35 


35 


36 


37 


11 


37 


38 


39 


39 


40 


41 


42 


42 


43 


44 


12 


44 


45 


46 


.47 


47 


48 


49 


50 


50 


51 


13 


52 


53 


54- 


55 


55 


56 


57 


56 


59 


60 


14 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


15 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


T7 


78 


16 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


88 


17 


89 


90 


91 


92 


93 


95 


96 


97 


98 


99 


18 


100 


101 


102 


103 


104 


106 


107 


108 


109 


110 


19 


111 


113 


114 


115 


116 


117 


119 


120 


121 


122 


20 


123 


126 


126 


127 


128 


130 


131 


132 


134 


135 


21 


J36 


137 


139 


140 


141 


143 


144 


145 


147 


148 


^ 


149 


151 


152 


153 


155 


156 


158 


159 


160 


162 


23 


163 


165 


166 


168 


169 


170 


172 


173 


175 


176 


24 


178 


179 


181 


182 


184 


185 


187 


188 


190 


191 


25 


193 


194 


196 


198 


199 


201 


202 


204 


205 


207 


26 


209 


210 


212 


213 


215 


217 


218 


220 


222 


223 


27 


225 


227 


228 


230 


232 


233 


235 


237 


239 


240 


28 


242 


244 


245 


247 


249 


251 


252 


254 


256 


258 


29 


260 


261 


263 


265 


267 


260 


270 


272 


274 


276 


30 


278 


280 


281 


283 


9K^ 


287 


289 


291 


293 


295 


31 


297 


298 


300 


302 


304 


306 


308 


310 


312 


314 


32 


316 


318 


320 


322 


3-34 


326 


328 


330 


332 


334 


33 


336 


338 


340 


342 


344 


346 


348 


350 


353 


355 


34 


357 


359 


361 


363 


365 


367 


369 


372 


374 


376 


35 


378 


380 


382 


385 


387 


389 


391 


393 


396 


398 


36 


400 


402 


404 


407 


409 


411 


413 


416 


418 


420 


37 


423 


425 


427 


429 


432 


434 


436 


439 


441 


443 


38 


446 


448, 


460 


453 


455 


457 


460 


462 


465 


467 


39 


469 


472 


474 


477 


479 


482 


484 


486 


489 


491 


40 


494 


496 


499 


501 


504 


506 


509 


511 


514 


516 


41 


519 


521 


524 


526 


529 


531 


534 


537 


539 


541 


42 


544 


547 


550 


552 


555 


558 


560 


^ 


565 


568 


43 


571 


573 


576 


579 


581 


584 


587 


592 


595 


44 


598 


600 


603 


606 


608 


611 


614 


617 


619 


622 


45 


625 


628 


631 


633 


636 


639 


642 


645 


647 


650 



t 






TABLE No. XV. 

SLOPE 1^ TO 1, 
CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 16 FEET. 





1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
4' 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 



o 

c. yds. 





61 

133 

217 

311 

417 

533 

661 

800 

949 

1,110 

1,283 

1,467 

1,661 

1,867 

2,083 

2,311 

2,550 

2,800 

3,061 

3,333 

3,617 

3,911 

4,217 

4,533 

4,861 

5,200 

5,550 

5,911 

6,283 

6,667 

7,061 

7,467 

7,883 

8,311 

8,750 

9,200 

9,661 

10,133 

10,617 

11,111 

11,616 

12,133 

12,661 

13,200 

13,750 

14,311 

14,883 

15,467 

16,061 

16,667 

17,283 

17,911 

18,550 

19,200 

19,861 

20,533 

21,217 

21,911 

22,617 

23,333 



1 

c. yds. 



6 

68 

141 

225 

321 

428 

546 

674 

814 

966 

1,128 

1,301 

1,486 

1,681 

1,888 

2,106 

2,334 

2,574 

2,826 

3,088 

3,361 

3,646 

3,941 

4,248 

4,566 

4,894 

5,2.34 

5,586 

5,948 

6,321 

6,706 

7,101 

7,508 

7,926 

8,354 

8,794 

9,246 

9,708 

10,181 

10,666 

11,161 

11,668 

12,186 

12,714 

13,254 

13,806 

14,368 

14,941 

15,526 

10,121 

16,728 

17,346 

17,975 

18,614 

19,266 

19,928 

20,601 

21,286 

21,981 

23,688 

23,406 



2 

c. yds. 



11 

75 

149 

2:^4 

331 

439 

558 

688 

829 

981 

1,145 

1,319 

1,505 

1,701 

1,909 

2,128 

2,358 

2,599 

2,851 

3,105 

3,389 

3,675 

3,971 

4,279 

4,598 

4,928 

5,269 

5,621 

5,985 

6,359 

6,745 

7,141 

7,549 

7,968 

8,398 

8,839 

9,291 

9,755 

10,229 



3 

c. yds. 



17 

82 

157 

243 

342 

450 

570 

702 

844 

997 

1,162 

1,337 

1,524 

1,722 

1,930 

2,150 

2,382 

2,624 

2,877 

3,132 

3,417 

3,704 

4,002 

4,310 

4,630 

4,962 

5,304 

5,657 

6,022 

6,397 

€,784 

7,182 

7,590 

8,010 

8,442 

8,884 

9,337 

9,802 

10,277 



10,71510,764 
11,21211,262 
11,71911,770 
12.238; 12,290 

12,768112,822 
13,309 13.364 



13,961 
14,425 
14,999 

15,585 
16,181 



13,917 
14,482 
15,057 
15,644 
16,242 



16,788,16,849 
17,40817,470 
18,03818,102 
18,679118,744 
19,331 19,397 
19,99590,062 



20,669 
21.355 
22,051 
22,759 



90,737 
21,424 
22,122 
22,830 



23,478123,550 



4 

c. yds. 



23 

89 

165 

252 

352 

462 

583 

715 

859 

1,013 

1,179 

1,355 

1,543 

1,742 

1,952 

2,173 

2,405 

2,649 

2,903 

3,169 

3,445 

3,733 

4,032 

4,342 

4,663 

4,995 

5,339 

5,693 

6,059 

6,435 

6,823 

7,222 

7,632 

8,053 

8,485 

8,929 

9,383 

9,849 

10,325 

10,813 

11,312 

11,822 

12,343 

12,875 

13,418 

13,973 

14,539 

15,115 

15,703 

16,302 

16,911 

17,533 

18,165 

18,809 

19,463 

20,129 

20,805 

21.493 

22,192 

22,902 

23,623 



5 

c. yds. 



29 

96 

174 

261 

362 

474 

596 

729 

874 

1,029 

1,196 

1,374 

1,562 

1,762 

1,974 

2,196 

2,429 

2,674 

2,929 

3,196 

3,474 

3,763 

4,062 

4,374 

4,696 

5,029 

5,374 

5,729 

6,096 

6,474 

6,862 

7,262 

7,674 

8,096 

8.529 

8,974 

9,429 

9,896 

10,374 

10,862 

11,362 

11,874 

12,396 

12,929 

13,473 

14,029 

14,576 

15,174 

15,762 

16,362 

16,973, 

17,596 

18,229 

18,874 

19,529 

20,196 

20,874 

21.562 

22,262 

22,974 

23,69(: 



1,045 
1,213 

i,m 

1,582 

1,783 

1,995 

•2,219 

2,453 

2,699 

2,955 

3,223 

3,502 

3,793 

4,093 

4,405 

4,729 

5,063 

5,409 

5,765 

6,133 

6,512 

6,902 

7,303 

7,715 

8,139 

8,573 

9,019 

9,475 

9,943 

10,422 

10,912 

11,413 

11,925 

12,449 

12,983 

13,528 

14,085 

14,653 

15,232 

15,822 

16,423 

17,034 

17,659 

18,293 

18,939 

19,.595 

20,263 

20,942 

21,632 

22,333 

23.045 

23,71 



•7 

c.yds. 



69123 



42 

110 

190 

281 

384 

497 

622 

757 

904 

1,062 

1,230 

1,410 

.1,601 

1,804 

2,017 

2,242 

2,477 

2,724 

2,982 

3,250 

3,530 

3,822 

4,124 

4,437 

4,762 

5,097 

5,444 

5,802 

6,170 

6,550 

6,942 

7,344 

7,757 

8,182 

8,617 

9,064 

9,522 

9,990 

10,470 

10,962 

11,464 

11,977 

11,502 

13,037 

13,583 

14,142 

14,710 

15,090 

15,882 

16.484 

17,096 

17,722 

18,357 

19,004 

19,662 

20,330 

21,011 

21,702 

22,. 

23,117 
,842 



404 22 



•8 

c. yds. 



48 

118 

199 

290 

395 

509 

635 

771 

919 

1,078 

1,248 

1,429 

1,621 

1,825 

2,039 

2,265 

2,501 

2,749 

3,008 

3,278 

3,559 

3,852 

4,155 

4,469 

4,795 

5,131 

5,479 

5,838 

6,028 

6,589 

6,981 

7,385 

7,799 

8,225 

8,661 

9,109 

9,568 

10,038 

10,519 

11,011 

11,515 

12,029 

12,555 

13,091 

13,638 

14,198 

14,768 

15,349 

15,941 

16,545 

17,158 

17,785 

18,421 

19,069 

19,728 

20,408 

21,079 

21,771 

:,473 

23,189 

23,915 



•9 

c. yds. 



54 

126 

208 

301 

406 

521 

684 

786 

934 

1,095 

1,266 

1,448 

1,641 

1,846 

2,061 

2,288 

2,526 

2,774 

3,034 

3,306 

3,588 

3,882 

4,186 

4,501 

4,828 

5,166 

5,614 

5,874 

6,246 

6,628 

7,021 

7,426 

7,841 

8,268 

8,706 

9,154 

9,614 

10,086 

10,568 

11,061 

11,565 

12,081 

12,608 

13,146 

13,693 

14,254 

14,826 

15,406 

16,001 

16,006 

17,220 

17,848 

18,486 

19,134 

19,794 

20,476 

21,148 

21,841 

22,546 

23,261 

23,988 



'-^^<^Z^ 



^^z- 



/^7 



/ 



.. TABLE No. XVI^ ...4s 


%■< : SLOPE 1^ TO 1. 1 


1i 


* • CONTENT FOR AVERAGE UEPTHa, BASE 13 FEET. 1 


■-■ - 


s 


1 , 




3 4 


5 6 , 


•7 -8 , 


.9 




«x 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c, yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 




~0 





7 


14 


20 


28 


35 


42 


49 


57 


66 




1 


Ti 


80 


88 


96 


104 


112 


121 


129 


138 


147 




2 


156 


164 


174 


183 


192 


201 


311 


220 


230 


240 




3 


250 


260 


270 


280 


291 


301 


312 


3-23 


334 


344 




4 


356 


367 


378 


389 


401 


412 


424 


436 


448 


460 




5 


472 


484 


497 


509 


5-22 


535 


548 


560 


574 


587 




6 


600 


613 


627 


640 


654 


668 


682 


690 


710 


724 




7 


739 


753 


768 


782 


7J7 


812 


8^28 


843 


858 


873 




8 


889 


904 


9-20 


936 


952 


968 


984 


1,000 


1,017 


1,033 




9 


1,050 


1,067 


1,084 


1,100 


1,118 


1,135 


1,152 


1,169 


1,187 


1,204 




10 


1,222 


1,240 


1,258 


^•276 


l,-294 


1,312 


1,331 


1,349 


i;368 


1,387 




11 


1,406 


1,45J1 


1,44-4 


i;463 


i;482 


1,501 


1,521 


1,540 


1,560 


1,580 




12 


1,600 


1,6-20 


1,640 


1,660 


1,681 


1,701 


1.722 


1.743 


1,764 


1,784 




13 


1,806 


1,827 


1,848 


1,869 


1,891 


1.912 


i;934 


i;956 


1,978 


2,000 




14 


2,022 


2,044 


2,067 


2,089 


2,112 


2;i35 


2,158 


2,180 


2,^204 


2,2-27 




15 


2,250 


2,273 


2,297 


2,320 


2,344 


2,368 


2,392 


2,416 


2,440 


2,464 




16 


2,489 


2,513 


2,538 


2,563 


2,588 


2,612 


2638 


2,663 


2,688 


2;713 




17 


2,739 


2,764 


2,790 


2,816 


2,842 


2,868 


2,894 


2,920 


2,947 


2,973 




18 


3,000 


3,027 


3,054 


3,080 


3; 108 


3,135 


3;i62 


3,189 


3,217 


3,244 




19 


3,272 


3,300 


3,328 


3,356 


3,384 


3,412 


3,441 


3,469 


3,498 


3,527 




20 


3,556 


3,584 


3,614 


3,643 


3,672 


3,701 


3,731 


3,760 


3,790 


3,820 




21 


3,850 


3,880 


3,910 


3,940 


3,971 


4,001 


4,032 


4,063 


4,094 


4,134 




22 


4,156 


4,187 


4,218 


4,249 


4,^281 


4,312 


4,344 


4,376 


4,408 


4,440 




23 


4,472 


4,504 


4,537 


4,569 


4,602 


4.635 


4,668 


4,700 


4,734 


4,767 




24 


4,800 


4,833 


4,867 


4,900 


4,934 


41968 


5,002 


5,036 


5,070 


5,104 




25 


5,139 


5,173 


5.208 


5,^243 


5,^278 


5,312 


5,348 


5;383 


5,418 


5,453 




26 


5,489 


5,524 


5,560 


5,596 


5,632 


5,668 


5,704 


5,740 


5,777 


5,813 




27 


5,850 


5,887 


5,924 


5,960 


5,998 


6,035 


6,072 


6,109 


6,147 


6,184 




28 


6,222 


6,260 


6,298 


6,336 


6,374 


6,412 


6,451 


6,489 


6,5-28 


6,.567 




29 


6,606 


0,644 


6.684 


6,723 


6,762 


6,801 


6,»41 


6,880 


6.920 


6,960 




30 


7,000 


7,040 


7;080 


7,120 


7,161 


7.201 


7,242 


7,283 


7;3-24 


7,364 




31 


7,406 


7,447 


7,488 


7;5-29 


7,571 


7,612 


7,654 


7,696 


7,738 


7,780 




32 


7,822 


7,864 


7,907 


7,949 


7,992 


8,035 


8,078 


8,120 


8,164 


8,207 




33 


8,250 


8,293 


8,337 


8,fe0 


8,424 


8;468 


8,512 


8,556 


8,600 


8,644 




34 


8,689 


8,733 


8,778 


8,8-23 


8,868 


8,912 


8.958 


9,003 


9.048 


9,093 




35 


9,139 


9,184 


9,230 


9,276 


9,322 


9,368 


9;414 


9,460 


9:507 


9,553 




36 


9,600 


9,647 


9,694 


9,740 


.9,788 


9,835 


9,882 


9,9-29 


9:977 


10,024 




37 


10,07-2 


10,120 


10,168 


10,216 


10,^264 


10,312 


10,361 


10,409 


10.458 


10,507 




38 


10,556 


10,604 


10,654 


10,703 


10,752' 1 0,801 


10,851 


10,900 


10;950 


11,000 




39 


11,050 


11,100 


11,150 


11,200 


11,251 11,301 


11,352 


11,403 


11,454 


11,504 




40 


11, .556 


11,607 


11,658 


11,709 


11,701 11.812 


11,864 


11,916 


11.968 


12,0-20 




41 


12,072 


12,124 


12,177 


12,229 


12,282jl2;335 


12,388 


12,440; 1-2,493 


12,547 




4-2 


12,600 


12,653 


12,707 


12,760 


12,814 12,858 


12,922 


12,976! 13,030 


13,084 




43 


13.139 


13,193 


13,248 


13,303 


13,358 13,412 


13,468 


I3,523l 13,578 


13.633 




44 


13,689 


13,744 


13,800 


13.856 


13,912 13,968 


14,024 


I4,080il4,l37 


14,193 




45 


14,250 


14,307 


14,364 


14;4-20 


14,478 14.535 


14;592 


14;649! 14,707 


14,704 




46 


14,822 


14,880 


14;938 


14,996 


15,054 15,102 


15,161 


15;229 15,-288 


15,347 




47 


15,406 


15,464 


15,524 


15;583 


15,642 15,701 


15,761 


15,8^20 15;880 


15,940 




4S 


16,000 


16,060 


16,120 


16,180 


16,241 


16,301 


16,362 


16,423| 16,484 


16,544 




49 


10,606 


l6,6-;7 


16,7-28 


16,789 


16,851 


16.912 


16,974 


17,036 17,098 


17,160 




50 


17,22-2 


17,284 


17,347 


17,409 


17;472 


17,535 


17,598 


17,660 17,7-24 


17,787 




51 


17,850 


17,913 


17,977 


18,040 


18,104 


18,168 


l8,-232 


18,296 18,360 


18,4-24 




52 


18,489 


18,553 


18,618 


18,683 


18,748 


18,812 


18.878 


l8,-943 


19.008 


19,073 




53 


19,139 


19,204 


19,270 


19,336 


19,402 


19,468 


19;534|19,600 


19,667 


19,733 




54 


19,800 


19,867 


19,93-1 


■20,000 


20,068 


20,135120,202 


•20,269 


•20,337 


'20,404 




55 


20,472 


20,540 


•20,608 


20,676 


20,744 


•20,812 


20,881 


•20,949:21,018 


21,087 




56 


21,156 


21,224 


21,294 


21,363 


21,432 


21,501 


21,571 


•21,64021,710 


21,780 




, 57 


21,850|2l,92fl 


21,990 


-22,060 


2-2,131 


22,201 


•22,272 


22,343 -22,414 


•22,484 




58 


22,556 


22,627 


•22,698 


•22,769 


22,841 


22,912 


22,984 


23,056 23,128 


•23,200 




59 


•23,272 


23.344 


23,417 


23,489 


23,562 


23,635 


•23,708 


•23,78023,854 


•23,927 




60124,000 


24,073l24,l47l2-4,220i24,294l24,368 


•24,442124,516-24,590 


24,664 





\:i'^\- -i •'•jj'-'^k '.'' vLji^.i,J.",..^-';i..i 



-V* ': 



TABLE No. XVII. 

SLOPE 1^ TO 1. 
CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BABE 26 FEET. 



■^} 





1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 



c. ydi. 





98 

207 

328 

459 

602 

756 

920 

1,096 

1,283 

1,481 

1,691 

1,911 

2,143 

2,385 

2,639 

2,904 

3,180 

3,467 

3,765 

4,074 

4,394 

4,726 

5,069 

5,422 

5,787 

6,163 

6,550 

6,948 

7,357 

7,778 

8,209 

8,652 

9,106 

9,570 

10,046 

10,533 

11,031 

11,541 

12,061 

12,593 



1 

c. yds. 



9 

109 

219 

340 

473 

617 

7T2 

937 

1,114 

1,303 

1,502 

1,712 

1,934 

2,166 

2,410 

2,665 

2,931 

3,208 

3,496 

3,795 

4,106 

4,427 

4,760 

5,103 

5,458 

5,824 

6,201 

6,589 

6,989 

7,399 

7,820 

8,253 

8,697 

9,152 

9,617 

10,094 

10,583 



•2 

, yds. 



19 

119 

231 

353 

487 

632 

788 

955 

1,133 

1,322 

1,522 

1,734 

1,957 

2,190 

2,436 

2,691 

2,958 

3,236 

3,525 

3,826 

4,137 

4,460 

4,794 

5,138 

5,494 

5,861 

6,239 

6,629 

7,029 

7,441 

7,863 

8,297 

8,742 

9,198 

9,665 

10,143 

10,632 



11,08211,132 
11,592111,644 

12,11412,167 
12,646 12,700 



13,135 13,19013,245 



13,689 
14,254 
14,830 
15,417 



13,745' 1.3,801 
14,311 1 14,368 
14,8h8 14,946 
15,47615,535 



16,01516,075 16,136 



16,624 
17,244 

17,876 



16,68616,747 
17,307117.370 



17,94018,004 
I8,5l9;i8,583'l8,618 
19, 172; 19,238 19,304 
19,837il9,904fl9,971 
53120,513,20,58120,649 

54 21,200,21,269 21,339 

55 21,898,21,969 22,039 
5622,607122,679 22,751 

57 23,328 23,400!23,473 

58 24,059 124,133|24,207 

59 24,802;24,877|2'1,952 
60l25,556 25,632'25,708 



3 

c. yds. 



28 

130 

242 

366 

501 

647 

804 

972 

1,151 

1,342 

1,543 

1,756 

1,979 

2,214 

2,460 

2,717 

2,985 

3,265 

3,555 

3,856 

4,169 

4,493 

4,828 

5,173 

5,530 

5,899 

6,278 

6,668 

7,070 

7,482 

7,906 

8,341 

8,787 

9,244 

9,712 

10,191 

10,682 

11,183 

11,696 

12,219 

12,754, 

13,300; 

13,857! 

14,425 

15,005; 

15,595 

16,196 

16,809 

17,433) 

18,068 

18,713 

19,370 

20,039 

20,718 

21.408 

22,110 

22,822, 

23.546 

24,2«1 

25,027 

25,784 



4 

yds. 



381 

141 

254 

379 

515 

662 

820 

989 

1,170 

1,361 

1,564 

1,778 

2,002 

2,238 

2,485 

2,743 

3,013 

3,293 

3,585 

3,887 

4,201 

4,526 

4,862 

5,209 

5,567 

5,936 

6,316 

6,708 

7,111 

7,524 

7,949 

8,385 

8,832 

9,290 

9,759 

10,240 

10,731 

11,234 

11,748 

12,2T2 

12,808 

13,355 

13,913 

14,483 

15,063 

15,655 

16,257 

16,871 

17,496 

18,132 

18,779 

19,437 

20,106 

20,786 

21,478 

22,181 

22,894 

23,619 

24,3.55i 

25,102, 

25,860 



5 

c. yds. 



48 

151 

266 

392 

529 

677 

837 

1,007 

1,188 

1,381 

1,585 

1,800 

2,025 

2,262 

2,511 

2,770 

3,040 

3,322 

3,614 

3,918 

4,233 

4,559 

4,896 

5,244 

5,603 

5,974 

6,355 

6,748 

7,151 

7,566 

7,992 

8,429 

8,877 

9,337 

9,807 

10,288 

10,781 

11,285 

11,800, 

12,325; 

12,862 

13,411 

13,970 

14,540 

15,122 

15,714! 

16,318 

16,933; 

17,559; 

18,196 

18,844; 

19,503! 

20,174 

20,855 

21,548 

22,251 

22,966 

23,692 

24,429 

25,177 

25,937 



6 

c. yds. 



58 

162 

278 

405 

543 

693 

853 

1,025 

1,207 

1,401 

1,606 

1,822 

2,049 

2,28' 

2,536 

2,796 

3,068 

3,351 

3,644 

3,949 

4,265 

4,592 

4,930 

5,279 

5,640 

6,011 

6,394 

6,788 

7,192 

7,608 

8,035 

8,473 

8,923 

9,383 

9,855 

10,337 

10,831 

11,336 

11,852 

12,379 

12,917 

13,466 

14,026 

14,598 

15,181 

15,774 

16,379 

16,995 

17,622 

18,260 

18,909 

19,.570 

20,241 

20,924 

21,618 

22,322 

23,038 

23,765 

2^1..503 

25,2531 

25,013' 



•7 

c. yds. 



68 

173 

290 

419 

558 

708 

870 

1,042 

1,226 

1,421 

1,627 

1,844 

2,072 

2.311 

2;562 

2,823 

3,096 

3,379 

3,674 

3,980 

4,297 

4,625 

4,965 

5,315 

5,676 

6,049 

6,433 

6,828 

7,233 

7,651 

8,079 

8,518 

8,968 

9,430 

9,902 

10,386 

10,881 

11,387 

11,904 

12,432 



•8 

e. yds. 



78 

185 

303 

432 

572 

724 

887 

1,060 

1,245 

1,441 

1,648 

1,866 

2,095 

2,336 

2,587 

2,850 

3,124 

3,408 

3,704 

4,011 

4,329 

4,659 

4,999 

5,351 

5,713 



6,472 



7,275 

7,693 

8,122 

8,562 

9,014 

9,477 

9,950 

10,435 

10,931 

11,438 

11,956 

12,485 



12,971; 13,026 
13,522 13,577 



14,083 
14.656 



14,140 
14,714 



15,239.15,298 
15,834' 15,894 
16,440 16,501 
17,057,17,119 
17,685' 17,749 
18,325; 18,389 
18,975| 19,041 
19,636 19,703 
20,309 20,377 
20,993 21,062 



9 

c. yd*. 



88 

199 

315 

446 

587 

740 

903 

1,078 

1,264 

1,461 

1,669 

1 

2,119 
2,360 
2,613 
2,877 
3,152 
3,437 
3,735 
4,043 
4,362 
4,692 
5,034 
5,386 
5,750 



6,087 6,125 



6,511 



6,868 6,908 



7,316 
7,735 
8.166 
8,607 
9,060 
9,523 
9,998 
10,484 
10,981 
11,489 
13,009 
12,539 
13,080 
13,633 
14,197 
14,772 
15,357 
15,954 
16,563 
17,182 
17,812 
18,454 
19,106 
19,770 
20,445 
21,131 



21,688 21,758 21,828 
22,393 22,465 22,536 
23,11123,183 23,255 
23,839 23,912 23,986 
24,578 24,652 24,727 
25,328 25,404 25,480 
26,090 26,167126,243 



^^,,x-=«^S«-^t- ^■-'y^^-^'^- 



'■4~^r"'tnr\, y%4 i 



TABLE No. XVIII. 

SLOPE 1^ TO 1. 



CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BASE 28 FEET. 




£ 





c. yd». 



7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
30 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 



1 

yd*. 





109 

229 

361 

503 

657 

822 

998 

1,185 

1,383 

1,592 

1,812 

2,044 

2,287 

2,540 

2,805 

3,081 

3,368 

3,667 

3,975 

4,296 

4,627 

4,970 

5,324 

5,688 

6,064 

6,451 

6,850 

7,259 

7,679 

8,111 

8,553 

S.OO'^ 

9,472 

9,948 

10,435 

10,933 

11,442 

38111,962 

' 12,494 

13,037 

13,590 

14,155 

14,731 

15,318 

15,917 

16,526 

17,146 

17,778 

18,420 

19,074 

19,739 

20,415 

21,102 

21,800 

22,509 

23,230 

23,961 

24,704 

25,457 

26,222 



•2 
c. yd*. 



10 

120 

242 

374 

518 

673 

839 

1,016 

1,204 

1,403 

1,614 

1,835 

2,068 

2,311 

2,566 

2,832 

3,109 

3,397 

3,697 

4,007 

4,328 

4,661 

5,005 

5,368 

5,725 

6,103 

6,491 

6,890 

7,300 

7,722 

8,154 

8,598 

9,053 

9,519 

9,996 

10,484 

10,983 

11,494 

12,015 

12,548 

13,091 



% 

. yds. 



•20 

132 

255 

388 

533 

689 

856 

1,034 

1,223 

1,424 

1,635 

1,858 

2,092 

2.336 

2;592 

2,859 

3,137 

3,427 

3,727 

4,089 

4,361 

4,695 

5,040 

5,396 

5,763 

6,i41 

6,530 

6,930 

7,342 

7,765 

8,198 

8,643 

9,099 

9,566 

10,044 

10,533 

11,034 

11,545 

12,068 

12,602 

13,146 



ai 

144 

267 



14,212 
14,789 
15,377 
15,977 
16,587 



4 

. yds. 



13,646 13,702 



14,261 

14 

15,437 

16,038 

16,649 



17,20917,272 
17,842 17,905 



18,485 
19,140 
19,806 
20,483 
21,171 
21,870 
22,581 
23,302 
24,035 
24,779 
25,533 
26,299 



18,550 
19,206 
19,873 
20,551 
21,241 
21,941 
22,652 
23,375 
24,109 
24,854 
25,609 
26,37726,454 



705 

873 

1,043 

1,243 

1,444 

1,657 

1,881 

2,116 

2,361 

2,619 

2,887 

3,166 

3,456 

3,758 

4,070 

4,394 

4,729 

5,075 

5,432 

5,800 

6,179 

6,570 

6,971 

7,384 

7,807 

8,242 

8,688 

9,145 

9,613 

10,093 

10,583 

11,084 

11,597 

12,121 

12,656 

13.201 

13,759 

14,327 

14,906 

15,496 

16.098 

16,711 

17,335 

17,969 

18,615 

19,272 

19,941 

20,620 

21,310 

22,012 

22,724 

23,448 

24,183 

24,929 

25,686 



6 

c. yds. 



42 
156 

280 

416 

563 

T21 

891 

1,061 

1,263 

1,465 

1,679 

1,904 

2,140 

2,387 

2,645 

2,914 

3,194 

3,486 

3,789 

4,102 

4,427 

4,763 

5,110 

5,468 

5,837 

6,218 

6,609 

7,012 

7,426 

7,850 

8,286 

8,733 

9,191 

9,661 

10,141 

10,633 

11,135 

11.649 

I2;i74 

12,710 

13,25 

13,815 

14,384 

14.964 

15.556 

16,159 

16,773 

17,398 

18,033 

18,681 

19,339 

20,008 

20,688 

21,380 



6 

c. yds. 



23,521 



Si 

168 

293 

431 

579 

T38 

908 

1,080 

1,282 

1,486 

1,701 

1,927 

2,164 

2,412 

2,671 

2,942 

3,223 

3,516 

3,819 

4,134 

4,460 

4,797 

5,145 

5,505 

5,875 

6,256 

6,649 

7,053 

7,468 

7,893 

8,331 

8,779 

9,238 

9,708 

10,190 

10,682 

11,186 

11,701 

12,227 

12,764 

13,312 

13,871 

14,442 

15,023 

15.616 

16,221 

16,835 

17,461 

18,098 

18,746 

19,405 

20,076 

20,757 

21,450! 



64 

180 

307 

445 

594 

754 

926 

1,099 

1,302 

1,507 

1,723 

1,950 

2,188 

2,437 



2,963 



•7 
c. yds. 



75 

192 

320 

459 

610 

771 

944 

1,117 

1,322 

1,528 

1,745 

1,973 

2,213 

2,463 



2,698 2,724 



2,997 



3,252 3,281 



3,546 

3,850 

4,166 

4,493 

4,832 

5,181 

5,541 

5,913 

6,295 

6,689 

7,094 

7,510 

7,937 

8,375 

8,824 

9,-284 

9,756 

10,239 

10,732 

11,237 

11,753 

12,280 

12,818 

13,367 

13,928 

14,499 

15,082 

15,676 

16,282 

16,897 

17,524 

18,162 

18,811 

19,472 

20,143 



86 
204 
333 
474 



3.576 

3,881 

4,199 

4,527 

4,866 

5,216 

5,578 

5,950 

6,834 

6,729 

7,135 

7,552 

7,980 

8,419 

8,870 

9,331 

9,804 

10,287 

10,782 

11,288 

11,805 

12,333 

12,873 

13,423 

13,984 

14,557 

15,141 

15,736 

16,344 

16,959 

17,587 

18,226 

18,877 

19,538 

20,211 



22,08222,153 

22,79622,868 



23,594 



20,826 20,895 
21,519J21,589 
22,224 22,295 
22,94023,012 



24,25724,331 



25,004 
25,762 
26,531 



25,079 
25,838 
26,609 



23,667 
24,405 
25,155 
25,915 



23,740 
24,480 



25,992 



26,686126,764 



788 
963 
1,136 
1,342 
1,549 
1,768 
1,997 
2,237 
2,489 
2,751 
3,025 
3,310 
3,606 
3,913 
4,231 
4,560 
4,900 
5,252 
5,615 
5,988 
6,373 
6,769 
7,176 
7,594 
8,023 
8,464 
8,915 
9,378 
9,852 
10,336 
10,832 
11,339 
11,858 
12,387 
12,927 
13,479 
14,041 



15,200 
15,796 
16,405 
17,021 
17,651 
18,291 
18,942 
19,605 
20,279 
20,964 
21,659 



23,065 
23,814 



25,23025,30625,382 



26,068 



97 

217 

347 

488 

641 

805 

980 

1,155 

1,363 

1,571 

1,790 

2,030 

2,362 

2,514 

2,778 

3,053 

3,339 

3,636 

3,944 

4,263 

4,594 

4,935 

5,288 

5,651 

6,036 

6,413 

6,809 

7,317 

7,637 

8,067 

8,508 

8,961 

9,425 

9,900 

10,385 

10,883 

11,391 

11,910 

12,440 

12,982 

13,534 

14,098 



14,615 14,673 



15,259 
15,856 
16,466 
17,084 
17,714 
18,356 
19,008 
19,672 
30,347 
21,033 
21,730 



22,36722,438 



23,157 

23,887 



24,55434,639 



36,145 



26,842)36,930 







8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20j 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
4G 
47 
'18 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
St 
55 



•0 

. yds. 



TABLE No. XIX. 

SLOPE 1^ TO 1. 
CONTENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BABE 30 FEET. 

1 2 ^ 4 ^ ^ 

c. yd». c. yd». c. yd». c. yds, c. yds.- c. yds. 



5: 

14 

867 

1,050 

1,244 

1,450 

1,667 

1,894 

2.133 

2,383 

2,644 

2,917 

3,200 

3,494 

3,800 

4,117 

4.444 

4,783 

5,133 

5,494 

5,867 

6,250 

6,&44 

7,050| 

7,467 

7,894 

8,333 

8,783 

9,244 

9,717 

10,200 

10,694 

11,200 

11,717 

12,244 

I2,7a3 

13,333 

13,894 

14,467 



11 
129 
258 
398 
549 
711 
884 
1,069 
1,264 
1,471 
1,689 
1.918 
2,158 
2,409 
2,671- 
2,944 
3,229 
3,524 
3,831 
4,149 
4,478 
4,818 
5,169 
5,531 
5,904 
6,289 
6,684 
7,091 
7,509 
7,938 
8,378 
8,829 
9.291 
9;764 



10,744 
11,251 
11,769 
12,298 
12,838 
13,389 
13,951 
14,524 



15,05015,109 



15,614 
16,250 
16,867 
17,494 
18,133 
18,783 
19,444 
20,117 
20,800 
21,494 
•22,200 
22,917 
56123,044 
57i24,383 
58 25,133 
59l25,R94 



22 
141 
271 
412 
565 
72BI 
90- 
1,088, 
1,285 
1,492 
1,711 
1,941 
2,182 
2,435 
2,69Si 
2,972i 
3,258' 
3,5551 
3.862 
4il81| 
4,51 H 
4,852; 
5,20&; 
5,568- 
5,942; 
6,328; 
6,725 
7,132 
7,551 
7,981 
8,422 
8,875| 
9;338; 
9,812- 



10,249110,298 



10,795 
11,302 
11,821' 
1-2,351 : 
12,892 
13,445 
14,008 
14,582 
15,1(» 
15,765 
16,372 
16,991 
17,621 



15,704 
16,311 
16,928 
17,558 
18,198 
18,849 
19,511 
20,185 
20,869 
21,565 
22,271 
23,989 

23,718123,791 
21,458,24,.532l 
25,209-25,285 
25,971 26,048 
60 •2t>,fir.7 •26;745!26,82-2 



18,915 
19,578, 
20,252 
20,938 
21,635, 
22,342 
23,061 



34 
154 

. 285 

427 

580 

745 

920 

1,107 

1,305 

1,514 

1,734 

1,965 

2;307 

2,4<M) 

2,725 

3.000 

3,287 

3,585 

3,894 

4 214 

4,545 

4 

5,240 

5,605 

5,980 

6,367 

6,765 

7,174 

7,594 

6,025 

8.467 

8;920 

9,385 

9,860 

10.347 

10,845 

11,354 

11,874 

12,404 

12,947 

13,500 

14.065 

14,640 

15,227 

15,825 

16,434 

17,<;54 

17,685 

18,327 

18,980 

19,645 

20,321 

21,007 

21,705 

22,414 

23,i:i4 

23,865 



1,325 
1,535 
1 ,756 
1,988 
2,232 
2.486 
2,752 
3,029 
3,3M; 
3,615 
3,925 
4,246 
4,579 
4,922 
5,276 
5,642 
6,018 
6,406 
6,805 
7,215 
7,636 
8,069 
8,512 
8,966 
9,432 



10,396 
10,895 
U,iQ5 
11,926 
12,459 
13,002 
13,556 
14,1-22 
14,699 
15,286 
15,885 
16,495 
17,116 
17,749 
18,392 
19,046 
19,712 



c. yds.. 

57 

179 
312 

m 

779 
957 

1,146 
1,346 
1,557 

1,779 
2,012 
2,257 
2.512 
2,779 
3,057 
3,346 
3,646 
3,957 
4,279 
4,612 
4,957 
5,312 
5.679 
6,057 
6,446 
6,846 
7,257 
7,679 
8,112 
8,557 
9,012 



69 
192 
326 

472 
629 
796 
975 
1,165 
1,366 
1,579 
1,802 
2,036 
2,282 
2,539 
2,806 
3,085 
3,375 
3,676 
3,989 
4,312 
4,646 
4,992 
5,349 
5,716 
6,095 
6,485 
6,886 
7,299 
7,722 
8,156 
8;602 
9,059 



•7 

c. yds. 



■H I -9 

: yds. ! a. yds. 



9,909 9,957 



9,479 9,526 



10,446 
10,946 
11.4.57 
11,979 
12,512 
13,057 
13,612 



10,005 
10,495; 
10.9961 
11,5()7| 
12.032, 
12,566| 
13.112^ 



80 

205 

340 

487 

645 

814 

994 

1,185 

1,387 

1,600 

1,825 

2,060 

2,307 

2,565 

2,834 

3,114 

3,405 

3,707 

4,020 

4,345 

4,680 

5,027 

5,385 

5,754 

6,134 

6,525 

6,927 

7,340 

7.765 

8,200 

8,fr47 

9,105 

9,574 

10,054 

10,545 

11.047 



92 
218 
355 
502 
661 
831 
I,0l2j 
1,205| 

^•^^\ 
1,622 

1,848! 

2,084i 

2,332 

2,591 

2,861 

3,142 

3,435 

3,738 

4,052 

4,378 

4,715 

5,062 

5,421 

5,791 

6.172 

6:565 

6,968 

7,382 

7,808 

8,245 

8,692 

9,151 

9,621 

10,102 

10,595 

11,098 



11,560:11,612 
12,085112.138 
12,620112,675 
13,16713,222 



14,179114,236 
14,757,14,815 
15,346115,405 
15,946116,006! 



13,66913,725 

' 14,294 

14,874 

15,465 

16,067 



13,781 
14,351 
14,932 
15,525 
16,128 



16,,557116,619. 16,681 116,742 16,805 



17,179117,242 

17,813; 17,876, 
18,457118,522 
19,113!19.179| 
19,779; 19,846 



-20,389 20,4571-20,5-^5 



21,076 
21,775 
22,4a5 
23,206 



21,146:21,2151 
21,846|21,916' 
22,.557i22.629 
23,2792:13.52 



17,305 17,368 
17,941 |l8.()05 
18,.587| 18,6,52 
19,245119,311 
19,9l4!l9,981 
20,594120,662 
21,285,21,3,55 
21,987;22,0.58 
22,70112-2,772 
2:^,425 23.498 



23,939|24,0l3|-24,086j 
24,607r24,682l24,757'--J4,832 
25,361 I25,436|25.5l3i25.589 
26,125 26,202l26,279|26,356| 
i26,90ll2i;,979i27,057i27,135 



■24,161 
24,907 
•25,665 
26,434 
27,214 



24,235 
24,982 
25,741 
-26,511 
27,292 



104 

231 

369 

518 

678 

849 

1,031 

1,224 

1,429' 

1,644 

1,871 

2,109 

2,358 

2,618 

2,889 

3,171 

3,464 

3,769 

4,084 

4,411 

4,749 

5,098 

5,458J 

5,829 

6,212 

6,604 

7,009 

7,424 

7,851 

8,289- 

8,738 

9,198 

9,6691 

10,151 

10,644 

11,149 

11,664 

12,191 

12,729 

13,278 

13,838 

14,409 

14,991 

15,.584 

16,189 



17,431 
18,069 
18,718 
19,378 
20,049 
-20,731 
21,425 
•22,129 
22,845 
•23.571 
-24,309 
•25,0.58 
25,818 
26,589 
27,371 



;>< 



Ki:^«>^«^4^ 



X-^^yJ-iT-^r*.-* -^^-^-^'-^^-A^v. ^^^ . 



'77 



TABLE No. XX. 

SLOPE 1^ TO 1. 
COWENT FOR AVERAGE DEPTHS, BABE 34 FEET. 



i 





1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

i 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

81 

S2 

33 

34 

35 

36 

87 

88 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 



•0 

. yds. 





131 

274 

428 

593 

769 

956 

1,154 

1,363 

1,583 

1,815 

2,057 

2,311 

2,576 

2,852 

3,139 

3,437 

3,746 

4,067 

4,398 

4,741 

5,094 

5,459 

5,835 

6,222 

6,620 

7,030 

7,450 

7,881 

8,324 

8,778 

9,243 

9,719 

10,206 

10,704 

11,213 

11,733 

12,265 

12,807 

13,361 

13,926 

14.502 

i5;aS9 

15,687 
16,296 
16,917 
17,548 
18,191 
18,844 
19,509 
20,185 
20,872 
21,570 
22,280 
23,000 



1 

c. yds. 



13 
145 

289 

444 

610 

787 

975 

1,174 

1,385 

1,606 

1,839 

2,082 

2,337 

2,603 

2,880 

3,168 

3,467 

3,778 

4,099 

4,432 

4,776 

5,130 

5,486 

5,873 

6,262 

6,661 

7,071 

7,493 

7,925 

8,369 

8,824 

9,290 

9,767 

10,255 

10,754 

11,265 

11,786 

12,319 

12,862 

13,417 

13.983 

14,560 

15,148 

15,747 

16.358 

16,979 

17,612 

18,256 

18,910 

19.576 

20,253 

20,942 

21,641 

22,351 

23,073 



•2 

c. yds. 



25 

159 

304 

460 

627 

805 

994 

1,195 

1,406 

1,629 

1,862 

2,107 

2,363 

2,630 

2,908 

3,198 

3,498 

3,809 

4,132 

4,466 

4,811 

5,167 

5,524 

5,912 

6,301 

6,.70l 

7,113 

7,535 

7,969 

8,414 

8,870 

9,337 

9,815 

10,304 



3 

c. yds. 



38 
173 
319 
476 
644 
823 

1,014 

1,215 

1,428 

1,652 

1,886 

2.132 

2,389 

2,658 

2,937 

3;227 

3,529 

3,841 

4,165 

4,500 

4,846 

5,203 

5,561 

5,950 

6,341 

6,742 

7,155 

7,578 

8,013 

8,459 

8,916 

9,384 

9,863 

10 354 
10,805;10',855 
11,31611,368 
11,839:11.892 
12 372 12;426 
I2;917il2,972 
13,473,13,529 
14,04014,098 
14,618; 14,677 
15,208 15,267 j 15,327 



4 

c. yds. 

51 

187 

334 

492 

662 

842 

1,033 

1,236 

1,450 

1,675 

1,911 

2,158 

2,416 

2,685 

2,965 

3,257 

3,559 

3,873 

4,198 

4,534 

4,881 

5,239 

5,608 

5,989 

6.380 

6,783 

7,196 

7,621 

8,05'^ 

8,5W 

8;962 

9,432 

9,912 

10,403 

10,906 

11,420 

11,945 

12,481 

13,028 

13,586 

14,155 

14,735 



5 

c. yds. 



64 

201 

350 

509 

679 

861 

1,053 

1,257 

1,472 

1,698 

1,935 

2,183 

2,442 

2,713 

2,994 

3,287 

3,590 

3,905 

4,231 

4,568 

4,916 

5,275 

5,646 

6,027 

6.420 

€;824 

7,238 

7,664 

8,101 

•8,550 

9,009 

9,479 

9,961 

10,453 

10,95 

11,472 

41,998 

12,535 



6 

c. yds. 



•7 

c.yds. 



48,083 13,138 
13,642113,699 



28,731,23,805 
24,47424,549 
25,22825,304 
25,993 26,070 
26,769 26,847 
27,556!27,635 



15,808;15,869 
16,41916,481 
17,04217,105 
17,676; 17,740 

18.321 18,386 
18,977, 19,043 
19,64419.711 

20.322 20,390 
21,01121,081 
21,71121,782 
22,423 22,495 
23,145 23,218 
23,879 23,953 
24,624 24,699 
25,380:25,456 
26,147 26,224 



26,925 
27.714 



27,003 
27,794 



15,929 
16,543 
17,168 
17,804 
18,451 
19,109 
19,778 
20,459 
21,150 
21,853 
22,566 
23,291 
24,027 
24,774 



26,302 
27,082 
27,873 



7tt 

216 

365 

525 

69' 

879 

1,073 

1,278 

1,494 

1,721 

1,959 

2,208 

2,469 

2,740 

3,023 

3,316 

3,621 

3,937 

4,264 

4(602 

4,952 

5,312 

5,683 

6,066 

6,460 

6,865 

7,281 

7,708 

6,146 

8,595 

9,055 

9,527 

10,009 

10,503 

11,008 

11,524 

12,051 

12,589 



14,213 
14,794 
15,387 
15,990 
16,6(» 
17.231 
17,868 
18,516 
19,175 
19,846 



14,270 

14,853 

15,446 

16,051 

16,66' 

17,294 



18,582 
19,242 
19,913 



20,527|20,596 



22,638 
23,364 
24,101 
24,850 



25,53325,609 



26,379 
27,161 



22,711 
23,438 
24,176 
24,925 
25,685 
26,457 
27,239 



•8 

c yds. 



91 

230 

381 

542 

715 

698 

1,093 

1,299 

1,516 

1,744 

1,983 

2,234 

2,495 

2,768 

3,052 

3,346 

3,652 

3;969 

4,298 

4,637 

4,987 

5,349 

5,721 

6,105 

6,500 

6,906 

7,323 

7,751 

8,190 

8,641 

9,102 

9,575 

10,058 

10,553 

11,059 

11,576 

12,104 

12,643 

13,194 

13,755 

14,328 

14,912 

15,506 

16.112 

16,729 

17,358 



•9 

.yds. 



17,932 17,997 



18,647 
19,309 
19,981 
20,665 



104 

245 

396 

559 

732 

917 

1,113 

1,320 

1,538 

1,768 

2,006 

2,259 

2,522 

2,796 

•3,081 

3,377 

3,684 

4,002 

4,331 

4i671 

5,023 

5,385 

5,759 

6,144 

6,540 

6,947 

7,365 

7,794 

8,235 

8,686 

9,149 

9,622 

10,107 

10,603 

11,110 

11,628 

12,158 

12,698 

13,249 

13,812 

14.386 

14,971 

15,567 

16,174 

16,792 

17,421 

18,061 

18,713 

19,375 

20,049 

20,734 



21,220121.29021,36021,431 
21,92421,995 



27,953 28,033 



23,511 
24,250 
25,001 
25,762 
26,535 
27,318 



22.06622,137 
22,783 22,855 



23,584 
24,325 



25,839 
26,612 
27,397 



28,113128,193 



118 

259 

412 

576 

750 

936 

1,133 

1,342 

1,561 

1,791 

2,033 

2,285 

2,549 

2,824 

3,110 

3,407 

3,715 

4,034 

4,365 

4,706 

5,059 

5,422 

5,797 

6,183 

6,580 

6,988 

7,407 

7,838 

8,279 

8,732 

9,196 

9,€70 

10,156 

10,653 

11,162 

11,681 

12,211 

12,753 

13,305 

13,869 

14,444 

15,030 

15,627 

16,235 

16,854 

17,485 

18,126 

18,779 

19,442 

20,117 

20,803 

21,500 

22,208 

22,927 

23,658 

24,399 



25,07625,152 



25,916 
26,690 
27,476 

28,273 



:^*^: 



TABLE No. XXI. 

SLOPE li TO 1. 
CORRECTI»N FOR DIFFERENCES OF DEPTHR 



1 





1 


•2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


•7 


•8 


9 


£ 


c.'yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


c. yds. 


e. yds. 


cyds. 


e. yds. 


"T 





1 


1 


1 


h 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5. 


6 


■ 6 


6 


7 


7 


4 


7 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


11 


11 


5 


12 


12 


13 


13 


14 


14 


15 


15 


16 


16 


6 


17 


17 


18 


18 


la 


20 


20 


21 


21 


23 


7 


23 


23 


24 


25 


25 


26 


27 


27 


28 


29 


8 


30 


30 


31 


32 


33 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


9 


37 


. 38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


44 


45 


10 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


11 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


66 


12 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


74 


75 


76 


77 


13 


• 78 


79 


81 


82 


83 


, 84 


86 


•87 


88 


89 


14 


91 


92 


93 


95 


96 


97 


99 


100 


101 


103 


15 


104 


106 


107 


108 


110 


111 


113 


114 


116 


117 


16 


119 


120 


122 


123 


125 


126 


128 


129 


131 


132 


17 


134 


135 


137 


139 


140 


142 


143 


145 


147 


148 


18 


150 


152 


153 


155 


157 


158 


160 


162 


164 


165 


19 


167 


169 


171 


172 


17* 


176 


178 


180 


181 


183 


30 


185 


187 


189 


191 


193 


195 


196 


198 


200 


202 


21 


204 


206 


208 


210 


212 


214 


216 


218 


220 


222 


22 


22-4 


226 


228 


230 


232 


234 


236 


239 


341 


243 


23 


245 


2il 


249 


251 


253 


256 


258 


260 


262 


264- 


24 


'267 


269 


271 


273 


276 


278 


280 


282 


285 


287 


25 


289 


292 


294 


296 


299 


301 


303 


306 


308 


311 


26 


313 


315 


318 


320 


323 


325 


328 


330 


333 


335 


27 


337 


340 


343 


345 


348 


350 


353 


355 


358 


360 


28 


363 


366 


368 


371 


373 


376 


379 


381 


3g4 


387 


29 


389 


392 


395 


397 


400 


403 


406 


408 


411 


414 


30 


417 


419 


422 


425 


428 


431 


433 


436 


439 


442 


31 


445 


448 


451 


453 


456 


459 


462 


465 


468 


471 


32 


474 


477 


480 


483 


486 


489 


492 


495 


498 


501 


33 


504 


507 


510- 


513 


516 


519 


523 


526 


529 


532 


34 


535 


538 


542- 


545 


548 


551 


554 


557 


561 


564 


35 


567 


570 


574 


577 


580 


583 


587 


590 


593 


597 


36 


600 


603 


607 


610 


614 


617 


620 


624 


627 


630 


37 


1634 


637 


641 


644 


648 


651 


654 


658 


661 


665 


38 


668 


692 


675 


679 


683 


686 


690 


693 


697 


701 


39 


704 


708 


7U 


715 


719 


722 


726 


730 


733 


T37 


40 


741 


744 


748 


752 


756 


TO9 


763 


767 


771 


774 


41 


778 


782 


786 


790 


693 


797 


801 


805 


809 


813 


42 


817 


821 


824 


828 


832 


836 


840 


844 


848 


852 


43 


856 


860 


864 


868 


872 


876 


880 


884 


888 


892 


44 


896 


900 


904 


908 


913 


917 


921 


925 


929 


933 


45 


938 


942 


946 


850 


954 


958 


963 


967 


971 


975 



V^-iL^ 



/O. 



8 

■i 

J 


TABLE No. XXII. 1 


? 


CONTENTS OF PRISMS WITH SQUARE BASES 1 




i 


o 


1 


2 


3 4 


5 


6 


•7 -8 


9 


; 




c. yd*. 



c. yd». 



c. 7dt. 



c. yds. 




c. yd*. 
1 


c.ydt. 
1 


c.yd». 

1 


c.yd». 
2 


c. yds. 


c. ydf. 




2 


3 


i 


1 


4 


4 


5 


^ 


7 


8 


9 


11 


12 


13 




2 


15 


16 


18 


20 


21 


23 


* 25 


27 


29 


31 


» 


3 


33 


36 


38 


40 


43 


45 


48 


51 


53 


56 


!' 


4 


59 


62 


65 


68 


72 


75 


78 


82 


85 


89 


.' 


5 


93 


96 


100 


104 


108 


112 


116 


120 


125 


129 


t' 


6 


133 


138 


142 


147 


152 


156 


161 


166 


171 


176 


' 


7 


181 


187 


192 


197 


203 


208 


214 


220 


225 


231 


. 


8 


337 


24S 


249 


255 


261 


268 


274 


280 


287 


293 


t 


9 


300 


307 


313 


320 


327 


334 


341 


348 


356 


363 


J 


10 


370 


378 


385 


393 


401 


408 


416 


424 


432 


440 




11 


448 


456 


465 


473 


481 


490 


398 


507 


516 


521 




12 


533 


542 


551 


560 


569 


579 


588 


597 


607 


616 




13 


626 


636 


645 


655 


665 


675 


€85 


695 


705 


716 


t 


14 


726 


736 


747 


757 


768 


779 


789 


800 


811 


822 




15 


833 


844 


856 


867 


878 


890 


901 


913 


925 


936 


! 


16 


948 


960 


972 


984 


996 


1,008 


1,021 


1,033 


1,045 


1,058 


i 


17 


1,070 


1,083 


1,096 


1,108 


1,121 


1,134 


1,147 


1,160 


1,173 


1,187 


■ 


18 


1,200 


1,213 


1,227 


1,240 


1,254 


1,268 


1,281 


1,295 


1,309 


1,323 


' 


19 


1,337 


1,351 


1,365 


1,380 


1,394 


1,408 


1,423 


1,437 


1,452 


1,467 


I 


20 


1,481 


1,496 


1,511 


1.536 


1,541 


1,556 


1,572 


1,587 


1,602 


1,618 


< 


21 


1,633 


1,649 


1,665 


i;680 


1,696 


1,712 


1,728 


1,744 


1,760 


1,776 


< 


22 


1,792 


1,809 


1,825 


1,842 


1,858 


1,875 


1,892 


1,908 


1,925 


1,942 




23 


1,959 


1,976 


1,993 


2,011 


2,028 


2,045 


2,063 


2,080 


2,098 


2,116 


; 


24 


2,133 


2,151 


2,169 


2,187 


2,205 


2,223 


2,241 


2,260 


2,278 


2,296 


' 


25 


2,315 


5,333 


2.352 


2,371 


2,389 


2,408 


2,427 


2,446 


2,465 


2,484 


• 


26 


2,504 


2,523 


2,M2 


2,562 


2,581 


2,601 


2,621 


2,640 


2,660 


2,680 


; 


27 


2,700 


2,720 


2,740 


2,760 


2,781 


2,801 


2,821 


2,842 


2,862 


2,883 




28 


2,904 


2,924 


2,945 


2,966 


2,987 


3,008 


3,029 


3,051 


3,072 


3,093 




29 


3,115 


3,136 


3,158 


3,180 


3,201 


3,223 


3,245 


3,267 


3,289 


3,311 




30 


3,333 


3.356 


3,378 


3,400 


3,423 


3,445 


3,468 


3,491 


3.513 


3,536 


' 


31 


3,559 


3;582 


3,605 


3,628 


3,652 


3,675 


3,698 


3,722 


3;745 


3,769 


i 


32 


3,793 


3,816 


3,840 


3,864 


3,888 


3,912 


3,936 


3,960 


3,985 


4,009 




33 


4,033 


4,058 


4,082 


4,107 


4,132 


4,156 


4,181 


4,206 


4,231 


4,256 


] 


34 


4,281 


4,307 


4,332 


4,357 


4;383 


4,408 


4,434 


4,460 


4,485 


4,511 


i 


35 


4,537 


4,563 


4,589 


4,615 


4,641 


4,668 


4,694 


4,720 


4,747 


4,773 


\ 


36 


4,800 


4,827 


4,853 


4,880 


4,907 


4,934 


4,961 


4,988 


5,016 


5,043 




37 


5,070 


5,098 


5,125 


5,153 


5,181 


5,508 


5,236 


5,264 


5,292 


5,330 




38 


5,348 


5,376 


5,405 


5,433 


5.461 


5,490 


5,518 


5,547 


5,576 


5,604 


1 


39 


5,633 


5,662 


5,691 


5,720 


5,749 


5,779 


5,808 


5,837 


5,867 


5,896 




40 


5,926 


5,956 


5,985 


6,015 


6,045 


6,075 


6,105 


6,135 


6,165 


6,196 




41 


6,226 


6,256 


6,287 


6,317 


6,348 


6,379 


6,409 


6,440 


6,471 


6,502 


1 


42 


6,533 


6,564 


6,596 


6,627 


6,658 


6,690 


6,721 


6,753 


6,785 


6,816 




43 


6,848 


6,880 


6,912 


6,944 


6,976 


7,008 


7,041 


7,073 


7,105 


7,138 




44 


7,170 


7,203 


7,236 


7,268 


7,301 


7,334 


7,3ff7 


7,400 


7,433 


7,467 




45 


7,500 


7,533 


7,567 


7,600 


7,634 


7,668 


7,701 


7,735 


7,769 


7,803 




46 


7,837 


7,871 


7,905 


7,940 


7,974 


8,006 


8,043 


8,077 


8,112 


8,147 




47 


8,181 


8,216 


8,251 


•8,286 


8,321 


8,356 


8,392 


8,427 


8,462 


8,498 




48 


8,533 


8,569 


8,605 


8,640 


8,676 


8,712 


8,748 


8,784 


8,820 


8,856 




49 


8,893 


8,829 


8,965 


9,002 


9,038 


9,075 


9,112 


9,148 


9,185 


9,222 




50 


9,259 


9,296 


9,333 


9,371 


9,408 


9,445 


9,483 


9,520 


9,558 


9,596 




51 


9,633 


9,671 


9,709 


9,747 


9,785 


9,823 


9,861 


9,900 


9,938 


9,976 




52 


10,015 


10,053 10,092 


10,131 


10,169 


10,208 


10,347 


10,286 


10,325 


10,364 




53 


10,404 


10,443 10,482:10,522 


10,561 


10,601 


10,641 


10,680 


10,790 


10,760 




54 


10,800 


10,840 10,880 10,920|10,M61 


11,001 


11,041 


11,082 


11,122 


11,163 




55 


11,204 


11,244 


11,28511,326:11.367 


11,408 


11,449 


11491 


11,532 


11,573 




56 


11,615 


11,656 


11,69811,740 11,781 


11.823 


11,865 


11907 


11,949 


11,991 




57 


12,033 


12,076 


12,11812,160,12,203 


12;245 


12,288 


12,331 


12,374 


12,416 




58 
59 
60 


12,459 
12,893 


12,502 
12,936 
13,378 


12,545 
12,970 
13,422 


12,588 
13,014 
13.467 


12,632 
13,068 
,13,512 


12,675 
13,112 
13,556 


12,718 
13,1,% 
13,601 


12,762 
13.200 
13;646 


12,805 
13,245 
13,691 


12,849 
13,289 
13,736 



TABLE No. XXII. 

( CONTINUED. ) 
CONTENTS OF PllISMS WITH SQUARE BASES. 



61 

62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 



o 

c.yds. 



13,781 
14,237 
14,700 
15,170 
15,648 
16,133 
16,626 
17,126 
17,633 
18,148 
18,670 
19,200 
19,737 
\ 20.281 
7520;833 
76i21,393 
77'2l,959 
78122,533 

79 23,115 

80 23,704 
8124,300 
82'-^,90t 
83^ 
84 



1 

c. y<J». 



13,827 
14,283 
14,747 
15,218 
15,696 
16,182 
16,676 
17,176 
17,684 
18,200 
18,723 
19,253 
19,791 



2 

c. yds. 



13,872 
14,329 
14,793 
15,265 
15,745 
16,231 
16,725 
17,227 
17,736 
18,252 
18,776 
19,307 
19,845 



86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

1(» 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

111 

112 

113 

114 

115 

116 

117 

118 

119 

120 

121 



26,822 
27,456 



28,747 



25,515 
26,133 
26,759 
27,393 
28,033 
28,681 
29,337 
30,000 
30,670 
31,348 
32,033 
32,726 
33,426 
34,133 
34,848l34;920 



20,336:20,391 
20,889 20,945 
21,449 21,505 
22,016122,073 
22,591 122,649 
23, 173| 23,232 
23,763i23,822 
24,360 24,420 
24,965'25,025 



3 

c. yds. 



25,576 



25.638 



13,917 
14,375 

14,840 

15,313 

15,793 

16,280 

16,775 

17,277 

17,787 

18.304 

18,828 

19,360 

19,900 

20,446 

21,000 

21,562 

22,131 

22,707 

23,291 

23.882 

24,480 

25.086 



4 

c. yds. 



13,963 

14,421 

14,887 

15,361 

15,841 

16,329 

16,825 

17,328 

17,838 

18.356 

I8;881 

19,414 

19.954 

20,501 

21,056 

21,618 

22,188 

22,765 

23,349 

23,941 

24,541 

25.147 



5 

c. yds. 



26,196] 26,258 



26,885 
27,520 



28,098 28,162 



26,320 
26,948 

27,584 
28,227 



29,40329,469 



28,81228,877 



35,570 
36,300 
37,037 
37,781 
38,533 
39,293 
40,059 
40,833 
41,615 
42,404 
43,200 
44,004 
44,815 
45,633 
46,459 
47,293 
48,133 
48,981 
49,837 
50,700 
51,570 
52,448 
53,333 



30,067 
30,738 
31,416 
32,102 



32,796(32,865 
33,496 33,567 



34,20434,27634,347 



35,643 



36,37336,447 



37,111 
37,856 
38,609 
39,369 
40,136 
40,911 
41,693 
42,483 



44,08-4 
44;896 
45,716 
46,542 
47,376 
48,218 
49,067 
49,923 



51,658 
52,536 
53,422 



54,226'54,316 



30,133 
30,805 
31,485 
32,171 



25,70025,761 



29,535 
30,200 



26,383 
27,012 
27,648 
28.292 
28,943 
29,601 
30,267 



30,873 30,941 



14,008 
14,468 
14,934 
15,408 
15,890 
16,379 
16,875 
17,379 
17,890 
18,408 
18,934 
19.468 
2o:008 
20,556 
21,112 
21,675 
22,245 
22,823 
23,408 
24,001 
24,601 
25,208 
25,823 
26,445 
27,075 
27,712 
28,356 
29,008 
29,668 
30,334 
31,008 



6 

c. yds. 



31,55331,62131,690 



34,992 
35,716 



37,185 
37,931 
38,685 
39,445 
40,213 
40,989 
41,772 
42,562 



35,064 
35,788 
36,520 
37,260 
38,006 
38,760 
39,522 
40,291 



43,280 43,360 



44, 165 
44,978 
45,798 
46,625 
47,460 
48,302 
49,152 
50,009 



50,78750,873 



151,745 
52,625 
53,511 
54.405 



32,240 
32,936 
33,637 



14,054 
14,514 

14,981 
15,456 
15,938 
16,428 
16,925 
17,429 
17,941 
18,461 
18,987 
19,521 
•20,063 
20,612 
21,168 
21,732 
22,303 
22,881 
23,467 
24,061 
24,661 
25,269 
25,885 
26,508 
27,138 
27,776 
28,421 
29,074 
29,734 
30,401 
31,076 
31,758 
32,448 
33,145 



35,86135,934 
36,594 36,668 
37,334j37,408 
38,081138,156 



38,836 
39,598 
40,368 



41,06741,145 



41.851 
42,642 
13,440 
44,246 



45,880 
46,708 
47,544 
48.387 
49;237 
50,095 
50,960 
51,833 
52,713 
53,600 
< .54,495 



32,309 32,379 
33,006|33,075 
33,708!33,779 33,849 
34,4l8j34,490j34.56l 
36,136|35,208 3&;281 



•7 

e. yds. 



14,100 
14.560 
15;028 
15,504 
15,987 
16,477 
16,975 
17,480 
17,993 
18,513 
19,040 
19,573 
20,117 
20,667 
21,224 
21,788 
22,360 



•8 

c. yds. 



14,145 
14,607 
15,076 
15,552 
16,036 
16,527 
17.025 
17,531 
18,045 
18,565 
19,093 
19,629 
20,172 
20,722 
21,280 
21,845 
22,418 



c. yds. 



22,940,22,998 
23,526 23,585 
24,120 24,186 
24,722 24,783 
25,33125,392 
25,94726,009 
26,57126,633 
27,202; 27,265 
27,905 
28,551 
29,205 
29,867 
30.536 



41,929 
42,721 
43,521 



38,912 
39,675 
40,445 
41,223 
42,008 
42,801 
43,601 



36,007 
36,741 
37.483 
38,232 

38,988 



44,327144,408 



27,840 

28,486 

29,140 

29,800 

30,4t« 

3l.l44|3l,212 

3i;827l3l,896 

32.517,32.587 

33,215 33;285 

33,92033,991 

34,633 34,705 

35,353 35,425 

36,080 36,153 



36,815 
37,557 
38,307 
39,064 



39,75239,828 



40,523 
41,301 

42,087 
42 881 
43;681 
44,489 



45,06045,141145,223:45,305 



45,963 46,045 '46,128 
46,792|46,875|46,958 



47,628J47,712|47,796 47,880^47,965 



48,47*48,556148,641 
49,32349,40849,494 
50,181150,268,50,354 
51.04751,134151,221 



51,920 
52,801 
53,689 
54,585 



52,008 
52,890 
53,779 



52,096 
52,978 

53,868 



54,675j54,765 



36.889 
371632 
38,382 
39,140 



40,600 
41,380 
42,166 
42,960 
43,762 



41,458 
42.245 



43,842 



44..57l!44,652 
45,387145,469 
46,21146,293 
47,04247,125 



48,736 48,811 
49,580 49,665 
50,440;50,527 
51,308 51,396 
52,184|52,272 
53,067:53, 156 
.53,957|54,04 



14,191 
14,653 
15,123 
15,600 
16.084 
16,576 
17,076 
17,582 
18,096 
18,618 
19,147 
19,683 
20,227 
20,778 
21,336 
21,902 
22,476 
23.056 
23;644 
24;240 
24,843 
25,453 
26,071 
26,696 
27,329* 
27,969 
28,616 
29,271 
29,933 
30,603 
31,280 
31,964^ 
32,656 
33.356 
34,062: 
34,776 
35,498 
36,227 
36,963 
37,707 
38,458 
39,216 



39,90539,982 
40,67840,756 



41,536 

42,324 



43,040 43,120 



43,923 

44,733 

45,551 

46,376 

47,209 

48,049' 

48,896 

49,751 

50,613^ 

51,483 

52,360 

53,244' 

54.136 



64,855 54,945l55,036- 



..> ;... ;'t.,>:^- 



.•^■»li- v.'lTt>*' 



TABLE No. XXII. 

( CONTINUED. •) 
CONTENTS OF PRISMS WITH SftUARE BABEa 



122 

123 

124 

125 

126 

127 

128 

129 

1.30 

131 

il32 

133 

134 

135 

136 

137 

138 

139 

140 

141 

142 

143 

144 

145 

146 

147 

148 

149 

150 

151 

152 

153 

154 

155 

156 

1.57 

158 

■159 

160 

161 

.162 

163 

164 

165 

166! 

1671 

168 

169; 

170 

I7l| 

1T2 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177! 

178 

179 

180 

181 

182' 





c. yd*. 



55,12(> 

56,033 

56,948 

57,870 

58,800 

59,737 

60,681 

61,633 

62,593 

63,559 

64,533 

65,515 

66,504 

67,500 

68,504 

69,515 

70,533 

71,559 

72,593 

73,633 

74,681 

75,737 

76,800 

77.870 

78;948 

80,033 

81,126 

82,226 

83,333 

84,448 

85;570 

86,700 

87,837 

88,981 

90,133 

91,293 

92,459 

93,633 

94,815 

96,004 

97,200 

98,404 

99,615 

100,833 

102,159 

103,293 

101,533 

105.781 

107,037 

108,300 

109,570 

110,848 

112,133 

113,426 

114,726 

116.0331 

117;348 

118,670 

120,000; 

121,337 

122,6811 



1 

c. yds. 



55,216 
56,124 
57,040 
57,963 
58,893 
59,831 
60,776 
61,729 
62,689 
63,656 
64,631 
6.5,613 
66,603 
67,600 
68,604 
69,616 
70,636 
71,662 
72,696 
73,738 
74,787 
75,843 
76,907 
77,978 
79,056 
80,142 
61,236 
82,336 
83,444 
84,560 
85,683 
86,813 
87,951 
89,096 
90,249 
91,409 
92,576 
93,751 
94,933 
96,123 
97,320 
98,524 
99,736 
100,9.56 
102,182 

iavi6 

104,658 
105,907 
107,163 
108,427 
109,698 
110,976 
112,262 
113,556 
114,856 
116,164 
117,480 
118,803 
120,133 
121,471 
122,816 



■2 

c. yds. 

"55,307 
56,216 
57.132 

58;056 

58.987 

59;925 

60,871 

«1,825 

62,785 

63,753 

64,729 

65,712 

66,702 

67,700 

68,705 

69,718 

70,738 

71,765 

72,800 

73,842 

74,892 

75,949 

77,013 

■^,08.5 

79,165 

80,251 

81,345 

82,447 

83,556 

84,672 

85,796 

86,927 

«8,065 

89,211 

90,365 

91,525 

92,693 

93,869 

95,052 

96,242 

^7,440 

98,645 

99,858 

101.078 

102,305 

103,540 

104,782 

106,032 

107,289 

108,5.53 

109,825 

111,105 

112,391 

113,685 

114,987 

116,296 

117,612 

118.936 

120,267 

121,605 

122,951 



3 

c. yds. 

"55,397 
56,307 
57,224 

58,148 
59,080 
60,020 
60,966 
61,920 
62,882 
63,851 
64,827 
65,811 
66,802 
67,800 
68,806 
69,820 
70,840 
71,868 
72,904 
73,947 
74,997 
76,055 
77,120 
78,193 
79,273 
80,360 
81,455 
82,557 
83,667 
84,784 
85,908 
87.040 
88;i80 
89.326 
90;480 
91,642 
•92,811 
93,987 
95,171 
96,362 
97,560 
-98,766 
99,980 
101,200 



4 

c. yds. 

"55"^ 
56,398 
57,316 
58,241 
59,174 
60,114 
61,061 
62,016 
62,978 
63,948 
64,925 
65,909 
66,901 
67,901 
68,907 
69,92i 
70,943 
71,972 
73,008 
74,052 
75,103 
76,161 
77,227 
78,301 
79,381 
^0,469 
81,565 



5 

yds. 



55,579 
56,490 
57,408 
58.334 
591268 
60;208 
61,156 
62,112 
63,075 
64,045 
65,023 
66,008 
67,001 
68,001 
•69,008 
70,023 
71,045 
72,075 
73,112 
74,156 
75,208 
76,268 
77,334 
78,408 
79,490 
80,579 
81,675 
62;668i 82,779 
83,778 83,890 



84,896 85,008 
86,021 86,134 
87,154 87,268 
88,294 

89,441 89,556 

90,.596 90,712 

91,758 91,875 

92,928 53,045 

94,105 94,223 

95.289 95,408 

96,481 96,601 

'97,681 97,801 

98,887 99,008 

100,101 100,223 

101.323 101,445 

102,428] 102;552 102,675 

103,664 103,788103,912 



104,907 

10<J,15" 
107,415 
108,680 
109.953 
lli;2.33 
112,520 
113,815 
115,117 
116,427 
117.744 
119,068 
120,400 



105,032105,256 
106,283 106,408 



107,541 
108.807 
110,081 
111,361 
112,649 
113,945 
115,248 
116,558 
117,876 
119,201 
120,534 



121 ,740; 121, 874 
123,086' 123,221 



107,668 
108,934 
110,208 
111,490 
112,779 
114,075 
115,379 
116,690 
118,008 
119.334 
120,668 
122,008 
123,356 



6 

c. yds, 

^57669 
56,581 
57,501 
58,427 
59,361 
60,303 
61,252 
62,208 
63,172 
64.143 
65,121 
■€6,107 
67,101 
68,101 
69,109 
70,125 
71,148 
72,178 
73,216 
74,261 
75,314 
76,374 
77,441 
78,516 
79,598 
80,088 
81,785 
82:889 
84;001 
85,121 
86,247 
87,381 
88,523 
89,672 
90,828 
91,992 
93,163 
91,341 
95,527 
96,721 
97,921 
99,129 
100.345 



•7 
c. yds. 



55,760 

56,673 

57,593 

58,520 

59,455 

60,397 

61,347 

62.304 

63i268 

64,240 

65,220 

66,206 

67,200 

68,202 

09,210 

70,227 

71,251 

72,282 

73,320 

74,366 

75,420 

76,480 

77,548 

78,624 

79,707 

80,797 

81,895 

83,000 

84,112 

85,233 

86,360 

87,495 

88,637 

89,787 

90,944 

92,108 

93,280 

94,460 

95,646 

96,840 

98,042 

99,251 
100,467 
101.568J 101,691 
102,798,102,922 
104,036 iW, 160 
I05.38l'l05,406 
106,534 106,660 106,785 
107,794' 107,920 108,047 
109,0611109,188 " ■ 
110,336' 110,464 



111,618 
112,908 
114,205 
115,509 
116,821 
118,141 
119,467 
801 
143 



111,747 
113,037 
114,335 
115,640 
116,953 
118,273 
119,600 
120,935 
122,277 
I23,492i 123,62'; 



•8 

c. yds. , 

55,851 
56,765 
57,685 
58,613 
59.549 
60^492 
61,442 
62,400 
63,365 
64,338 
65,318 
66,305 
67,300 
68,302 
69.312 
70,329 
71,353 
72,385 
73,425 
74,471 
75,525 
76,587 
77,656 
78,732 
79,816 
80,907 
82,005 
83,111 
84,225 
85,345 
86,473 
87,609 
88,752 
89,902 
91,060 
92,225 
93,398 
94,578 
95,765 
96,960 
98,162 
99,372 
100.589 
101,813 
103,045 
104.285 
105,531 



9. 

yd.. 



109,316 
110,592 
111,876 
113,167 
114,465 
115,771 
117,085 
118,405 
119,733 
121,069 
122,412 
123,762 



55,942 
56,856 
57,778 
58,707 
59,643 
60,587 
61,538 
62,496 
63,462 
64,436 
65,416 
66,404 
67,400 
68.403 
69;413 
70,431 
71,456 
72,489 
73,529 
74,576 
75,631 
76,693 
77,763 
78,840 
79,924 
81,016 
82,116 
83,222 
84,336 
85,458 
86,587 
87,723 
88,867 
90,018 
91,176 
92,342 
93,516 
94,696 
95,884 
97,080 
98,283 
99,493 
100,711 
101,936 
103,169 
104,409 
105,656 
106,911 
108,173 
109,443 
110,720 
112,004 
113,296 
114,5% 
115,902 
117,216 
118,538 
119,867 
121,203 
128,547 
123,896 



^MB. 



TABLE Wo. XX li. 

(continued. ) 
contents of prisms with square bakes. 



. yd«. 



183124,033 
184 134,393 



185 126,7591126,896 



1 

yd*. 



104,169 
125,529 



186 138,133 

187 129,515 

188 130,904 

189 132,300 
19^133,704 

135,115 
136^33 
137,959 
194! 139,393 
195:140,833 



191 
192 
193 



128,271 
12I>,653 
131,043 
132,440 
133,844 
135,256 
136,676 
138,102 
139,536 
140,978 



2 

e. jit. 



196i 142,281 142,427 



197 
196 
199 
200 



143,737 
145,200 
146,670 
148,148 



143,883 
145,347 
146,818 
148,296 



124,305 
125,665 
127,033 
128,409 
129,792 
131,182 
132,580 
133,985 
135,388 
136,818 
138,^5 
139,680 
141,122 
142,572 
144,029 
145,493 
146,9(J5 
148,445 



3 

yd*. 



124,404 
125,802 
127,171 
128,447 
129,931 
131,322 
132,720 
134,126 
135,540 
136,960 
138,388 
139,824 
141,267 



4 

yd.. 



142,717 142,823 



144,175 
145,640 
147,113 
148,593 



124,576 
125,938 
127,308 
128,685 
130,069 
131,461 
132,861 
134,267 
I35,68r 
137,103 
138,532 
139,968 
141,412 



144,321 

145,787 
147,261 
148,741 



e. yd». 



124,712 
126,075 
127,445 
128,823 
130,208 
131,601 
133,001 
134,408 
135,823 
137,245 
138,675 
140,112 
141,556 
143,008 
144,468 
145,934 
147,408 
148,890|149,088 



c. yid*. 

126,212 

127,583 

128,961 

130,347 

131,741 

133,141 

134,549 

135,966 

137,388 

138;818 

140,256 

141,701 

143,164 

144,614 

146,081 

147,556 



•7 

c. yda. 

r24,984 
126,348 
127,720 
129,100 
130,486 
131,880 
133,282 
134,691 
136,107 
137,531 
138,962 
140,400 
141,846 
143.300 
144,760 
146,228 
147,704 
149,187 



• -8 

c. yd.. 



125,120 

126,485 

127,858 

129,238 

130,625 

132,030 

133'422 

134,832 

136,249 

137,673 

139,105 

140,545 

141,991 

143,445 

144,907 

146,376 

147,852 

149^ 



9. 

e. yds. 

125,256 

126,622 

127,996 

129,373^ 

130,764 

132,16a 

133,563 

134,973 

136,391 

137,816 

139,249 

140,689 

142,136 

143,591 

145,053 

146,523 

148,000 

149,484 



'- " 






.... . / 1 ; ■ 




".- >■" 


y " 




^v.- 


/ • ■ 


:. . ', " 


- v.r:. ,/,-->t ■-.•"* 


N 


• I 




!"■ .'..',: ' '. 



s-%-.. 






.■f '■ 



'«5-<- -*■-«• /pu^-£,-'^^- 



97 



TABLE No. XXIII. 

SLOPE i TO 1. 



Greater and le««er 
areas. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 



0022 

0044 

0067 

■0091 

0114 

0139 

0164 

0189 

0215 

0242 

0269 

0297 

•0326 

•0356 

•0387 

•0418 

•0451 

■0485 

•0520 

■0556 

•0594 

0633 

■0674 

•0716 

•0760 

•0806 

•0855 

•0905 

•0959 

•1015 

•1074 

■1136 

■1202 

■1272 

•1347 

•1426 

•1512 

•1603 

•1701 

•1807 

•1922 

•2047 

•2184 

2334 

•2500 

•2684 

•2890 

•3122 

•3385 



Dif. 

11 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 
13 
14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
16 
16 
17 
18 
18 
19 
20 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
•2 
28 
30 
31 
33 
35 
37 
40 
43 
46 
49 
53 
58 
63 
68 
75 
83 
92 
103 
116 
132 



a 

^22 

0043 

0064 

■0085 

0105 

0125 

■0145 

•0164 

•0184 

•0203 

•0222 

■0240 

•0259 

■0277 

•0295 

•0314 

•0332 

•0349 

■0367 

■0385 

■0403 

■0420 

•0438 

■0455 

■0473 

■0490 

•0508 

•0525 

■0543 

■0560 

•0578 

•0595 

•0613 

•0631 

•0648 

■0666 

■0684 

■0702 

0721 

■0739 

■0757 

•0776 

•0795 

■0814 

•0833 

•0853 

■0873 

■0893 

■0913 



Dif. 



10 

11 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



A-a 



0000 

■0002 

0004 

■0006 

■0010 

■0014 

•0019 

•0026 

0032 

•0039 

•0048 

•0057 

•0068 

0079 

•0091 

■0105 

•0120 

0136 

•0153 

•0171 

•0191 

■0213 

•0236 

•0261 

•0287 

•0316 

■0347 

•0380 

•0416 

■0455 

•0496 

•0541 

•0589 

•0642 

•0699 

■0760 

■0827 

0901 

•0981 

1068 

1165 

1271 

1389 

1520 

1667 

1832 

2018 

2230 

2472 



Dif. 

1 

1 
1 

2; 
2i 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5i 
51 

6; 

61 

I 

81 

9: 

91 

12 
12 
13 
14 

A 

18 

19i 

21| 

22! 

24 

26, 

28^ 

31 

34 

37 

40 

44 

48 

53 

59 

66 

73 

82I 

93 

106 

121 



Greater and lewer~ 
Horizontal dittancei. 



5044 
•5089 
■5135 
■5181 
5229 
•5277 
•5327 
•5378 
•5430 
•5484 
•5538 
5595 
•5653 
•5712 
•5774 
•5837 
•5902 
•5970 
•6040 
•6112 
•6188 
•6266 
•6347 
•6432 
•6520 
•6613 
•6709 
■6811 
•6917 
•7029 
•7147 
•7272 
•7404 
•7545 
•7694 
•7853 
•80-23 
•8205 
•8402 
•8614 
•8844 
•9094 
•9368 
•9668 
■0000 
•0368 
■0780 
•1244 
1770 



\ 
Dif. 

23 

23 

23 

24 

21 

25 

26 

26 

27 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

39 

41 

43 

44 

47 

48 

51 

53 

56 

59 

63 

66 

71 

75 

80 

85 

91 

99 

106 

115 

125 

137 

150 

166 

184 

206 

232 

263 



y 

•■^57 
■4914 
■4872 
■4831 
■4790 
•4750 
4711 
•4672 
•4633 
•4595 
•4557 
•4520 
•4483 
•4446 
•4409 
•43T3 
•4337 
•4301 
4266 
•4230 
•4195 
•4160 
•4125 
•4090 
4055 
•4020 
•3985 
•3950 
3915 
3880 
•3845 
•3810 
•3774 
•3739 
•3703 
■3668 
•3632 
•3595 
•3559 
•3522 
•3485 
•3448 
•3410 
•3372 
•3333 
•3294 
•3255 
•3215 
•3174 



DiT 

22 

21 

20 

20 

20 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 

19 



Y4-y 



10001 

10003 

10007 

10012 

10019 

10027 

10038 

10050 

10063 

10079 

10095 

10115 

10136 

10158 

10183 

10210 

10239 

1^0271 

10306 

10342 

10383 

10426 

10472 

1-0522 

10575 

10633 

10694 

10761 

10832 

10909 

10992 

11082 

11178 

11284 

11397 

11521 

11655 

11800 

11961 

1-2136 

12329 

1-2542 

1-2778 

13040 

13333 

13662I 

14035 

14459 

1-4944| 



Dif. 



i 

6 
6 

7 
8 
9 

m 
11 
121 

13 
14 
15 
16 

181 
1 



22; 
23i 

29| 
31 
34| 
36) 
39j 
42 
45 
48' 
531 
571 
62 
67 
73 
81 

88; 

97 
I07i 
118, 
131 
147 
165 
187 
217 
243 



Side 
distances. 



Great- 
er. 



■505 

■509 

•514 

•519 

•5-25 

■531 

■537 

•543 

•550 

•55 

•564 

•572 

■580 

■589 

■597 

•607 

•617 

•628 

•639 

651 

•663 

•676 

•690 

•704 

•720 

•736 

•753 

•771 

•791 

■812 

■834 

■858 

■883 

•910 

•939 

•971 

1005 

1^041 

1081 

1125 

1 172 

1-224 

1-281 

1344 

1414 

1493 

1-581 

1-681 

1-794 



Lea- 
ser. 

496 
492 
■488 
484 
481 
478 
475 
472 
469 
467 
•464 
462 
460 
■458 
457 
455 
454 
452 
451 
■460 
449 



449 22 



448 
448 
447 
447 
447 



44728 
448 29 

448 30 

449 31 
449 32 



23 
24 
25 
26 

27 



450 
451 
■452 
453 



45537 



•456 

•458 
460 
■462 
464 
466 
469 
471 
474 
477 
481 
484 



38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
46 
46 
47 
48 
49 



Y 



/\ 






:■ ■' 



;i.. 



J 

..Ok 



TABLE No. XXIV 

SLOPE 1 TO 1. 



Gieater and leiaec 
areas. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 



■0089 
•0181 
•0277 
•0376 
•0479 
•0587 
•0700 
•0818 
•0941 
•1070 
•1206 
•1350 
•1501 
•1661 
•1830 
.•2010 
•2202 
•2407 
•2626 
•2861 
•3115 
•3390 
•3686 
•4013 
•4369 
•4761 
•5194 
•5677 
•6219 
•6830 
•7527 
•8329 
•9-262 
10361 
11679 
1-3284 
1-5289 
1-7861 
31286 
2-6075 
3-3252 
45203 
6-9091 
14-0725 



Dif. 



0086 



§01G9 
''"lolOSio. 



56 
59 
6-2 
65 
68 
72 
76 
80 
85 
90| 
961 



A — a 



Dif. 



•*^-0476l^« 
0M7!g 

•0610!:^? 
■ofs-i!:^* 

•0750"^'^ 



■0814 
■0877 
0938.^ 



3-21 
31 
31 

:io> 



?gl226g 

j(4l387';2 
1?Z^143Q^^ 



149 
163! 

I78j, 
I96i 
217j, 
242J 



1439L- 

1540^, 
1590' 
1639 

1688 



26 
•25 
25 

1-251 
-24 

27ll.{S§-24 

•^<^'l830;^i 

•1877!.,^ 
1923j.1| 
1969!r^ 
2014L„ 
2059!^ 
2104*^^ 



318 
401 
467 
550 
659 
803 
•1002 
-1286 



45tofinite. 



«■ 
I 



2149 

-I7l3j|.^^ 

:S-2281 
.^^12325 

19441..^^ 

'■^^1-2456 
1-2500 



l-"*,' 



22 
i-22 
22 
'^ 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 



-0003 
-0012 

-00-281 

•0019! 

-0077| 

-011-2 

-01.531 

■0202,' 

•0-257 

-0321 

-03931 

•0173 

-0563 

-0663 

•0774 

•0890 

•103ll 

-1I80! 

•i:i45l 

-15271 

-1728! 

•195l! 

•2198 

•247^ 

•27791 

•3121 

•3507 

•39421 

•44351 

-5000 

•5650 

•frl06 

-7293 



Greater and lesser 
Horizontal distanceit. 



•8347 
•9619 
11180 
1-3140 
1-5668 
1-9049 
2-3794 
30927 
4^2834 
6-6678 
13-8-269 



5 
^ 
11 
14 
1 
21 
•24 
28 
32 
36 
40 
45 
50 
55 
61 
68 
75 
82 
91 
101 
111 
123 
137 
153 
171 
193 
218 
247 
282 
325 
378 
4M 
527 
636 
781 
980 
1264 
1690 
2373 
3.566 
5954 



Dif. 



10178 
1-0362 
lO.'wJ 
1-0752 
1-0959 
1-1175 
11400 
1 1635 
11882 
1-2141 
12413 
1-2699 
1-3002 
1-3321 
1-3660 
1-4020 
14404 
1-4813 
1-5-252' 
157-23 
16230 
16779 
1-7:^5 
1 ■80-26 
1-8737 
10521 
20388 
21354 
2-2437 
2-3660 
2-5051 
2-6657 
2-8523! 
3-07-23 
33357 
3-6569 
40577 
4 5722 
5-2572 
6-2150 
7-6503 
q2Jl00406 

5795 ii'^'^^ 
^'^^29-1450 

infinite 



D. 



go -9828 33 
q..]-9663^j 

?9i:|^^ 

JSJI-9f%!25 

^1-9049153 

118!.2x^j69 

123j.Q™qoi68i 

129 

136 



J. 
olf. 



143 
151 

160 
169 
180 

192 
2051 
219 
236i 



'8633; /;/.i 
850l|^^i 

-8247^1 
-8124S 
•8004!^§i 
■7887?^ 
■7772'?2 
7659|J 
7548?^ 
7439|* 



7332; 
'226'; 



254!I^^;53 

275 
298 
325 



'**"59 
7122 ^f 

-7020r/,i 

35<5i6919g^! 



6434!j^ 
-6340j'| 
-6247^11! 

6154!^^! 
-6063!?''! 

1606,1^45: 

5703!*^^ 

34-25it^ol44 

5437** 

5350 

5-262 

5175 

5087 

5OOO1 



392 
434 

483 
541 
612 
697 
802 
933 
1100 
1317 



2004 
2572! 



4789 
7176 
1951 
3888 
1634 



2-0006 
20025 
20055 
2-0098 
20154 
2-0223 
2-0306 
204031 
2-0515 
2-0642! 
20785 
2-0946 
2-1126 
21326 
2-154 
21792 
2-2062 
2-2361! 
2-2690! 
2-3054| 
2-3456| 
2-39021 
2-4396; 
24945! 
2-5557 
2-62431 
2-7013' 
2-78831 
2-8871 
3-OOOOi 
3-13011 
, 3-28121 
: 3-4586! 
3-66951 
3-9-239 
4-2361 
4-6280 
5-1336 
5-8097 
6-7588 
8-1853 
105668 
15-3356 



Side 
distances. 



Great- 
er. 



Let- 
ter. 



•983 
967 
952 
937 
923 
910 
■897 
•885 
874 
863 
-853 



44I29-6537J 
linfinite 



1-018 

1-037 

1-057 

1078 

1100 

1124 

1149 

1175 

1203 

1-233 

1-264 

1-298-843 

1-334 834 

1-373-825 

1-414-816 

1-459-808 

1-506 801 

1-559-794 

1-613-787 

1-673-780 

1-73W-774 

1-810-768 

1-888-762 

1-973-757 

2-067;-752 

2-1721-748 

2-288'-743 

2-418;-739 

2-5661-736 

2-732'-732 

2923-729 

3- 1431-726 

3 4011-7-23 

370.5-720 

4-072-718 

4-5201,-716 

5-081-714 

580a^712 

5 765-711 

8-113 710 



10 

15 

22 

28 

35 

4^ 

49 

56 

64 

72 

81 

90 
100 
111 
123 
135 
150 
165 
18-2 
201 
223 
217 
275 
306 
343 
385 
435 
494 
565 
651 
756 
8S7 
•1055 
•1272 
•1561 
•1960 
2528 
•3381 
•4746 

7^10137-709 
^^ 13 511 -708 
V^^ 30-261-708 
^^^^ 40 5161-707 
infin. '-707 



^ 
lAi 



TABLE No. XXY. 

SLOPE 1^ TO 1. 






1: • 






i5 

S o 
O o 

s 



Hcg 



-« <J» T*i cs -3 >« 55 < 









i-io»T3<r- 



+ 



___^ 

55oppp'-<-----(J»5<M-<a<T)<io-ot-«ftoc»'^r;-p-^ap-<s<(j»o<t^ 
sbeocoMecM«e»5eoMMM«ci^«eoeoM•^T^Tf^•^o»h»htb^-dDc^ 



:;:|y^ggs^ff|¥||f2i 8 s 8 s s g § s g s s $ 



cn>« in w eM 



t^cot^<nQt^t^gcp'l»MrO'-<--aoigor2a©^ 

-HiOOl^tOkOOOO^VO— it^'^ — O^OpX CDOi o 



aXQOOJt- 

_ aogx^o» 



I 2> »: 






I M » Oi C^ «0 P ^ 



X t^ lOM -H CT5X ' 



-<5jeoini^ai-HS-5?io^3j-xoo3}csr-xpo>ftOTQi^oX'^t^ — cc(Mc* 

-^ -H rt -1 ™ c5 5i CO ifs r- -^ © cc c« 



^*S 



'Xr^Xt^X<0O-J-«?<OO>nO'T*0^5*t--r5OXMOOO0J'^«55C^<M 

>ej3'^f't^aociOiO'^i?»(j»Mi.'}or^Ci'-ic»5oao-Hinoi>nM'«*iajo»c*©'n 



r »n to 1-- X © S4 ^ o in ro oTco X o X ift o 5* f^ >o u"} — '-^1-- o— I— 'oeieo©-^ 
i-i5Jwv«or"X©-<«>nt~ci'j<i>o?icooiir5focooc*rt<in©xc5— ■©o»in 




X Xljrf 

-_ ©O Oad 

CO »n O X ^^ 

M TS<o©db 



■§3 

a » 



-1^? 



-Hr^MCi«M©i^inc*©( 
C5Xxr^t^r"t^o«5a«n 



I ^ C9 A f X O -- CO 'J' O to X C5 O — I »>» CO 



;oTj<coi-©xi^«oiftTtiooo» — ©CiOJXr^r^o 
nftinift»n»n^Tjf^Tji-»j<Tj<Tj<T!<Tjicococo co co co 

© ift'X^ 

X in c) © 



i>c^©«t^'0?3C?coco5>— l©«ixr^■g'X©©l>cot:x<^J^- 
©©o—''^ — — '->--— <-^s»«o»o5c45JcM5*e!t5jcococoeoeocococorofo 



1 ■«i< •* ; 



I — ©XtDT-0» - _ 

'55©©r?<?35»S"«s">n'or- 



t CO a5C:'»ninint^©ino»'-'*< 
©-^r-ojeo'*<in;oxoi'Hco«nc 



rs ■.oci'-<'*'-<C5"*xc5 « ^ © in»-- © j^© 
)rt'^XT»<©xi-©coxci'«s>'Mcotn-^ine5 
(eocow^k5o«DXCJ»-<'*'C--t3r~i--oa-. -H 

rHi— l^-C)CO»n©-HtO 



5j in © oi CO • 



co2i^i^c^^5<'a-<(j»-^c»rj<rteoo»— ii^'-oxoiXt^-^'-" •^co 



ICOOJX --« t^ 
>coo© ino 
i(M «foeoeo 



,-i-^r-i-H-ic:<c»(y}eo^«o-< 



-^C»C0'*i0Ot-X0J©'-<(SIC0-^«050t~X05 



-S 



-saaoSaQ 



SoS^ot^otCTa^CTScowtoc? 






»H-'- 1 V /' 



* >^. 



f \/ 



^" 



/( 



TABLE No. XXVI. 

8LOPK 2 TO 1, 



■S99lS3(J 



.-ic<e»s-*»o«oc-aoo»o-^c»e»jT>>«ntD<^cD055j-<c>» 



S^'J^S^SSoJ 



3 c 
to « 



-5 1^ 






O 






'•''-' -^ PO o> 



+ 



« e 

Q O 

a 



H« 







i5» 



r^r^l•^T*<■^•^•4^■T}^■^•^■^■<i•lh^hvhlhow^~dbci'^r^^C50CJ 
<— ^ 1-1 w OP 






in -^ f^ ^ 17' '~' '^ "i* c^- ^ '-' "^ !^ "^ 
Sloo-^ljiN'ft'-'XiaooMao^ 
cs^ — iftOinQ^Pi-it^TfOoec 
OiaoaDt^t^053ininTj<-*Tj<eoco 



^?=:g5 









-Jc.5 



OO 

CO Tf 



O 5 I-" O 05 O ■«»< I 



(OJC*-"? 







ift irt ift t— o 



o ift t- . _ 






-t'.^ 



I- I- O « 1 



,-1 ,^ I— 1 C* m ^<< ta 



M ^ s (N SS 



<3 
I 



>ft 00 ?> 3: c» ■^ 

■5* CS 'N Ci M CJ 




—I CO 



i;] QDODOs — ■^QD-<Oi-"WC»aeg"«x»ncooapio«— OoDt© 
Hc<^ »ft^e<5c<5ci^'-ooc5C»QDaoaDi^t~t-r^3«5o?o«SiB35 



1 1^ CO Oi I 



cit^o»'»i'55i^ci;js^i^S5>rt'»t<o^aceccnai-<o 



Ci C5 C^' *^ S5 

o oc vn c) ob 



^2^3§ 



C CO '-P o c* 'T i^ C-. — -* Q i~ C-. — cc -f o J- sr, o c^ r-; ■^ u"; r- 00 o> 



M^c 



r4 0» <S « CT 



o?IliBgSfl*St;§s< 



>Q toooao»^< 

I ift •n' — 1 OC >— ifl" ( 



icoe<5Tj<^inoi»QDo-NT(<i^ 



"PO i-i< 






— (NO* 



^ r^ — » — p c* ci -sO ■ 







•saajgaql'^ 



CJrOTfkO^i^QOCJOF-ojeotin'Xii-aoCTsOr- 



§o5SS?S!c» c* 



^•rilJ 



. . Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Report. .riJ0. 

BJEPORT OF THE PHlLADELrHIA AND READING RAILROAD COWANY. 

To the Stockholders of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. 

The finances of the company at the commeacement of the last yetr were 
in a state of great embarrassment. ^ 

The first object of the managers was to raise a moderate sum of money, 
on a temporary loan, to discharge a per centage of the pressing claims on 
the company, and to pay cash for expenses and further construction. Tins 
was done. The credit of the company was sensibly improved, and large 
reductions were made in the prices of wages, and of materials used on the 
road. 

Owing to the fact that the shipments of coal had usually been discontinued 
about the 1st of December, and not resumed until about the 1st of April fol- 
lowing, the quantity of coal transported in the months of January and Feb- 
ruary was small. In March a material improvement took place, and in 
April the trade was only limited by the engines and cars, want of additional 
track and turnouts, and Uie wharf accommodation then possessed by tl^e 
company. * ' /rf 

To provide these additional facilities for the increasing transportation, to 
repay the temporary loan, and to continue the gradual discharge of pressing 
claims on the company, a loan to the amount of $500,000 was obtained in 
May last, on an issue of bonds secured by a mortgage, as authorized by the 
stockholders 10th of June, 1836. 

In July, o\ving to the additional machinery on the road, and the greater 
efficiency of the track and wharves, the coal traffic was still further in- 
creased, and since then has been rapidly enlarged, as the annexed statement 
of transportation receipts will show. 

Accompanying this is a report of the superintendant of transportation, 
giving statements of the various expenditures in his department ; and also a 
report of the engineer of the road, of the expense of repairs of track, bridges, 
etc., and its present good condition, both of which exhibit a very satisfactory 
state of efficiency of the road and of its moving power. 

The experience of last year's operation on the road having so entirely 
confirmed the opinion of the importance of an entire double track, and an 
extension of the wharves at Richmond, a successful effort has been made to 
accomplish this object by the negotiation of a loan to raise the sum of one 
million of dollars, for which the managers have agreed to give the bonds of 
the company, secured by a new mortgage, to be made payable in 1860 ; in- 
terest at six per cent, per annum, and convertible into stock at the option of 
the holder. Measures have been taken to complete the work at the earliest 
possible period. When this is done, and an additional number of cars and 
engines, which are also to be provided, are placed on the road, this great 
work will be powerfully effective and capable of doing a largely increased 
business : and it gives me pleasure to add, that I have found a strong desire 
among the dealers in coal, produce and merchandize, to avail themselves of 
the use of the road, if extended facilities are given them for transportation. 

In the month of March last, a temporary mortgage as collateral security, 
was executed to cover the amount of $212,635, which will be due in June, 
1845, for the 450 coal cars and 12 locomotive engines furnished. 

When the loan of May last was agreed on, it was deemed expedient and 
proper by the managers to increase that mortgage to an amount which would 
raise such further means as might be required to settle or pay off still more 
of the floating debt, and enable the company to make such further improve- 
ments on the road as were needed ; accordingly, the mortgage wa.s executed 
to cover the issue of two hundred and twenty-five thousand pounds sterling 



§3 Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Report. 

bonds, aitd six hundred thousand dollars of dollar bonds, payable in 1860, 
with interest at six per cent., and convertible into stock at the option of the 
holder. Of these, there has been issued for sales and as collaterals, 
Of sterling bonds, - . ' - • £157,000 

Of dollar bonds, - - - - $251,500 

leaving now on hand, in possession of the treasurer, £68,000 of sterling 
bonds, and $348,500 of dollar bonds, for any purposes which may be required. 

I submit herewith a statement of the liabilities of the company made by 
S. Bradford, Esq., secretary and treasurer, which, having increased materi- 
ally over that of last year, calls for the following explanations. 

The critical position of the company in 1842, and the unfinished state of 
the road, obliged the managers then to raise money at great sacrifices, for 
which bonds have been issued the past year, according to their agreement. 

The improvements on the road, and general extension of its capacity and 
moving power, which has been going on through the whole of the past year, 
have necessarily materially increased the items of " construction account," 
and " locomotive engines and cars." '.- • 

The still large amount of" notes payable," notwithstanding the very con- 
siderable sum paid this year in cash, is accounted for by a large portion of 
the judgments represented in last year's ballance sheet and part of the loan 
due in 1843, being this year merged into " notes payable," and by numerous 
settlements with contractors, and for land damages, etc., which, till this year, 
it has not been in the power of the company to make an adjustment of, now 
largely reduced. 

"The " bonds and mortgages on real estate" existed previous to the last 
year. To represent the true cost of this property, the amount is now charged 
on " real estate" account. 

The "drafts payable" have been reduced from $102,170, on December 1, 
1842, to $26,955, December 1, 1843, which will soon be liquidated. 

I have to state that a settlement was effected in April last of the large 
debt to the trustees of the bank of the United States, at a gain to the com- 
pany, of $75,000. 

The officers and agents of the company in their respective departments, 
have fulfilled their duties in a manner which has been gratifying to me, and 
1 trust that the general management of this important work the past year, 
during which it has been raised from a position of great depression, to its 
present effective state, will meet the approval of those interested in it 

Very respectfully, ^^ 

January 3, 1844. John Cryder, President. * 



To the President and Board of Managers of the Philadelphia and Redd- 
ing Railroad Company. 

Gentlemen — The following report of the operations on the road, during 
the eleven months ending November, 30th, of the present year, of its busi- 
ness and its machinery, is respectfully submitted. 

The business of the road in its most important feature, the transportation 
of coal, has been almost wholly dependant upon, and proportioned to, the 
increase of track facilities, and of machinery, engines and cars, furnished 
for that purpose, during the present year. 

In the last report of the general superintendant, of December 31st, 1842, 
there were on the road, at that date, 1130 coal cars, and 16 coal engines ; 
these numbers have been increased to 1592 coal cars, during the months of 
May and June of this year, and to 30 locomotive engines, adapted to hauling 
coal, between the months of June and September, 1843. 



■.-(■'L■:■^t..^:■.'-' 



Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Report. W 

Statement A will show in detail the force of machinery at present on the 
road. 

The quantity of coal hauled over the road to June 30th, before the ma- 
chinery had been increased to its present force, and the track and wharves 
made more effective, amounted to 62,099 tons; since which time, to the 
present date, a period of five months, the coal tonnage has risen to 156,612 
tons, making a total of 218,711 tons of coal transported to market during 
the eleven calender months ending November 30th, 1843. 

The efficiency of the road in passing, with expedition and safety, coal, 
freight and passenger trains, moving in opposite directions, has been very 
materially increased by the completion, in July last, of 10 miles of double 
track, extending fiom Baumstown to one mile above Reading. ": - 

Statement C exhibits in detail the expenses of the transportation department 
of the road, and statement D, the apportionment of these expenses to the 
several items of business on the road — coal, freight and passengers. 

It will be observed, from the latter statement, that the actual cost of haul- 
ing coal from the mines to the Delaware, including returning the empty cars 
has been, during the year, but 46 cents per ton. This has been much 
higher than may be calculated on for the future, for the following reasons : 

1st. The inferior quality of construction of most of the coal cars built for 
the company, owing, in a great measure, to the haste with which they were 
constructed, causing an unnecessary frequency of accident from breaking 
axles, etc., and a serious increase in their repairs. 

2d. The comparatively small and uncertain business done in the early 
part of the year, which consequently increased the cost of carriage per ton, 
from engines failing to obtain trains from either end of the line, and running 
in some cases with loads below their allotted compliments. 

3d. From the expense, direct and indirect, attending the employment of 

12 new engines, built by the Locks and Canals Co., each of these being 

placed in the heavy business of the road, immediately on being put together, 

and, on several occasions,- failing when on duty, from defective arrangements, 

. and quality of some of the lighter gearing. 

4th. From the short period, (the last three months only.) during which 
. there has been employed a new system of working the road, by which the 
maximum effect of all its machinery and track facilities was obtained, with 
an evident economy resulting. 

6th. The greater proportion of light six wheeled engines, in the first six 
months of the year, compared with the whole number in the latter part ; the 
former hauling lighter trains, and consequently increasing the cost per ton 
. of coal. 

Lastly. Tiie greater experience gained by the year's working of the road 
and its machinery, pointing out where improvements or alterations may be 
' made with advantage and economy, in either the general features or minute 
detail^f the important work under your direction. 

From the above considerations, it is confidently believed that the cost 
of hauling coal per ton, during the ensuing year, 1844, will not exceed 40 
.cents. 

On a comparison, it is found that the receipts from passengers for the 
present year, amount to but 77 per cent, of those of 1842. This falling off, 
: however, has been materially checked by a reduction of the rates of fare, 
which took place on July 24th last, since which date the receipts have in- 
creased to 89 per cent, of the same period last year ; having been previous 
lo that date only 69 per cent, of the receipts of that year. 

The passenger fares now charged are f 2 50 and $2 00 for the 93 miles. 



W.I - 



9i> Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Report 

A still greater increase of passenger travel and receipts may be confident- 
ly anticipated during the ensuing year, and for the future, when the low 
rates of fare now charged shall have become more extensively known and 
circulated. ;.^ 

Alterations are now making on some of the light four wheeled passenger 
engines, which will increase their speed by some three or four miles an hour 
at a trifling expense ; which, when effected, will allow a more favorable 
comparison with other well constructed roads in speed of passenger trains — 
an important object to this road. 

It may be stated, as a gratifying fact, that notwithstanding the very heavy 
amount of tonnage passed over the road during the past eleven months, 
56,554 passengers have been transported without the slightest personal in- 
jury to any one. 

By reference to statement A, it will be seen that the company own at 
present 39 locomotive engines, built by the following makers : ^^ 

8 passenger and light freight engines, made by Braithwait & Miilncr, London. 
12 coal engines, made by Locks and Canals Co., Lowell. ;, 

.3 " " Eastwick & Harrison, Philadeljiiia. 

2 « " Wm. Norris, PhUadelphia. V"*. 

5 " . " Newcastle Manufacturing Co., Newcastle, DeL 

'-• 3 «« . K Dottcrcr <& Co., Reading, Pa. 

' r 6Kght" ' " M. W. Baldwin, Philadelphia. 

1 four wheeled with vertical boiler to bum coal, nmde by Roes Winans, Baltimore. 

All of which are at this date in good running order, or undergoing such 
light repairs as to be ready for service on the road at two days notice, with 
the exception of one of the new engines, now altering with a view of fully 
testing the use of anthracite coal for fuel 

Convenience and economy will both render the successful result of this 
experiment most desirable, although several previous attempts to burn this 
fuel with advantage have been attended with an expense and inconvenience 
which, in some cases, deranged the business of the road. 

The undersigned is aware of the importance of introducing this fuel upon 
a road which depends mainly upon the coal trade and the coal region for 
its support; but has been unwilling to expose the road, while working 
smoothly and passing a heavy business over its single track, to that incon- 
venience which has hitherto in most cases, on this as well as other roads, at- 
tended such experiments. 

It is hoped and believed that the attempt will eventually succeed, and ail 
that skill, experience and ingenuity can suggest, will be done to effect this 
most desirable object. 

The tonnage of the last eleven months on the Reading railroad, with all 
the disadvantages of a want of sufficient machinery early in the season, al- 
ready exceeds that of any double or single track railroad in the country, and 
it is believed, that of any single track railroad in the world. ^ 

It amounts, as per statement B, to 317,277 tons. 

Although material reductions will be made, as before stated, in many items 
of the expenses of the road, for the coming year, the undersigned may yet 
solicit a comparison of the expenses of the department entrusted to his charge, 
with those of other railroads, considered the best and most economically 
managed'ln the eastern States. 

It will be found that the average expense of ten of the most important of 
these railroads is six per cent per mile over that of the Reading railroad, 
while that of only three is le.ss — each with a tonnage supposed not more 
than one-tenth of that of this road. -^ — ' ■ .^ «....=. j^.>.v*. - v,»a * . 



.>«u*t- k^'^.^i^A. 



Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Report, 8& 

The average weight of loaded coal traint down the road during the past 
eleven months^ including the cars, has been 299 tons, equal to 49 j\ car* 
loaded with 3fJ- tons of coal each, or a nett weight of 161^8 tons (2340 lba.> 
of coal to each train. The average weight of empty coal trains up the 
road, for the same period, has been 121 tons, equal to 50 j^ empty coal car» 
of 2 tons 2 cwt. each. 

The gross expenses of the transportation department of the roed are ex- 
hibited in detail in statement C. It is proper to state, that some portion of 
these expenses were necessarily larger on the commencement of a business 
of such magnitude, without the required facilities for carrying it on — -such 
as turn-outs, track room, machihery and workshops, and supply of water to 
water stations. A very considerable portion also of these expenses may be 
considered permanent, and are but slightly increased by a business double or 
treble that hitherto done jjn the road. Among the latter expenses mky be 
enumerated the repairs of road-way, salaries of officers and agents, station- 
ery and printing, hauling across Schuylkill bridge, wages of watchmen, 
coal for offices and stations, wages of depot hands, in part, materials for de* 
pots, water rents, etc. 

The experience gained by those in charge of the several departments of 
the road, will prove most valuable to its business for the future in decreasing 
ks expenses and adding to its facilities. 

The expenses for the coming year will show a omsiderable saving in 
several important items, which may here be alluded to. All the brass cast- 
kigs and coppersmith work of the line are now done at the company's work- 
shops at Reading, under the superintendance of the foreman, of a much 
better quality than were before purchased elsewhere, and with a saving of 
two-fifths of the expense. 

Babbit's patent friction nsetal has been introduced very successfully into 
all the running gearing of the engines, as well as the car boxes, with a sa- 
ving of friction, oil and wear and tear. Ray's patent spring is now used al- 
together on the road, with a saving of one-fourth in weight and expense. 

A considerable proportion of the repairs of coal cars was on account of 
axles, mostly of inferior quality, breaking on the road. An arrangement 
has been made with an eminent manufacturer of these important articles, by 
which axles of a most superior quality are furnished at a trifling advance 
upon those which have proved defective, with which the latter are replaced 
when found necessary. 

It is believed that gr^t advantages will result to the road by using sheet 
iron coal cars, one of which is now building by the company. It will weigh 
but 2J- tons, will carry 5 tons of coal, will last much longer, cost less for 
repairs, and diminish the cost for carrying coal about 20 per cent., by the 
greater proportion of useful to useless weight. 

An economy is also anticipated in the use of steel axle journals and chilled 
cast iron boxes, in the coal cars, by diminishing friction and the quantity of 
grease required. 

On reference to statements C and D, c^ the expenses of the road, it will 
be seen that the sum paid the State for tolls and motive power, over the 3^ 
miles of their road, during the past eleven months, amounted to ^12,384 57. 
To this must be added the expenses of hauling across the Schuylkill bridge, 
and extra conductors, watchnien, etc., making a total of $13,670 07 for Uie 
eleven months, or $14,912 80 per annum. 

The cost of conveying a passenger from Pottsville to the junction with 
the State railroad, 89^ miles, has been, during the past year, 38i^ cents, in- 
cluding pay of engineer conductor, fireman, fuel, tallow, water, oil, repain 
of engine, tender arid cars. . ':; . : r . / 



^K Philadelphia and Reading jtailroad Report. 

The amount paid to the State on each of tliese same passengers, for use 
of the 3^ miles of their road and motive power above, is 13^ cents, besides 
the cost of hauling across the Schuylkill bridge. 

The cost of hauling coal over this road, from tho junction of the Read- 
ing railroad to Philadelphia, not including repairs of cars, is 14| cts. per ton. 

In conclusion, it may be confidently stated, that the future prospects and 
value of the noble improvement under your management is most encouraging. 

It stretches from the most extensive anthracite coal region in the United 
States, to its second city in population and importance. 

The supply of the material constituting its chief dependence for tonnage 
is inexhaustible, and is mined by a hardy, enterprising and rapidly increas- 
ing population, and can pass to the Philadelphia market by no shorter or 
more direct route than the Reading railroad. 

In the carriage of its coal to tide water, it is assisted by the power of 
gravity overacting in the required direction of the descending trade, through 
a fall of 590 feet, and so spread over the 94 miles, that the power of the en- 
gine in taking back its empty train, is no more taxed than when hauling the 
previous train loaded over a level. 

The length of the road allows neither more or less than one good day's 
work per trip of 94 miles to all hands employed on the train, and therefore 
secures a maximum of economy in the item of men's wages. 

The article carried cannot be stolen, lost or destroyed ; and even in cases 
of accident, it is taken and used by the company at cost price. 

The valley of the Schuylkill, through which this railroad passes, is one 
of the richest in the Slate in fertility of soil, mineral and agricultural pro- 
ductions. Iron in every stage, from the ore to the bar, lime stone, grain, 
flour and all the produce of the farm and the forest, are within reach along 
its whole route, and, with the accompanying travel, contribute to its revenue. 

Its ability to command and transport the whole of this trade will go on 
increasing, since every year presents new improvements in the management 
and machinery of railroads, tending to their economy and efficiency. 
All which is respectfully submitted, by your obedient servant, 

G. A. NicoLLs, 
Sup. trans, mot. paiver and machinery Phil. Read, and Potts, railroad. 

Reading, Pa., Nov. 30, 1843. 



Statement A. 



Amount of running machinery on the Philadelphia, Reading and Potts- 

ville railroad, November 30<A, 1843. 

1592 4 wheded coal care. 

12 8 wheeled passenger care. < ... ••■t.;'icv '. 
2 4 II n « .1 ^ 

6 4 " baggage " 

20"inaU. 



23 8 wheeled engines, from 11 to 13 3-4 tons 

7 6" " " 10 1-2 to 12 1-2 " 

8 4" "all 8 4-lff" 
14 " for use of anthr. coal, wt. 10-43. 

X9 in all. Above weights in running order. 

169 4 wheeled truck freight care. 

18" " " 

16 4 " covered^ " 

2 8" " . .,. « 

a^liiaU. 



Engines and cars contracted for, not yet de- 
livered — 1 locomotive engine, of the heaviest 
class, for Falls grade, from Newcastle Manu- 
facturing co; 24 open freight car truck bodies 
to be mounted as covered cars. 

Statement B. 
Of amount of business on the Philadelphia, Reading and Pottsville rail' 
road,jor the first eleven months of 1843. 

Total amount of coal transported in tons of 2240 lbs., 218,711 

mdze. " " 2000 " 17,534 

" tonnage for use road, earth, rails, stone, sills, pipes etc. 2000 lbs., 54,787 

Totad tonnage of road, in tons of 2000 lbs., 317,277 



i'J^ i^Civ 1^ ^-..'z^'.'jtJrli-S''; '/.^.•'i iiii-^M 



PhiiadelpMa and Reading Railnad Report, 9$- 

ToUl numfter of passengers transported, •■ • ^^ •■ - • 56,564 

" " miles travelled by the same, - - r * -*'• - 2,457,439 

Equal to, in through passengers over whole length of road, '>*r; • . = - 26,484 

Oross receipts from passenger travel, - '~^r'''-it\"'.f^^''- .; • : $71,895 21 

" " freight on merchandize, ' - V • :\ : ■ * 37,926 57 

«' " "coal, - - ..;;/>.; ^ 278,84020 

" " transportation of United States maO, '^ • ' - 5,500 00 

•♦ " all otner sources, - - .v:-:-^^\^<i'^ - 1 56 51 

/^'^/ 'V' S394,318 49 

Deduct debts outstanding, djie company, Nov. 30th, 1843, /J; .i^L •';;:. 9,123 10 

Nett receipts of road for 11 months, - - ^ • .irsi $385,195 39 

'■-'■' '^^ ^:-r Statebient C. 

Gtoss expenses of the transportation department for the first eleven months 
of 1843. 

RUNNING ACCOCNT. • .. . Ki' . 

Wages of engineers, conductors, breakmen, etc., . - ' . - 34,449 2l •-f. 

Fuel, 15,554 5-8 cords wood, - ... 36,18244 

OU, 5,796 1-2 gallons, - - - .- •■ . - 4,375 81 

Tallow and lai3, - - - ; V . !< - 2,008 72 

Columbia railroaid expenses, amount paid State, - - 12,384 57 "li, 

*' " hauling across Schuylkill bridge, 1,010 00 ., -^irr 

Hauling cars in Broad street, - - ..» " " 884 84 . ■ ;jf/ 

Loading and unloading wood and freight, '■"'-'■ - 2,221 85 \v-2r 

Renewals of articles for coal trjuns, ropes, lamps, etc^ - ; . . v, -* 1,108 64 ^ **> 

Cotton waste, - - - - ""^ -^ ^^ '•* ' 

Goods damaged, stolen or lost, - - .•^ . *. ^^ 1^ .r 

Coal broken on road, tild used by company, • ^ '« 698 28 

Sundry small items, - - - ■ V - • - 1,227 73—97,029 37 

WORKSHOP ACCOUNT. — [See Statement E and F.] 
Wages of mechanics, at repairs, engines, cars, etc., - - 23,058 05 

Bar iron, steel and other materials for do., ». ,. • - 9,828 68 .^ ** 

Iron and brass castings, and copper work, - ■ ,- V - 2,443 08 * 

Timber for repairs, engines and cars, - .-.*, . ■ - i p.-,; 1,600 73 ■ . ' : ' '? 

Coal for stationary engine and smith's fires, -.,;-'* 78644 

Sundry small items, - - - i,»; -. 566 51— 38,283 4J 

DEPOT ACCOUNT. 

Wages of depot hands, pumping water (jJ4,460,) watchmen, etc. i.;:*r 

f$l ,804 50,) cutting wood, tending freight, etc., - . - 18,650 3* • - ■• -^T 

Bills of cutting wood, ... • 1,333 51 

Coal for water stations and offices, 148 1-2 tons, .^ •► : -. it- 610 06 " -Sv 

Water rents, - - - .'-::: <'^^-^^^ A 255 00 " ^' 

Taxes on property and real estate, - ^ -.-.-■ - : ..,„■ ■^.,;*' 324 73 

Sundry small items, materials, etc., - "• • .' . gQ^ g-y — ■ 21,781 65 

OFPrCE AND SUPERINTENDANCB ACCOCNT. 

Printing, advertising, stationary, furniture, articles for offices, & rent, 2,114 94 
Fees of magistrates, law expenses, etc., ... 154 92 
Salaries of alt officers, agents, and clerks in deportment, - 12,269 36 — 14,539 29 

Gross cxpensffi of department for 11 months, - $171,633 73 

: ,::v >;:: Statement D. 
Nctt or actual expenses of the first eleven months of the year 1843. , ;. 
Transportation of 218,711 tons of coal, from Pottsville and Schuylkill Haven 

to Richmond, on the Delaware, and to junction with State road, at 46 cts., $100,607 06 
Transportation of 26,424 passengers to junction State road at 38 7-lOthB cts., 10,226 flO 
Transportation of 17,534 tons merchandize, between Pottsville, Reading and 

other points, and State road, at 66 1-2 cents, ... 11,66011 

•Transportation of sundry materials for use of road, including 40,484 tons of 

earth, 1274 tons rails and iron for track, 8,031 tons sills and stone, 50 tons 

pipe, and sundries, amounting to 54,787 tons, at 5 cents, - - 2,739 35 

Saperintendance and salaries of all officers, agents and clerks, and coal a<Tent3 

at depots, - - - - - " - 13,790 61 

Expenses on Columbia railroad and in Broad street, -*'>-' y..^v•^*^••.■ 14,471 91 

Wages of watchmen at depots, - - 'w; -,•--• 1,80450 

Sundry repairs to, and materials furnished depots, - .^ , . . , 1,198 42 

Making patterns, tools and sundries at workshops, - . "* ,. 1,500 51 

Over, $157,995 56 



«8 



•w CSort -of TrKiTisportation on Canals, \ 



$164,549 30 


S2,774 40 1 


'.- "•'■ - 4>' 


- 1,120 00 


•-*". --;'■, 


987 33 '. 




234 26 


370 63 .,Y, 


- 353 33 


701 15 


- 200 00 


343 33- 7,084 43 



Brought up, S157,995 96 

Additions and alteration^ of locomotive engines, as sandboxes, waterpipea, etc., %2 58 
Alterations and additions to Reading worlwhops, ... 495 40 

Making and fitting up niachinery for do., - . - . 559 93 

Building and altcnng foitr wheeled into six wheeled tenders, - - 1,278 97 

Office exp's, printing, stationary, atlvertising, furniture, coal, rents, materials, etc., 2,619 08 
All other expenses not enumerated, taxes, etc., ... 634 84 

Actual nett expenses. 
Add for materials on hand as follows: 
Wood, - - - - •^ 

Iiwi, cast and wrought, and steel, - 
Iron and steel, made up, . . - 

Wheels and axles, - - - 

Engine and car fires, _ - - 

Copper work, made up, - - - 

Brass, lead, etc., - - - _ - 

Bituminous coal, - I. - j^ 

Timber and lumber, - ' - *?;*■* - " 

Gross expenses, - ' • 

Statement E. 
Repairs of locomotives, for the first eleven months of 1843. 
Cost of all materials used, iron, steel, brass, etc., 
Wages of mechanics, . - . - - 

Superintcndance, cal, tools, paints, etc, - - - 

Equal to 4 2-10 cents for each ton of 2000 lbs., ... 

DETAILS OP WORKING OP ABOVE ENGINES. 

Total number of miles run by heavy coal and freight engines, » 

Total number of miles run by light 4 wheeled passenger engines, - ,_ . 

Total number huIcs run, - - - - - 

do. do. tons hauled one mile, - - - . 

Average gross weight of loaded coal trains down the road, exclusive of engine 

and tender, in tons, ---... 
Average gross weight of empty coal trains, up the road, as ebovc. 
Average gross weight of passenger trains, in tcMis, ... 

duantity of sperm oil us<xi by coal engines and tenders, per trips of 90 miles 

with above trains, in quarts, ..... 
Quantity of sperm oil used by passenger train engines, per trips of 90 miles in qts^ 
Total number trips of passenger trains, - . - - 

Statement F. 
Repairs, and working of coal, freight and passenger cars, during the first 

eleven months of 1843. 

COAL AND FREIGHT CARS. .:" n-.-jj'.' :-...? 

Cost of all materials, iron, stccJ, brass, etc., - • . $2,617 12 

" timber and lumber, ..... 1^386 89 
Wages of mechanics, - - . - » ^ 9,013 55 



__ $171,633 73 

- $2,208 71 
9.804 90 

- 1,210 62 

$13,224 23 
313,392 



% 



79,800 



393,193 
59,797,126 

299 

131 

9S 

399 
269 
667 



Superintendanoe, oil, tools, paint, etc.. 

Total cost, - . . - 

Or 4 1-2 cents per ton of 2000 lbs. 
Number gallons oil used by freight and coal cars, > 
do. lbs. tallow 'do. do. 

PASSENGER CAR8. 

<>>st of all iron, timber and materials. 

Wages of mechanics, ... 

Sundry charges, glass, paint, varnish, etc., • 

Total cost, .... 

Equal to 3 cents per each through passenger. 
Number gallons oil used by passenger cars, 
Number pounds tallow used by do. 



1,301 74 
•14,319 30 

: - 1,530 
29,133 

$243 28 

- 559 16 

100 30 



$902 7« 



For the American Railroad Journal and M«ciuuiici' MsKaciiM. 
COST OF TRANSPORTATION ON CANALS. BY W. R. 



25 
1.053 



CASEY, CIVIL ENGINEER. 



The great object of canals and railways is to reduce the cost of transpor» 
tation to the lowest practicable limits which yield a reasonable income on 



^"A .a'i ^ -r-. 



Cost of Transportation on Canats. 9^ 

the capital invested in their construction. A correct understanding of the 
rates of toll requisite to insure this fair retura is, therefore, of vital impoi- 
tanca It is not strange that great difference of opinion should prevail as to 
the cost of transportation on railways, for the only road in the country built 
for the accommodation of a large business ia freight, has been but a fe\r 
months in full operation. Still its friends and foes have ventured to prophecy 
its success and ruin with the utmost confidence. 

It is however strange that an equal difference of opinion prevails as to the 

cost of transportation on canals. The president of the Schuylkill navigation 

company states, * 

" In the past season the whole charge for carrying coal upon the SchuylkiM naviga- 
tion, including freight and toll, ha.s been less than one cent and a quarter per ton per 
mile, and it may be materially reduced hereafter." 

From this we may conclude that he looks forward to a total charge of one 
cent per ton per mile, the toll being Mie-half cent per ton per mile. At this 
rate the Erie canal would be a complete failure, and the Delaware and Hud- 
son canal requires eight mills per ton per mile, nett profit, to pay a reasonable 
dividend. The Schuylkill canal must, therefore, have advantages of which 
we in New York know nothing, having always considered the Erie canal 
as not only unsurpassed but unrivalled by any similar work in its favorable 
location, small cost, moderate lockage^ immense business, and, more Ifaiuk 
all, its rigorous monopoly. 

The Erie canal is 363 miles long, has 698 feet lockage, cost to this time 
at least $10,000,000 ; ordinary expenses about $1,000 per mik per »npuin, 
and with extraordinary repairs and renewals about $500,000 per annum. 

In 1840, there moved on the canal 829,960 tons, the income was (less 
$58,458 87 for passengers) $1,478,141 62=$1-781 per ton. The average 
movement in 1839 was determined with precision, and was 154 miles. The 
freight that year was 848,007 tons. (Assembly doc. 1840, No. 306, p. 38.) 
Now $1'781^-154=$00115 per mile per ton of 2000 Jbs.= 01288 per 2240 
lbs. per mile=more than 150 per cent, advance on the charges of the Schuyl- 
kill canal. 

^^ ' Again, 829,960x-2-=*639,069 20 

■.-.i^-r^': Less ordinary expenses, 363 



*.7- 



■.#^^1-: 



Leaving for renewals and interest, $276,069 20 ^ ■ v;' V *" 

or 25- per cent, on the low estimate of $10,000,000. This is however talcing 
the ton at 2000 lbs., but the reader will probably consider the "reductio ad 
absurdum" carried far enough. 

In the elaborate report above alluded to, in which every thing connected 
with the Erie canal is tinted " couleur de rose," it is said, (p. 39,) *^ • 

" The actual cost of transporting a ton on the present canal, including eveiy species 
of expense, except tolls to the State, ia, on the average, nine mills per mile. 

It is not stated whether this includes the profits of the forwarder, but it is 
less than the average charge of last year, which was at least \\\ mills per 



90 



Cost of Transportation on CaTUils, 



mile per 3240 lbs. for flour, the favorite cheap down freight on the Erie canal. 
But, neglecting this, we have cost of transportation, 

• 009 > _ k 0205 per 3000 lbs per mile, total average 
add toll, -0115^ ^ charge at this time. 

. The 35 or 30 millions to be expended in the enlargement will, as its 
friends '• fondly hope," reduce the cost of transportation one-half; 

Ldd U)\\ 0115 ( " 1 ^^^'^ P®'" ^°^ °^ ^^^ ^^- P^'' "^^^®' ' ' 

or 01792 per ton of 2240 lbs. This is the lowest estimate of the most 
sanguine friends of canals in this State, it anticipates an increase of business 
boundless as the west, and a firm continuance of the State monopoly. 
;. The Delaware and Hudson caaal is 108 miles long, and brought down 
in 1842, 205,253 tons of coal, at a cost of $274,020 46, exclusive of toll. 
This is at the rate of $1 335 per ton of (I suppose) 2240 lbs., or 01334 per 
ton per mile. The statement of the company is annexed, and it will be seen 
that they receive very nearly 2^ cents per ton per mile for the entire distance 
of 108 miles of canal, and 16 miles of railway. The " nett profit of the 
year is $196,051 51, being over ten per cent on the capital stock of the 
company." The cost of the works is not given, but as they owe the State 
$800,000, on which they pay a low rate of interest, it must be about $2,- 
600,000, so that the Delaware and Hudson canal pays 7^ per cent, on its 
cost, at the above rates and with the above business 

Statement of the expenses of the Delatcare and Hudson Canal Co. for 1842. 



To coal on hand, 1st March, 
Mining coal, 



«104,870 00 
107,6eS 99 



" Railroad transportation aiid repairs, 115,755 85 
" Freight of coal to Rondout, 274,020 46 

" Canal repairs ami superintendance, 77,078 91 
)*' Labor and expenses at Rondoat, 21,793 69 

" Interest on Stale stock, 3S.500 00 

" " Company ioan, 4,620 09 

" Salaries, current expenses, rents, etc., 23,227 63 
Balance, 196,051 51 



By sales of coal, 
" Canal and railroad tolls, 
" Interest received, 
" C«al on haad. 



•781,169 a 
33,894 S3 
23,846 74 
134,601 60 



March 1, Via. 



V'« • 



«9t>3^2&l 



■'• ■••*:• 



By balance, 



•963,602 0( 
< 196,061 61 



Flour has been for many years carried from Albany to New York for 
12^ cents per barrel, or 8f mills per ton per mile. It is now carried for 10 
cents, or 7 mills per ton per mile. Were the distance reduced from 150 to 
108 miles, the cost could scarcely be less than 7^ mills, or 50 per cent, more 
than the forwarders on the Schuylkill canal are to receive according to Mr. 
S- W. Roberts, the president of the Schuylkill navigation company, and, I 
presume, the well known engineer of that name. On the Hudson they 
have also a vast quantity of up freight paying one to two cents per ton per 
mile; besides crowds of emigrants. 

. I confess my inability to comprehend that the Schuylkill canal should in 
any way rival the Hudson — as for exceeding it, a highly respectable miracle 
will be required to enable me even to entertain the proposition. It will be 
fortunate indeed if the present rivalry between the canal and the railway 
does not terminate in a case more appropriately falling within the jurisdic- 



( 



■ Report of the Schuylkill Navigation Company. 91 

tion of the patron saint of Pennsylvania — the Rev. Sidney Smith — than 
within the province of the engineer. 

A variety of minor considerations may be advanced which would make 
the case of the Schuylkill canal appear a little better ; the same may be 
said, and to a greater extent, of the Erie canal. To these I may allude ki 
another number of the Journal. .. ^i, - ;. ..:, ..-^> ,-<;.;. - _. :^ ■ 

iVejr YorZ; MarcA, 1844. --t - ' .:. Zi-^!^- 

REPORT OF THE SCHUYLKILL NAVIGATION COMPANY TO THE STOCKHOLDERS, 

(Continued from page .51.) 

Originally a depth of three feet was aimed at, in constructing the canals 
and pools ; but has since been increased to four feet, and, in many places, to 
much more ; but the shallowest parts must of course limit the capacity of 
the navigation. During the past season, the levels have' been kept full, and 
one boat, No. 169, called the '• President," came dawn: drawing 49 inches 
of water, and carrying 71 tons, 9 cwt. of eoal. 

In these days of keen competition in the coal trade, it is a matter of groat 
interest to reduce the freights ias much as possible, and this may most easily 
be effected by increasing the loads. An enlargement of the canals and of 
the locks would bo attended with great expense, and would require boats of 
diflferent dimensions from those now in use. The question of accomplishing 
the same end by a more simple and less expensive process, thus acquires 
additional importance. 

It has been found by careful experiments made this season upon boats in 
use, that a good boat, when drawing 46 inches water, will carry 66 tons ; 
and that every additional half inch displaces one ton of water, or adds one 
ton to the boat's capacity of carrying. So that when the boat draws seren 
inches more, making 53 inches, or 4 feet 5 inches, it will carry 14 tons more, 
making 80 tons ; and, in the same proportion, a draught of 5 feet 3 inches, 
will carry 100 tons, which has been verified by actual experiment with the 
■■boat " Wm. P. Cox," No. 472, which, having brought 64 tons of coal to 
Philadelphia, was loaded to 100 tons, with the above draught of water, and 
carried her p.rgo to New York. 

Seventy cents per ton is found to be a fair price for freight from Pottsville 
to Philadelphia, with a boat carrying 60 tons and a steady trade. Suppose 
the shallow parts of the navigation to be deepened a few inches, and the boat 
thus enabled to carry 80 tons. This gives an addition of one-third to the ton- 
nage, and reduces the freight per ton in nearly a corresponding proportion, 
for the boat requires no more force to manage it. Another advantage is a 
diminution of the number of lockages, and consequent economy of water for 
a given amount of freight. The same reasoning will apply to a greater hi- 
crease of depth and tonnage, and it will no doubt ultimately be accomplished ; 
but the mark of 80 tons seems to be attainable without any large expendi- 
ture, and with many of the boats now upon the line; and any increase in 
the column of water, in the shallow piirts of the canal, will be an advantage 
to every boat, by diminishing the resistance to its motion. 

With a view to obtain correct information in reference to the subject of 
'deepening the navigation, the managers have directed the line to be exam- 
ined and sounded throughout its length, which is now in progress. 

In the past season, the whole charge for carrying coal upon the Schuyl- 
kill navigation, including freight and toll, has been less than one cent and a 
'<}uarter per ton per mile, and it may be materially reduced hereafter. 

Let us now compare this charge with the expense of railway transporta- 



■■■> e^ . .'j.'i . 



.I-.. 



Report of the Schuflkill Navigation Company. 

tion as ascertained from the experience of a series of years, in England, 
where wages, fael and iron are cheap, and where there is iatense competition 
between the different coal districts. 

An eminent Eno-lish eaai-ineer, by whom several important railways have 
been constructed, Charles B. Vignoles, professor of civil engineering ia the 
London University, has recently given to the public the following results : 

" The cost of carrying coals, at very moderate velocities, on the great colliery railways, 
is about one penny (equal to twu cents) per ton, which may be dinded into the fullowin{ 
beads, viz : 

EXFIENSB OP TRANSPORT OT COAL. 

Decimals of a penny. 

Locometive power, » • » -38 

,.. : WaeonB, - ^-^y- ^.,,? ,;:^/' ^,; .^A^ ^;' - • .v^- ?»-- '19 

" ■ Conducting tratfir, - - - -08 

Maintenance of railway, - - ' ■•" -Si 

General cxjienses, including local taxes, -. - '14 

Per ton of coal per mile, - - 1-00 or 2 els. 

" The proportion of the oweight of the coal to the gross load carried being as 3 to 

5. The expense of carrying goods on the Liverpool and Manchester railway, taken on 

the average of seven years' trathc, appears to be about two and a half pence (equal to fiw 

cents) per ton per miie." 

This however includes half a penny for the expense of collecting and de- 
livering the goods. 

The general results of English experience are thus tabulated ; and we 
may remark, that they agree very nearly with the calculations of the cost 
of transportation on a number of American railroads, as given by Mr. C. 
Ellet, Jr., eivil engineer, in his interesting essays on that subject 

"expense of railway transport per mile. 
Passengers, at high velocities, - - Id. (or 2 cents) each. 

Coal, at very moderate speed, - - Id. (or 2 centsj per ton. 

Merchandize, at 15 mik« an hour, - - 2d. (or 4 cents) per ton." 

Thus the expense of carrying merchandize, at 15 miles per hour, is twice 
that of coal, at about 5 miles per hour ; half of which difference is due to the 
increased velocity. So that to carry coal, at 15 miles per hour, would coet 
three half pence, or three cents, per ton per mile, without including anything 
for interest or profits. {See Mr. Vignoles' sixteenth lecture reprinted in the 
Journal of the Franklin Institute for December, 1843.] In^other place, 
Mr. Vignoles has observed, that he thought the proper railway charge should 
be double the cost for working; which, for transportation, at 15 miles per 
hour, would make the charge six cents per ton per mile, or nearly five times 
the present charge for carrying coal upon the Schuylkill navigation. 

The spendthrift and prodigal policy, sometimes pursued upon railroads, 
soon after their first construction, of carrying heavy freight at high veloci- 
ties and at low prices, less by far than sufficient to keep up the business, soon 
defeats its own object, and comes to a speedy end, when the ability to accu- 
raulate indebtedness no longer exists. With the weight of the load, and the 
rate of the speed, the wear and tear increase in a constantly increasing ratio, 
until the road itself, and its costly machinery and carriages are found to be 
involved in a common destruction. Though this conclusion may not at first 
be strikingly apparent, it is just as certain as the effect of over exertion and 
high excitement upon the human constitution, and much more speedy in its 
result ; for a railroad, unlike the human frame, has nothing recuperative in 
its nature. 

Nearly one half of the Schuylkill navigation is constructed in the river, 
deepened and improved by art, and the gentle current being in the direction 
of the heavy descending grade greatly facilitates its transportation ; so that 
tlie river may be considered as a moving road, the surface of which is con- 



Baldtoin and Whittle^ s Six Driver LoeoiHotitfe. 

ttantly renewed by the bounty of Providence, in sending the early and the 
latter rain. 

It is usual for eminent success to induce attempts at competition, and a por- 
tion of the iucrezising trade of the valley of the Schuylkill may for a time be 
diverted from its natural channel, but -your president and managers are fully 
convinced, that no land carriage can long compete with such a water com- 

r munication in carrying freight ; and, believing that a judicious and firm ad- 
ministration of your affairs must lead to ultimate results which will both 

. gratify your hopes, and justify their expectations, they have deemed it due to 
you to embrace a wider range than usual in this annual report, so as to give 
m some degree the grounds of their unshaken confidence in the intrinsic 
value of your noble work, from which you may draw your own conclusions. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 
,^ Solomon W. Roberts. 

,^,x January 1, 1844. PresidetU.. 

For the Ameriean Railroacl Journal and Mechanics' Maf^zine. ^.v' 

BALDVVTN AND WHrTNEY's SIX DRrVER LOCOMOTIVE. 

Among the numerous improvements which have of late years conspired 
to elevate the railroad system to the high degree of advancement by which 
it is at this time characterized, there is perhaps none more calculated to se- 
cure to its projectors the award of well merited praise for ingenuity — and to 
the public a most essential benefit in the provision of an efficient basis for 
the reduction of railway fares, than the six driver locomotive engine recently 
designed and constructed by those enterprizing machinists, Messrs. Baldwin 
and Whitney, of Philadelphia. 

To the character for skill and perfection of workmanship, which these 
gentlemen have so deservedly maintained, by the construction of engines of 
■ an excellence of finish, a symmetry of proportion, and a judicious adjustment 
of parts, unsurpassed by those of any other manufacturers in the world, they 
have now added that of bold but successful innovators, in presenting us with 
a machine designed on principles, the application of which to railway pur- 
poses is entirely new ; and which, we may confidently assert, secure to the 
< system a moter at once more powerful, and less injurious to the road, than 
any other which has hitherto been introduced. 

This engine may justly be regarded as revolutionizing the railway system, 
at least so far as relates to its application to the roads of our interior, or of 
other sections where the conunand of pecuniary resources is comparatively 
restricted, and where railways must necessarily either be constructed with 
less regard to strength than those of more wealthy sections, or not constructed 
at all. 

The ability to avail ourselves of the total amount of adhesion due to the 
weight of the engine, and at the same time to introduce moife than four driv- 
ing wheels, in order to distribute the weight among a number of points of 
contact with the rails sufficient to avoid injury from either abrasion, or too 
great strain upon a single point, has long been considered as a desideratum 
of paramount importance. 

For some years past, many eminent machinists have been engaged in ca- 



94 Baldwin and Whifney^s Six Driver Locomotive. 

deavoring to devise means for reducing the problem to a form that should 
be practically available ; but with the exception of the machine of Messrs. 
Baldwin and Whitney, their attempts must be regarded as in a great measure 
abortive. The efTorts of these gentlemen have at last been rendered success- 
ful by means of a happy application of the principle of the ordinary parallel 
ruler, by which they secure the constant parallelism of all the axles, and at 
the same time allow the wheels to adjust themselves, to a considerable extent, 
to the various curvatures of the road. 

The connecting rods are furnished with ball and socket joints, which ad- 
mit of motion in every direction without strain. 

Careful experiments made upon one of our northern railways, for the 
purpose of testing the comparative merits of these engines, and of others in 
common use, have shown conclusively that the former experience less resist- 
ance from friction upon curves than the latter, thus placing at rest one of 
the most formidable objections that had been advanced against the six driver 
engines. 

■ A careful account was kept of these experiments, and I am pleased to 
learn that the results are in the hands of a member of the profession, under 
whose supervision they were conducted ; one eminently qualified for the task, 
and who will probably arrange and prepare them for publication in the Rail- 
road Journal. 

<< When the merits of Messrs. Baldwin and Whitney's engine become nrare 
generally known, I have little doubt but that it will in a great measure su- 
percede all others of prior construction, especially for the carriage of freight 
The number of drivers is by no means limited to six, but may be increased 
to eight or more if required. 

"■ It would be difficult to convey a very correct idea of the details of con- 
struction which constitute the peculiarities of this engine, without the use of 
drawings, which I have it not in my power to furnish at this moment, but 
which I may prepare to accompany a more specific paper on the subject in 
a future number of the Journal. The more immediate object of this com- 
munication is to direct the attention of railway companies, especially those 
whose roads are not of the most permanent construction, to a machine emin- 
ently adapted to their purposes, inasmuch as it obviates that most formidable 
source of injury, and consequent expense, the too great weight borne upon 
each driver of the ordinary engines. 
.. . ^ . - .-. John C. Trautwink; 



\Ve have frequently heard the improved engine of Messrs. Baldwin and 
Whitney spoken of by ^experienced engineers in very favorable terms, and 
have made quite an effort to obtain an accurate description of it, as well as 
a detailed account of its performance on the western railroad last fall, but 
have been unsuccessful in both ; yet, we hope soon to receive from the gen- 
tleman who has the minutes of these experiments, a full report of its work, 
in comparison with other engines worked at the same time j and we now . 



Engineers^ and Mechanics^ Pocket Book. — Railroad Reports. 



96 



call on the writer of the above comnmnlcation, who is familiar with the im- 
provements, and fully competent to the task, to furnish us with a description* 
accompanied by illustrations, of the engine ; that the numerous railroad 
companies in this country and Europe may, through this Journal, be informed 
of its excellence ; and the ingenious manufacturers — whose modesty ap- 
pears to exceed if possible their skill as machinists — ^may receive a remu- 
neration equal to their deserts ; and the travelling community derive the ad- 
vantage which is sure to result from reduced fares. We trust that we shall 
soon hear from the gentleman referred to, and also from Mr. Trautwine 
again. — {^Eds. Railroad Journal.) 

ENGINEEKS' AND MECHANICS' POCKET BOOK. BY CHARLES H. HASWELL, CHIEF 

ENGINEER, U. S. NAVY. 

We cordially recommend this little work to the notice of the profession, 
as containing, within the same space, more information likely to be useful — 
and that information, too, more skillfully arranged — than any similar work 
with which we are acquainted. It is beautifully as well as conveniently got 
up, contains 264 pages of matter well condensed, with only half a dozen 
blank leaves at the end, in place of being little more than a memorandum 
book for the year, as is the case with some of the English works of this 
description. 

The tables are numerous and elaborate, comprehending very extensive 
ones of weights and measures, foreign as well as domestic ; of areas, squares 
and cubes, natural sines and tangents, specific gravity, strength of materials, 
flow of water through pipes, weights of bar and sheet iron per Ibeal and 
square foot, etc. We understand that many of the tables and formulas have 
been 're-calculated by Mr. Has well, who has spared no pains to combine 
accuracy with condensation — the g^eat aim in such works. 

To the civil engineer, when away from his books, it will prove an invalu> 
able companion ; and here we will venture to suggest to Mr. Haswell, that 
a table of natural sines and tangents to minutes, would have added material- 
ly to the value of his manual to the railway engineer, for yre do not remem- 
ber to have ever seen such tables in pocket form. Hassler's tables give the 
natural sines and cosines only, and they can hardly bej. called a " pocket 
book." A table to fifleen minutes will, however, be often useful, and per- 
haps it did not fall within the scope of his project, to devote a dozen pages 
more to this purpose. We repeat that nowhere have we seen so near an ap- 
proximation to what an " Engineers' and Mechanics' Pocket Book" should 
be, as this little work of Mr. Haswell's. - . '-^^ 

K^ - RAILROAD REPORTS. V?- ; ■ • ■* > ii ''^^^ < 

', We are indebted — not to the managers, but — to a friend, for the eighth 
annual report, for 1843, of the directors of the Western railroad company. 
It came to hand too late for use in this number— ^ut we refer to it for the 
purpose of saying to the managers of the various railroad companies, that 
we believe they would promote their own, quite as much as our interest, by 



|5 



';'. ;■:.'<■ 



>:.. i-<':.- r : -y^..^-, 



96 



■-''a tofcV.V. i-"^ ' 



Items. i'^''r'^i^^..\tl. \tk>*: •■ ;.t>^-! 'i '^Jt' 



sending always to the Railroad Journal one of the first, copies of their re- 
ports when published. , Have the other Massachusetts companies made their 
annual reports yet? If yea — where are they? 

We find in " The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal," for January 13th last, tha 
following statements*, in relation to the use of wrought and cast iron for bridges. The 
wrought iron bridges are after the plan of " the wooden lattice bridges of America;" the 
origin of which style, the editor claims for " the late Mr. Smart of Westminister wharf, 
Lambeth." Possibly this may be the fact — but if so, the Americans have probably made 
some important improvement upon the original. Will those interested in the subject in 
this country give up their claim — or will they furnish us their statement for publication 1 
We should like to publish an accurrate account of their origin in this country, but must 
rely upon those who posses the facts to furnish them. 

The following papers were read before the Institution of Civil Engineers — January 9th, 
1844. 

♦ By Capt. W. S. Moorsom, Assoc. Inst. C. E., descriptive of a cast iron bridge over the 
Avon, near Tewkesbury, on the line of the Birmingham and Gloucester railway. The 
principal novelty of this work, which was proposed, and its execution superintended by 
Mr. Ward, of Falmouth, is the mode of constructing the two piers, which were externally 
of cast iron in the form of caissons, each weighing about 28 tons ; the plates composing 
each caisson were put together on a {^atfbrm erected upon piles over the site of the pier, 
the bottom of the nver l«ing levelled by a scoop dredger, the caisson was lowered, and 
some clay being thrown around the exterior, a joint was formed so nearly water tight, that 
two small pumps drained it in six hours. The foundation being thus excavated to the re- 
quisite depth, tne caisson, which sank as the excavation proceeded, was filled with concrete 
and masonry ; cap plates were then fixed for supporting eight pillars with an entablature, 
to which was attached one end of the segmental arches 57 feet span, with a versed sine of 
5 feet 2 inches. There were three of these arches, each formed of six ribs of cast iron, and 
two such piers as have been described, the land abutments being of stone work joining the 
embankment of the railway. It was stated that this mode of construction was found to be 
more economical in that pecuUa« situation than the usual methed of fixing timber cofier- 
dams, and building the piers within them ; the total cost of the bridge being only £10,192, 
and the navigation of the river was not interrupted during the progress of flie work. The 
paper was illustrated by eighteen remarkably well executed drawings by Mr. Butterton. 

"f A paper by Mr. G. W- Hemans, Grad. Inst. C. E., descriptive of a wrought iron lattice 
bridge erected across th^line of the Dublin and Drogheda railway was then read. This 
bridge, which in construction is similar to the wooden lattice bridges of America,* only sub- 
stituting wrought iron for timl>er, is situated about three miles irom Dublin over an exca- 
vation of 36 feet in depth ; its span is 84 feet in the clear, and the two lattice beams are set 
parallel to each other, resting at either end on plain stone abutments built in the slope. 
These beams are 10 feet in depth, and are form«l by a series of flat iron bars 2 1-2 inches 
wide by 3-8 inches thick crossing one another at an angle of 45 degrees ; at 5 feet 6 inches 
above the bottom edge, transverse bearers of angle iron are fixed similar to those now 
used for suj^rting the decks of iron steam vessels, and upon those the planking for the 
roadway is fastened. The account of the mode of construction, and of^the raising and 
fixing the lattice beams, by Messrs. Perry, of Dublin, the contractors, was given in detail, 
and tne author stated that, although it was expected that considferable deflection would oc- 
cur, which was provided for by forming the beams with a curve of 12 inches in the centre \ 
they did not sink at all even when heavy weights passed over them. The total cost of tho 
structure, including the masonry of the abutments was £510. It was stated that this 
bridge had been erected by Mr. Macneill, M. Inst. C. E., in order to test the soundness of 
this Icind of structure before he appUed it in a bridge of 240 feet span to carry the Dublin 
and Drogheda raUway over a canaJ. 

* The orietnal inventor of the lattice bridge, was the late Mr. Smart, of Westmininter bridge wfiarf, 
Lambeth, who many years since took out letters patent for the principle. — (Ed. C. E. & A. Journal.) 

' CONTENTS: ~ 

" Page. Page. : 

Tables^nhical qtiantitiea, 65 Baldwin & Whitney's six driver locomotive, 93 

Ptuladelpliia and Reading railroad report, 81 Eoeineers' and Mechanics' Pocket Book, 96 

Cost of tr.iTisportalion on canals, 88 Railroad Report, 96 

R«port of the Schuylkill navigation — continued, 91 Items, . 90 



^^Piife; - ^:■'■i!l: 






>.■ 



AMERICAN ■ V«*«-^>.^*««^ 

RAILROAD JOURNAL, 

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, '-'-'^m:^ 



Published Monthly at 23 Chambers-st. New Vork, ) k By GEO. C. SCHAEFFER, and 

at ^2 a-year, in advance, or 3 copies for 9o. \ J D. K. MINOR, Editors. j 

No. 4, Vol. 2. i APPTT lft±l ^ ^vi* xvn^ '' 



""-kih^J- \ APRIL, 1844. S' 



For the American Railroad Jonrnal and Mechanics' Magazine. 

COST OF TRANSPORTATION ON RAILROADS. BY CHARLES ELLET, JR., C. E. 

(Continued from page 8.) 

Wear of Iron Rails. — It was not my intention to deviate from the course 
which I had marked out as proper to be observed in the discussion and de- 
velopment of the important subject which I have attempted to exhibit, for the 
purpose of disposing of collateral points, or of refuting any objections that 
might be urged against my argument But the matter presented in the De- 
cember number of the Journal is of such deep interest to all concerned in the 
railroad cause, that I have been compelled to make frequent oral explanations 
and estimates, which could be more advantageously and more appropriately 
offered in their place in these articles. I propose, therefore, to recur briefly 
in the present paper, to the momentous question of the probable durability of 
the iron rails, and the pecuniary loss consequent on their destruction, for the 
purpose of presenting facts which it was my wish to postpone to a later 
period. 

It is as impossible as it would be dishonest to attempt to promote the cause 
of internal improvement, or any division of that cause, by deceptive estimates 
or the expression of extravagant hopes. It is the duty of the engineer, as 
well as of the statesman, to look at things as they are, at this great system 
as it is. He must first recognize the weaker points before he can hope to 
fortify them. If companies or their officers, fail to estimate their expenses 
truly, they will inevitably fail also in their great objects ; and instead of 
bringing blessings and prosperity into the country, public improvements will 
continue ta be, as they have hitherto frequently been, the bearers of private 
rain and public dishonor. 

The prevailing fault of nearly all writers on railroad policy is that of 
yielding up their judgment to the dictation of their wishes, and exhibiting the 
facts as all desire them to be, and not as we find them. Hence the proverbial 
errors of companies and their agents, in undervaluing the first cost of their 
work ; in over estimating its business, and underrating the cost of its main- 
tenance. Their opinions are but the picture of their hopes, and rarely de- 
ductions from an extensive and systematic investigation, and a wide experieoce. 



.'•,iu^:iiisij^iiLii^M'2,:. . 



M Cost of 'TransporfdHon on Rditrodds. 

. But we are now in pursuit of truth and shall endeavor to avoid this error. 

The railroad system is new. It is not yet twenty-five years since the lo- 
comotive engine has been used with any decided success, and it is not fifteen 
years since its first employment on lines of general and extensive intercourse. 

We have, nevertheless, much experience of the wear of iron rails ; for a 
heavy trade — a trade vastly inferior to that of some of the canals of this 
country — is sufficient to produce great and obvious efieets in a very brief 
space of time. 

We cannot seek this experience, however, on the great railways recently 
finished in England. These carry but little freight. Their business is 
nearly confined to the conveyance of passengers ; and though they really 
transport many tons of parcels and costly merchandize, and make a consid- 
erable show of business, the actual tonnage, compared with that of some of 
our important canals, is insignificant. Indeed, the public have not yet be- 
come accustomed to compare the actual weight of the trade which is trans- 
mitted along existing lines of railroads, and that which passes noiselessly 
through the old canals, and there are consequently few who have yet formed 
a just conception of their relative magnitudes. 

The London and Birmingham railway has already cost about $30,000,- 
000 ; and was graded with a view to the heaviest traffic ; but the speed and 
accommodation which it ofiers are but slight compensation for the price of 
carriage at w.hich they must be purchased. With all the labor bestowed 
upon this work ; with all the outlay encountered to reduce the cost of trans- 
portation — the annual nett tonnage upon it is not greater than Jlvt or tix 
weeki trade of the Schuylkill navigation. 

, The Great Western road has cost some $32,000,000. The nett tonnage 
upon this line is still less than that upon the London and Birmingham. It 
does not reach 120,000 through tons per annum. 

But the traffic upon these works, light as the tonnage is, has been suf- 
ficient, at the high velocity permitted, to produce great destruction. 

The former commenced with two tracks of edge rail of fifty pounds per 
yard, and wore much of it out before the line was finished. 

The latter commenced with a forty-four pound bar between London and 
Maidenhead, and had rendered it unfit for safe service nearly a year ago. 
The still heavier iron which they are now using is not, of course, yet en- 
tirely destroyed. But before this time next year — if my calculations do not 
fail — I shall produce evidence in this Journal, that a portion of these seven- 
ty-five pound bars, has also given way under less than 500,000 tons nett. 

At present, however, I will confine myself to past experience, and en- 
deavor to ascertain from that what sort of expectations we have a right to 
entertain for the future. The new English roads have added but little to 
our previous information on this head ; but still we are not without a great 
deal of valuable experience ; and it is the duty of tthose who seek for truth, 
and who seek to exhibit it to others, to profit by the best experience they can 
find. 



Coait of Transportation on iXmlroais. 'i\smtP-- 

In reference to the subject before us, we know, ;i4J/i;j - " *»**^^, ^'jtM 
r ' 1st. That some eight or ten of the railroads of this country, have worn 
;- oat the common half-inch flat bar, with an average aggregate trade of 150,- 
:, 000 tons nett, drawn by locomotive engines. 

..•J 2d. The Camden and Amboy road has, in places, worn out an edge rail 
. weighing about 40 pounds per yard, with a trade considerably less than 
" V 400,000 tons nett. 

3d. The edge rail on the Columbia road, weighing 33 pounds per yard," 
; has not yet borne the passage of 350,000 tons on one track, and is nearly 
; destroyed. 

4th. On the Boston and Lowell road, a 36 pound rail was so much in- 
jured, or so much weaked, as to need renewing and replacing before it had •' 
J sustained the passage of 600,000 tons nett. ~ '^ .-' • ,*^ 

6th. The Liverpool and Manchester road was opened in 1830. In 1835, ' 
X\ie first two tracks of edge rails, weighing 35 pounds per yard, were de- 
stroyed and renewed ; and the trade was less than 600,000 tons nett, on each ' 
' track. 

6th. In 1835, the Liverpool and Manchester company relaid the portion ' 
. of their road next to Liverpool, with edge rails, weighing 50 pound per 
w yard— or just five pounds per yard heavier than those of the Reading rail-' 
road. Before the close of 1840, these new rails (weighing, I say, 50 lbs.' 
per yard,) were worn out, and taken up, and substituted by two other tracks . 
of iron, weighing 64 pounds per yard. These 50 poimds per yard rails ' 
. were destroyed by about 700,000 tons nett on each track. So that, in the 
: brief space of nine years, this company destroyed four successive single * 
'■. tracks of edge rails with an average nett trade of about 300,000 tons per 
y annum. 

7th. The 64 pound rails next introduced on this road, were found to be 
; / too lighty and a 75 pound pattern was substituted, which is now the adopted ■■ 
weight These rails of 75 pounds have already begun to give way at un- 
j sound places — ^the injury " showing itself chiefly in lamination and occa- '; 
sional splitting at the edges." -. « %t - 

8th. The Stockton and Darlington road, considered as a single track, has 
.: been iroTwi with edge rails from six to eight times. 
; Business commenced on this line about the year 1835. In the year 1834 : 
:J the ti:ade had reached 338,248 tons. In 1840 it had attained the extraordi- ; 
nary limit of 803,784 tons, and up to the year 1842, there had passed along ^- 
. the work a nett weight of nearly 6,500,000 tons. At that time six tracks ' 
' had been destroyed, and taken up and replaced, besides the rails that each 
.'. time were introduced, before an entire change of form was resolved o^^ 

• How many tracks this patching may have amounted to, it is probably im- 
possible now to ascertain. The cars on this road are very light and the / 
velocity but six miles per hour. a ..; « 

It is probable that each track of this road has sustained nearly 1,000,000 r 

• tons ; and with such cars, and at such ,a moderate speed, it is not impro- ' 



100 Cost of TVansportation on RailrtMdai0 

bable that a 50 pound bar would sustain from 1,200,000 to 1,500,000 
tons. 

9th. The London and Birmingham 50 potmd iron which was destroyed 
before the work was finished, sustained about 350,000 tons on each track. 
The velocity here was, however, exceedingly great, and the cars unusually 
heavy. ttf 

10th, The nett tonnage on the Great Western road, which destroyed the 
44 pound iron, did not reach 300,000 tons of freight and passengers per 
track. 'The engines and cars are still heavier than those of the London and,: 
Birmingham road, and the average speed 25 miles per hour. 

Now, these are facts ; and this, whatever it is worth, is experience. The 
intelligent reader must judge from the fects, whether or not the cost of re- 
newing iron ought to be regarded as one of the current expenses, or as a 
thing so extraordinary as to require to be excluded from the annual charges 
altogether, and added, as is now the universal custom, from year to year, to 
the cost of the road. 

But the rapid destruction of iron under the action of a heavy trade, and 

the measure which, in the December number, I have assigned to its durabil- 
ity on the Reading road, where the velocity is from ten to fifteen miles per 
hour, is now but faintly denied ; or, if denied at all, only by inexperienced 
patties, and in anonymous communications.* _^, 

A new view is accordingly taken of the subject, and the important que»> 
tion arises to determine the amount of loss to the company consequent on 
the destruction of the iron. I mean to ofier no conjectures on this head 
either, but refer to known and admitted facts, as a guide to my conclusions. 

I find in the last report of the Boston and Lowell railroad company — the 
only company in this country, which has renewed a considerable portion of 
a track of edge rails in one year, and published the cost — the following 
charge : 

" For labor and sundry materials, in taking up twenty miles of track laid 
with 36 pound rails, and replacing it by rails of 56 pounds per yard, ex* 
elusive of the cost of rail iron, $34,162 09." The year before the expend- 
iture for this object was $14,608, so that for changing 25f miles of edge 
rail, the company incurred an expense of $48,770, or $1,900 per mile. 

There are seventy-one tons of rails in a mile of the track of the Reading 
railroad, and the cost of taking up the old iron and putting down new, is, 
therefore, $1,900 for 71 tons = per ton, - - $26 75 

4 ton of new iron delivered in Philadelphia, will cost under ^; 

the present tariflT, ... $6000 ■■^. 

The old iron is supposed to be worth along the line, per ton, 

about .... 25 00 

Difference between the value of new iron in Philadelphia, 
and old iron on the ground, per ton, - - $36 00 

* Since this wns printed I hare received the last nnmbei of the BailiMd Joarit»], in which I find my 
Tiews entiiely disputed. 



•>■■ ..;-^'...;/SvL. 



Cost af TVansporttUion on Railroadx. , 101 

The cost of changing the iron track of the road will then le as follows : 
Seventy one tons of iron, taken up and put down, at $36 75, $1,900 

Difference between 71 tons of new iron bought at $60, $4,260 

And 71 tons of old iron sold at $25, - - 1,775-2,496. 

Seventy-one tons of new iron transported to, and distributed -» "' * '' 

along the line at $5, - ^} j^; " - '"^ - 386 

Cost per mile of changing iron, '';;^!l^ '^.? , ' '^^ $4,740 '--, 

This sum of $4,740 will be the amount due to the trade which will de- 
stroy the iron, or render it unfit for safe usage. I know of no iron which 
. has yet withstood the action of a million tons ; and I know of no iron of 50 
pounds or less, that is likely, at the usual speed in this country, to resist that 
weight. If we consider the rails of the Reading road to be capable of that * 
effort, then we shall have 4| mills per ton per mile for the value of the iron 
destroyed by each ton of coal descending the hne: or 44^ cents per ton for - 
the whole distance of 94 miles. By adopting the rates of speed of the .;. 
Stockton and Darlington road, it is probable that the cost of the iron could be 
brought down to 60 cents per ton, or near that limit; but if the company 
adopt the heavy cars, (7^ tons when loaded) and powerful engines, and heavy 
trains now contemplated, and continue the high velocity now permitted, the 
destruction of iron will probably be scarcely compensated for by seventy- 
five cents per ton. , ?■ ;. o*. -v " 

This is a calculation from such data as we are able to obtain. But was 
there ever a calculation of such work, which was not exceeded by the prac- • 
tical result? One of the data assumes that there will be as many tons of 
iron to sell, as were originally bought. But the weight will not hold out 
It is useless to inquire why ; yet we cannot spread 70,000 bars of iron along 
a road 100 miles in length, and beat them and roll them for one or two years „-^' 
and then collect them all again. This is a practical difficulty which must J- • 
always be encountered under such circumstances. The calculation assumes 4 
that it will not be collected ; and, besides, that the 140,000 bolts, and the ' . 
70,000 chairs to be distributed and replaced, can likewise be found again. , 

Many visionary estimates have been made on this head, by parties of littler- 
experience in the handling of heavy materials, and in the performance of 
mechanical work ; but the following practical facts are a great deal more .-., . 
forcible, and will be found to furnish data which can be applied with much *: 
more certainty than any speculative estimate whatever. 

The South Carolina railroad was opened in the year 1833 ; the trade 
averages about 25,000 tons. In the semi-aimual report for December 31st, , 
1838, five years after the completion of the work, we find the following: — -. i 
" deduct the following expenditures, as being rather for permanent improve- - .' 
ment than current expenses, viz ; ^,*^V; ^i^ >>'' * "■ *■ • - - i 

Machiney, ^^ >%# ^ tif^x^rt^s^^f-j^griy^ 4v.?<^;^'^ $26,888 12 ; v; ; ' - 

Spikes, - ■■ .^^::^>^i,^^:-:" ■ V^^^io^^^^ 4,582 34 ^■- 

New rail iren, ,^. -^^>j^,S^M^^«l'«-;/'»-vv,.^;-;-^i^"^'^^;- 3,940 00 etc 



■ tr.j.-- v:-. — -.L^ 



102 Cost of Transportation on Railroads. ^ 

This hint to the experienced reader, is S3rmptomatic of the contents of the 
next report, (June 30th, 1839,) from which I extract the following; . rr^ 
" Amount paid for rail iron in Charleston, $371,679 12 
Less old iron sold and unsold, - - 92,902 27— $278,776 8& . 

Cost of transportation of the same oa Ulasi r9ad> axkd ^ying ^' 

■■ down, including spikes, -.■";♦;.•. . 74,40000 

Nett cost of new iron, - - «,W. - $353,176 85" 

Here we perceive that the entire sales of the old iron (when it was all dis- 
posed of, it yielded precisely $92,325 71,) exceeded the cost of putting the 
new rail in the track, but by some $18,000, while the nett cost of the new 
iron, after deducting the proceeds of sales, was $353,176. Such is in feet 
what is to be expected. The old iron will barely pay for putting down the 
new, and the loss to the company will be about equal to the cost of the new 
iron' delivered at the sea port. j^,- 

A writer in the Railroad Journal proposes a scheme for the Reading rail- 
road to make money, by procuring rails free of duty, and selling the old ma- 
terial, after it has been worn out, with the advantages of the duty. 
'" The opetation was conducted under precisely those circumstances on the 
South Carolina road ; but the above balance will show that the speculation 
did not turn out so well in that case. Indeed I have known many instances 
in which the iron has been renewed, but I have never heard of a company, 
here or abroad, that found the speculation a profitable one. 

In the accounts of the South Carolina road, the new iron is charged to 
"permanent improvements," (the old iron lasted ^ve years) and the companv 
recommenced with augmented capital. .; 

I have but one word to add in reference to the durability of iron rails, 
subjected to the action of a trade like that of the Schuylkill I have already 
stated that if the Reading railroad company expect to obtain the whole trade 
of the canal, they must prepare for the entire renewal of a single track every 
year ; and I now add, if the company carry 500,000 toru of coal during 
the present year, as they now propose to do, the new iron cannot be put 
down, before that now on the track will be so nearly destroyed as to be un- 
safe. 

It is understood that this company has recently obtained an additional loan 
of $1,000,000. With this it is proposed to stock and equip the line, and 
procure the additional track, and jprepare for the conveyance of the whole 
trade of the Schuylkill. 

I therefore advance this additional proposition. After this money is ex- 
pended, and the company shall have put themselves, by its aid, in the position 
which they seek to occupy, they will neither, in the first place, be able to 
carry more than half the tonnage of the Schuylkill, and, in the second place, 
if they succeed in obtaining half the tonnage, they will not be able to engage 
vigorously in the business of 1845, without a new loan of a million of dol- 
lars ; and, finally, if they continue to operate through the present and the 
next year, they cannot engage in the business of 1846, without another loan 



Cost of Transportation on Railroads. 103 

of at least one million. In short, waiving all regard to interest on their ca- 
pital, it is impossible jar them to carry the Schuylkill coal trade., loitkout 
borrowing one million of dollars per annum. And when they cease bor- 
rowing they must cease carrying. I now dismiss the consideration of a 
road, which, in my opinion, was most unwisely commenced — which has 
been prosecuted in folly, and which can only terminate in disaster. On this 
result I desire to rest my claim to the public confidence. 

Additional application of the formula. — In the November number of 
the Journal, I offered a formula for the computation of the annual expenses 
of lines of railway, and exhibited its application and agreement with the 
actual results on seventeen of the most important roads in the country. 

The greatest deviation of that formula from the actual result was 12 per 
cent, which occurred in the case of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad for the 
year 1841. * 

:> In speaking of the deviations, I added these words : " It will probably be 
seen, on some future occasion, that those roads which now exhibit expenses 
above the formula, will fall below it for other years ; a remark which is ap- 
plicable to the Boston and Lowell, Baltimore and Ohio and South Carolina 
roads." Since the publication of that article, I have received through the 
politeness of Mr. Latrobe, the able engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road, the report of the operations on that work, for the year 1843, together 
with some valuable manuscript details, of which I hope to make useful ap- 
plication in the further prosecution of my present study. I am also indebted 
to Charles S. Storrow, Esq., the valuable superintendant of the Boston and 
Lowell xoad, for similar statistics in relation to the excellent, and, I beiieve, 
prosperous work under his charge, in anticipation of the publication of the 
report. I have also received from Mr. Storrow similar information relating 
to his line, for the year 1841, which I had not before obtained, and from the 
report of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad company, I find the facts necessa- 
ry for the application of the formula also to the Baltimore and, Washington 
road for the year 1843. 

These results have all been procured since the publication of the formula j 
and I therefore proceed to test it by making the application to those lines. 
. • It will be recollected that I ofl!ered, in the first place, a formula for the 
determination of the expenses for a new /i»e, viz : -j;* •; .' : rv^Tr- 

24N 9T 7P '.; ,..,-,.^'^^-'5-*d^^;': 

"Ioo"~'"iooo+iooo"^^^*' ' " ' " 

And in the second place, a rule for the computation of the expenses of main- 
taining an old road, or road which had been opened more than four years, 

viz: ■^■f?; v->' v--'»^.?' 

275N 14T 7P .' . . . ■.v^v:-^ 

100 ' 1000 ' 1000 "^^^ *• 
In both expressions, N stands for the number of miles run by the locomo- 
tive engines ; T for the tons nett conveyed one mile j P for the number of 
passengers conveyed one mile, and h for the length of the road in miles. rJ 



104 



Cost of Transportaiim 9n t^itroai$^'^ 



In applying the formula to the Baltimore and Ohio road, it is to be borne 
in mind, that of the 178 miles in use for the year 1843, but 82 miles were 
opened previous to 1842, and that the whole of the remaining 96 miles is 
new road. 

The result of the application to these several lines is exhibited in the three 
following tables : 



■i^XJ'T. 



WiV 



TABLE. 



^■ 



.^- 



Name of Road. 


i 

>< 

1841 
1842 
1843 


26 
26 
26 


3 

-a 

2 

» 

10 
10 
10 


ti 

125,296 
143,607 
134,982 

403,285 


n 

si 

90,113 

93,927 

114,711 

298,751 


J3 


li 


li 
11 


Via 


Boston and Lowell, 
Boston and Lowell, 
Boston and Lowell, 


170,057 
179,819 
176,537 

1526,413 


$119,469 
131,012 
109,367 


SI 11, 207 
119,409 
124,004 


Aggregate for those three 


yean 


3. 




359,848 


354,629 



It will be recollected that I anticipated, in the November number, that 
subsequent results would be more favorable to the Boston and Lowell road^ 
than that of 1842. We here find it so. In 1842, the formula fell $1 1,603, 
or 9 per cent, belov) the actual expenses. In 1843 the calculated expenses 
rise $14,637 above the actual expenses. But my remark in the December 
number should be recollected in these comparisons : — " The formula exhibits 
what it was intended to show — the average for a number of years." And 
hence, we have another test. The aggregate expenses on the Boston and 
Lowell road for three years are, as we observe by the table, $359,848. The 
calculated expenses, $354,620. This is surely close enough. 

Again, we will take the Baltimore and Ohio road, for the year 1843, for 
the purpose of an additional application. ■■■m- 

TABLE. '^^ 



Nuae of Roaa. 


i 

1841 
1843 


li 

J' 

82 
178 


8 
1 

82 1-2 
82 1-2 


H 

Sa 

Si- 

299,617 
509,765 


44,477 
39,519 


34,380 
33,670 


H 


• 

Calculated 
expenses. 


4i 

1 1-2 


Baltimore and Ohio, 
Baltimore and Ohio, 


35220,135 
287,153 


S192,925 
322,075 


A 


ggreg 


atec 


xpense 


s for tWo 


years, 




507,288 


515,000 



I have taken no notice of operations on this work for the year 1842, be- 
cause during that year the line was opened, in parts, from Harper's Ferry 
to Cumberland. 

The application for the year 1841, gave a result of $27,210 below the 
actual expenses. I stated at the time that the subsequent expenses would be 
likely to fall below the calculated expenses. We accordingly find the result 
for the next year comes $34,000 below the formula. Here, then, is another 
and most conclusive confirmation of the correctness of the formula, and of 
the principles on which it is founded. If we take the sum of the expenses 
for the two years, we find the calculation $515,000, and the fact $507,288. 

But we have yet a third case : the Baltimore and Ohio railroad report for 
1843, exhibits, as has been stated, the results on the Baltimore and Wash- 



Cost of TransperUition on Ra,Hroads. 



105 



ington road, likewise for that year. These, together with those of 1841 and 

1642, are presented ia the following 

^ TABLE. -.■-■t-u^^.^ 



Name of Road. 


i 


tll.-= 




Miles 
run. 








Calculated 
expenses. 


4 


Baltimore & Washington, 
Baltimore &■ Washington, 


1841-2 
1843 


30 1-2 
30 1-2 


91,428 
96,716 


27,360 
26,470 


114,260 

86,880 


$73,684 
68,866 


76,166 
71,676 



1: Here is an agreement within four per cent. 

When I presented this formula in the November number of the Journal, 
and exhibited its application to seventeen lines of railway, I stated that these 
seventeen lines were all the roads for which I had been able to collect the 
statistical information necessary for the application. I had written to many 
companies, and had generally been supplied with the facts required, and 
which were not given in their reports. In some instances, however, they 
were unable to furnish the information which I needed ; in two instances I 
received no reply to my letter ; and in one — and I am happy to say one in- 
stance onl]/ — the officer declined making the affairs of the company public. 
r Since then the three companies above named have published their reports; 
Hud they are the only reports for the year 1843, which I have yet received. 
These reports add confirmation to the previous proof Still I advance the 
formula as an approximation only, which I hope, with the aid of my pro- 
fessional friends, and future facts, so to modify and improve, as to render its 
application general and certain. It is the expression of the true law ; but 
the •constants are to be buih up by multiplied facts, until there can no longer 
be room to doubt its indications. 

I have endeavored, so far, to conform to the method which modern science 
points out as proper to be pursued in practical inquiries. Much injury has 
been inflicted on the great cause of internal improvement, and especially of 
railro&d improvement, by the erroneous opinions of enthusiastic, but unwise 
advocates. But a new order of things has grown up, and a new sj'stem of 
inquiry is rapidly gaining ground. The seed of true principles has been 
sown, and the roots have struck deep into the soil of this country. Under 
the cotttrol of these principles, and the direction of cool and honest advo- 
cates, the railroad cause will take fresh growth, and flourish with a vigor 
and healthfulness which k has not yet exhibited. Some visionary and ex- 
travagant projects, which are now bearing heavy upon it, will sink under the 
pressure of their own weight, and serve, even in their ruins, as salutary 
guides for the future. 

During the transition, truth will be for a time obscured, and possibly 
borne down ; but it cannot be overcome. It is sustained by a power which 
is invincible. Truth makes no compromise of principle — ^yields nothing for 
the sake of present popularity — contributes nothing to the cause of public 
deception — and moves fearlessly, surely, and, in the end, ail-powerfully, to 
its mark. . . , . 



•■*■ 



106 *' Institute of CivU Engineers. 

[NoTft, — In the January number of the Journal, I offered an estimafe of 
the probable expenses on the Reading railroad for the year 1843, in antici- 
pation of the publication of any facts on that subject : assuming the travel at 
40,000 passengers, and the trade at 250,000 tons. This estimate was $265,- 
000. I regret to find, on perusing the last report, that the company have 
not thought it expedient to publish their expenses for the whole year ; but 
have preferred to exclude the last month, along with the heavy bilb which 
the close of the year usually brings with it The expenses published, for 
eleven months, amount to $221,060 89. I should have been exceedingly 
gratified to know the amount of expenses for the whole year. 
The indebtedness of the company since the date of the previous 

report of January 1, 1843, has been increased, $1,252,659 

The receipts for the first eleven months of the year amount to, 385,195 

Aggregate expenditure for eleven months, $1,637,854 

A statement of the items which have consumed this enormous sum would 
certainly be read with interest and instruction ; and it is greatly to be regretted 
that at this particular period, when the public are exceedingly anxious for 
truth and information, the directors have deemed it imprudent to publish it.] 
.. Note. — The writer has expressed his opinions on an important subject 
without reserve, or concealment ; should his facts be publicly disputed, or 
conflicting facts be presented, by any of his professional brethren, he trusts 
that they will have the consideration to do it over their own signatures, that 
he may have the guarantee of a name for the facts which they contribute. 
He will be found as frank in correcting his errors, if he ha^ committed any, 
as he is sincere in the expression of his opinions. 

(To be continued.) - 

For the Anericui Railroad Jonmal and Mechanics' Magazine. 

Gentlemen : On the receipt of the December number of your Journal, 
I immediately transmitted through the postmaster of this place, the sum of 
two dollars, for my subscription for 1844 My last payment was in Novem- 
ber, 1842, of five dollars, for the year, from July 1, 1842, to June 30, 1843; 
but the change in the times of publication made this amount to cover the 
time up to December 31, 1843, as I understood. Am \ right % 

On the subject of the establishment of a society of civil engineers, I have a 
suggestion to make, which appears to me plausible, and much more facile 
in its execution than any other which I have seen proposed. The National 
Institute, for the promotion of science, established in the city of Washington, 
is now fully organized, and in most successful operation. It is organized 
into various departments : as the department of geology and mineralogy — 
of botany— of agriculture, etc. Many of the engineers of the United States 
are members of this Institute. Now, why should not the engineers genet- 
ally, throughout the country, become members, and organize, (for this ia a 
part of the plan of the Institute, if I understand aright,) in connection with the 
other departments, a " department of engineers." The advantages of this 
plan may be easily seen. The United States has comparatively a large 



Institute of Civil Engineers. 107 

body of engineers in its employ — for independent of the two military corps, 
numbering, I believe, some 84 officers, there are numerous civil assistants 
and agents superintending the public works (I refer to all civil constructions 
* — such as the improvement of harbors, rivers, building light houses, etc. — 
carried on by the government) in employ. The information which these 
gentlemen could furnish, as to prices of labor and materials, and plans of 
construction, under peculiar circumstances, of local works, etc., if properly 
embodied, would be of infinite service to the profession. All these gentle- 
men, being members of the institute, would give their hearty co-operation 
in forming the department of engineering. Washington city possesses many 
advantages over other places, for the meetings of the society. Although the 
States and private companies have in most instances carried on their works 
independent of the government, (that is, without its pecuniary aid,) yet the 
presence of some one officer of each work, has, at some time in each year, 
been required at the seat of government, to transact business in connection 
with their work, at the departments. This business could be transacted much 
more readily through the engineer of the work, more particularly when his 
connection with the institute will give him an acquaintance with the locality 
and means of obtaining every species of information that may be turned to 
advantage on the work on which he may be engaged. The existence, too, 
of the patent office there, where all new mechanical inventions are to be 
found, many of which are of great importance to the engineer, will prove a 
great inducement to them. ^s*.-. jk' ■»-■<- •.,y.'.-^%Mi-.^-ir : 

. > • Another point It is generally known that works on engineering, andl 
the abstruse sciences connected with it, are high priced, they being generally 
the productions of foreign engineers and men of science, and published in 
Europe, and but few copies, comparatively, ever imported to this country. 
Oa account of their costliness, and the expense of transporting them from 
station to station, (for there are but few of our profession that can ever per- 
manently locate themselves in one place, and have a " home^^ but must more 
from point to point, as the progress of the work ori wnich they are engaged 
advances, or in search of new employment,) not many engineers can ever 
form for thenaselves a library, their low salaries and the heavy expense to 
which they are always subjected being another obstacle. In their visits to 
Washington this loss can be in a great measure removed, by the library of 
congress, and the libraries of the war department and the bureau, where 
copies of most of tl^se works will be found, and the known courteousness 
of the officers, in whose charge they are placed, will render them at all times 
accessible to the profession. The library of the institute will soon be large 
enough to offer advantages to the man of science sufficiently ample to war- 
rant the spending of some days within its walk, independent of the attraction 
of the museum, botanical gardens, etc. 

Then as to the meetings of the department of engineering. Under the 
by-laws of the institute, each department holds its meetings independent of 
t^^ jj^eaeral fi»s$(iiip of the instg^te. JNow the objectioos to an independent 



106 Institute cf Civil Engineen. 

society of civil engineexs are th&most strongly developed on this one point 
— the almost utter impossibility of getting a sufficient number of the mem- 
bers together at the place of meeting to form a quorum. Under the organ- 
ization I propose, one-iburth or one-third, (or indeed any number less than a 
majority,) of the department may constitute a quorum to organize a meeting', 
at which essays may be read, and conversations held on subjects connected 
with the profession ; while the constitution and by-laws being already formed, 
and all changes in them being effected in general meetings of the institute, 
on the proposition, verbally, or in writing, of any member, there will not be 
the same absolute necessity of regular meetings at stipulated times as in the 
other case. The records of the department required to be kept of each meet- 
ing will show to those members who can only attend a iew meeting, what 
has been previously done. 

On the subject of the continuance of your Journal, one word. Although 
the results of these meetings of the department will be made known through 
the bulletins of the society annually published ; yet it Appears to me that 
the profession will require some other additional medium of communication, 
and that a great deal of statistical information, originating from these meet- 
ings, and from the free interchange of opinions among the members, may be 
promulgated to the world, which would not find its way into those bulletins. 
A regular monthly or semi-monthly Journal must be supported by the pro- 
fession, and why not the one already established, and which has been so suc- 
cessfully carried on for twelve years past ? Your plan of advertisements 
for travellers, too, is admirable. Every traveller has, time and again, felt 
the necessity for some such Journal, in which are concentrated notices of all 
lines of travel, whereby he may inform himself, before starting, of what 
.♦route he can adopt to reach any given point to which business or pleasure 
' may call him with the greatest convenience and despatch. An individual-, 
for instance, starting from Boston or New York for New Orleans, if he 
adopts the sea route, knows what he has to encounter ; but if he wishes to 
adopt the land route, he starts in entire ignorance, in mo«t instances, of his 
means of locomotion, beyond some given point on his route, or its cost ; nor 
has he any chance of determining which would be the speediest oi' most 
comfortable route for him. He may coast by railroads, steamboats, and 
stages along the Atlantic frontier, and the Gulf of Mexico ; or diverging 
from this route in Maryland or Virginia, may strike the Ohio, where he 
will command a tolerably pleasant, and very often a comfortable and speedy 
journey by steamboat down the " father of rivers." Such will be the case, 
too, with the route through Pennsylvania But the traveller knows not, 
perhaps, that an equally convenient, speedier and more comfortable route, 
during parts of the year, exists from Albany, through Buffalo, by the lakes, 
to Chicago, thence across northern Illinois by stages and steamers, (and in 
a year or two canal boats will vary the mode of travel through this legion) 
to the Mississippi, where stealers await him every day for conveyance to 
the great commercial emporium of the south-west Thus travellers, as wel) 



Communication, i 100 

as railroad, steamboat and stage companies, will derive immense benefit from 
your Journal. The proprietors of lines of travel would derive increased 
benefit in making their routes known beyond the mere region of country 
through which they pass, while the advertisements of manufacturers would 
make known to those interested, the cheapest and most expeditious means for 
repairs, etc. 

In your November number of the Journal, I received a printed circular, 
on which I was taxed by the postmaster here with letter postage. The 
amount was, to be sure, very small, and on that score do not object to its pay- 
ment; but the principle involved, leads me to mention that this system of cir> 
culars, (issued, too as this was, in an evasive way,) is very objectionable. 
To have refused to receive this circular from the office on my part, would 
have involved its authors in a suit by government, and a tax of five dollars, 
with the cost of prosecution. This I could not consent to do ; yet I must 
protest against the system, as an imposition — and this is not the first nor the 
twentieth time that it has been levied — when it should have been paid by 
those who sent them. Charles N. Hagner. * 

- . [The circular alluded to by our valuable correspondent was enclosed by 
the present editor, without a thought on his part as to the consequences, or a 
design, as he believes, on the part of the gentlemen who asked the favor, of 
dealing unjustly by others. The cause of complaint will not, however, 
again occur. — D. K. M.\ 






For the American Railroad Jonrnal and Mechanics' Ma^zine. 

Your correspondent " Y," in your February number, adverts to Mr. EI- 
\q\!& famous plan of railways, for which the community was to be measured 
about as often as its individuals for their clothes, which at first were to be 
made as skimpy as possible and of no better material than toood, from kiod 
> to foot — neither safety nor comfort being necessary ingredients while only a 
few travellers were to be accommodated, but as these increased and lives 
only becoming of any importance by their numbers^ stronger materials 
could be used, and the community, from time to time, reraeasured and 
supplied with a new fit, as nearly conformable to its growth as the irregular 
character of this would permit, at one time standing still, and at another run- 
ning up a foot in a night This apparantly clever idea I recollect was not 
at the time, however, deemed feasible by you, nor has it since at all taken 
with the world at large, but on the contrary, it has come to be more evident 
that the most substantial at the start was the truest policy, and that great 
expense was necessary to true economy in railways. This discovery has 
had the good efiect of preventing useless and wasteful outlay by laying them 
down where they were not wanted, as was often the case formerly. The 
railway here understood is that which is at all worthy of consideration or 
that accomplishes a speed of at least fifteen to twenty miles per hour. 

In introducing this subject again, the evident aim of your correspondent 
is to sneer at the Reading railway, and spread as far as possible the same 



110 *' ■•' ' Communication. -.^.i- 



i4^^^^ 



sort of slanders against it as have lately filled the Philadelphia papers, buts.:; 
which happily were so gross as to lose their effect, and to fall still-bom from >■-: 
the press — much to the mortification of their concoctors. 

The impression which he would have prevail, is that the said railway in 
its necessarily large expenditures, gets no value therefor, and reach what . 
they may, it can never be worth anything ; or in his own words, " its cost 
'will be its only merit." 

In the face of this, however, the canal he advocates as even now so much i , 
more efficient than this railway, has applied to the Pennsylvania legislature •' 
for leave to enlarge its capacity, as a means of better competing with this '; 
despised rival, and which it cannot do unless at a very heavy outlay, and 
with even then a doubtful result. Let the merit of the respective expendi- 
tures on these two works be impartially judged, and depend on it, the rail- ' 
way will be found to have spent nothing that has not secured to it a more ef- 'r 
fective provision for doing the business contended for. . 

The feet is, that some five or six years ago, a notification, then much \ 
laughed at by all the canals, was issued to such as were carriers of coal — 
the X pamphlet, bound in green, was the medium — that a cheaper carrier 
was then in course of construction, which, when properly ready would fully , 
establish that fact The Reading railway was here meant — which having ' 
now fairly entered the lists, the canals are found to wince already, and to ' 
vent their agonies, as before stated, in vain abuse, as if no warning had been . 
given them. 

When the notification alluded to, was issued in 1839, the cost by the canal 
given therein and afterwards confirmed by the board of trade of Pottsville, 
including freight at $1 28, and toll at 92 cts. per ton, with wastage, ship- ;. 
ping, etc., was for coal, between Pottsville and Philadelphia per ton, $3 21 ' 
In that notification the then estimated cost by the railway in progress 
was 79 cts., exclusive of toll, for which may be added ^ ct. per ton 
per mile, say 47 cts., making the whole cost to compare with the 
above per ton, - - - - - 1 26 

Difference as made in 1839 in favor of the railway, - $1 95 

At this day, however, in 1844, when all things have shrunk in value to 
near a minimum, and the competition of the railway has had some influence, 
we find as to the main items of freight and toll, these two rivals now stand- ; 
ing as follows : 

By canal, freight 70 cts., toll 36 cts., per ton from Pottsville, $1 06 ■ 

To which is to be added, agreeable to the estimate of most of "■ ^ 

the operators, since they have had experience of the rail- 
way, sundry items to the disadvantage of the canal, amount- 
ing in all to - - - - 40 — 1 40 
By railway, now while in process of receiving the trade, the , 

charge for freight and toll is for the present between Potts- ■' ' ' 

Tills and Richmond or Philadelphia, - • 1 10 

•0~96 



r/> •..■^■..•*.J» .J..- 



Raie9 of Fare and Rates of Speed on Railroads. ' it I 

making a margin of 36 cents in &yor of the railway, showing that if the 
: : whole toll were remitted on the canal, the railway could still retain the trade, 
- and will hereafter no doubt avail itself of this favorable position to raise its 
rate to $1 25 at least 

The consumer ha^ come off the best in this contest, the saving to him in 
round numbers being about $2 per ton, or on the whole present consump- 
tion of 1,200,000 tons, say $2,400,000, which may be employed in some 
oth^r purpose of use or luxury. Next to the advantage obtained by this 
railway, of reducing the price of coal near one-half, will be that of securing 
a uniformity of price for it throughout the year, worth collaterally little less 
than the direct reduction of cost in the business it will attract JL 



RATES OF FA&E AND RATES OF SPEED ON RAILROADS. 

A great diversity of opinion exists in the public mind on these two sub- 
jects connected with railroads, in relation to which, as it seems to us, great 
accuracy is attainable. We have resolved, in consequence, on submitting to 
our readers our own views in relation to them, in the hope that they may, 
in some degree, tend to remove the confusion resulting rather, as it appears 
to us, from a disposition to generalize too far, than from a want of proper 
observation, or any difficulty in arriving at correct conclusions. 

The proposition is often broadly laid down, that every reduction of rates 
on travel is attended with an increase, not only in the gross, but also the nett 
receipts of a railroad. Of course, pushed to an extreme, it is necessarily 
incorrect, or we should have to arrive at the conclusion, that no fare at all 
was ih6 best case for a railroad. The proposition is undoubtedly true, that 
reductions of fare have so far, in our country, been advantageous to the com- 
panies making them. This, however, only proves that hitherto the fares on 
most lines of improvement have been above, rather than below the point of 
greatest advantage, not that they may not be very readily too low, as well 
as too high. 

In looking into the subject, it strikes us that there is an entire analogy be- 
tween the principles which should govern in the adoption of rates of fare on 
a railroad, and a revenue tariff on imports. The latter may be so high as 
to put a stop, in a great degree, to importation, or it may lead, in exposed sit- 
uations, to smuggling, or both consequences may result In the same way, 
a high rate of fare may be deeply injurious to a company, by diminishing 
the number of travellers, on their railroad, or in the case of unprotected lines, 
it may induce the adoption of inferior routes, or both results may ensue, 
irhe prosperity of the line of railroad communication between New york 
and Washington, for example, has, we have little doubt, been essentially re- 
tarded by injudiciously high rates. Between New York and Philadelphia, 
the monopoly has so far been complete, and the high rate of &re has ope- 
rated mainly in reducing the number of travellers between these cities, to, 
we verily believe, less than one-half of what it would be, were the &re6 
placed at two-thirds the present rates, with a somewhat higher rate of speed. 



■ ..-^ •;':••• ..-• ■; f^i 'X'. «-A V : ■ : :■ ^ ■••-'- •?-:^|. -•:!■. ■■■'■"■•: V--^'rv*-- ' 

■' ' ■■■■'-' ■■■■•■■■ ■'.--.{:. '.■ t •- ;• J•;^4.^^^ 

11% Rates of Fare and Rates of Speed on Railroads. / 

But between Philadelphia and Baltimore much more serious consequences 
must, it seems to us, result to the railroad line between those cities', should 
their present rates be kept up. Located as this road is, throughout its whole 
extent, parallel to the Delaware river and Chesapeake bay, nothing, we 
should think, could prevent the competition of lines of very fast steamboats 
in their waters, with barges on the canal connecting them, or connecting 
stage lines, but such reduced rates of fare and increased rates of speed as 
will set all competition at defiance, while on the other hand, very reduced 
lates of fare and higher speed would not only prevent all competition for the 
present travel on the route, but greatly increase it. We trust, for the sake 
of railroads, that the company will be wise in time, and act on the principle 
of the ounce of pre^ntion being worth the pound of cure. 

We cite these two case as the most striking that present themselves to us, 
of error on the side of high fares. Connecting, as the roads in question do, 
the largest and most populous towns in our country, and these in free States, 
where the temptation to travel is widely increased with every reduction in 
lates to the laboring class, and with every increase of speed to men of busi- 
ness, we know of no case in which low rates and hieh speed whould pay 
so well. There are, however, but few railroads out of New England on 
which the fares are not too high, and the speed for travellers is sufficient. 
Our eastern neighbors, so discerning in all matters of interest, have also 
found out the secret of success in railroads for travel. In the New England 
States, even between points of but little comparative importance, the speed is 
higher than in any other part of the United States, and the fares are gener- 
ally low — from two to two and a-half cents per mile. As a consequence, 
we £nd on some of the railroads radiating from Boston, even those to small 
towns, (the Bcslon and Worcester for example) a greater travel than exists 
between New York and Philadelphia, and a much greater than between 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. We peed not add, that notwithstanding their 
great cost, and this was in many cases enormous, the New England rail- 
roads have proved in almost all cases profitable. If the New Englanders 
were in some cases wasteful and injudicious in the construction of their roads, 
they have certainly given to us, in the matter of fares, and in other respects, 
the most valuable lessons in their management 

The circumstance of the railroad fares generally in our country being too 
high, is perhaps ascribable to the feet of many of them having been adjusted 
in the years 1835, 1836 and 1837, and their not being since reduced to ac- 
commodate them to the enhanced value of the currency on its presoit specie 
basis, or the diminished cost of all the necessities and luxuries of life. Three 
dollars per passenger between New York and Philadelphia, and the same 
price between Philadelphia and Baltimore, by the old Camden and Amboy 
and Newcastle and Frenchtown lines, were fair enough rates for the times 
when they were established, but two dollars now would be equally high, 
taking into consideration the price of every thbg, as three dollars then. Ib- 
jtead of this, the feres on the present railroad routes, are four dollars oo 



Rates of Fare and Rates of Speed on Railroads. - 

'each route, or twice as high, considering the increased value of money, as 
they were originally, and twice as high as it seems to us they should he, 
consistently with the interests of the proprietors of the railroads, not to speak 
of that of the public. 

Our opinion in a few words is in substance this : that between towns of 
any size and in populous districts, rates not exceeding two to two and a half 
cents per mile, will be found most advantageous to the companies, even in 
protected lines, or those where there can be no competition, by the great in- 
crease they occasion in the amount of travel. The care, it will be seen, is 
greatly strengthened, where, as in the case of the Philadelphia and Balti- 
more railroad, the line is' unprotected, and nothing but a very reduced rate 
can prevent competing lines. A grave error, however, would be committed, 
were these rules misapplied, £ind extended to the case of sparsely settled dis- 
tricts, in which from peculiar causes, the laboring classes cannot travel. \j 

Such is the case in the southern States of the Union. If railroads can 
be sustained in these, it can only be, unless in a few cases, by comparatively 
high fares, because the laboring classes being slaves, would in the one hand 
afford no aliment for railroads, however reduced the rate ; and their owners, 
whose engagements would be mainly on their farms and plantations, and 
whose journeys are generally limited to one or two trips during the year, for 
the sale of their staples, would be but little influenced in the number of their 
trips by the rate of fare being higher or lower. We use the term compar- 
atively high, because we would not be understood as recommending high 
fares even in the south. We have little doubt that even in the slave States, 
the rates of fare are generally higher than the most judicious rates would 
be, but they certainly could not, with a due regard to the interest of the com- 
panies, be placed at as low rates as would be advisable in the northern and 
eastern States. 

With regard to speed, we hold, that the rates of speed caimot, within any 
tolerably safe limits, be too high for travel, or within any convenient limits, 
too slow for freight. Many railroads in our country are at this moment un- 
productive from want of attention to this simple truth. 
s! In the transportation of freight, there will be nearly, or very nearly, equal 
accommodation to those making use of the road, whether the rate of trans- 
portation be seven or fourteen miles per hour, and the same price would pro- 
bably be commanded for the transportation of produce and merchandize, at 
one as at the other rate of speed. But there would be this great diflTerence 
to the railroad company, that with an engine properly constructed for freights, 
it could not carry at a speed of fourteen miles per hour even half the k)ad 
in produce or merchandize, that it could at a speed of seven miles, while the 
wear and tear of the engine, cars, and superstructure of the road, and risk 
of accidents would, for a given tonnage, be increased at least four fold, by 
doubling the speed. The cost of transportation, therefore, so far as these 
elements of it are concerned, would be increased in much more than a cor- 
reepondfflg ratio with the rate of speed, and would on roads on which 



-. t: -,.iiM'-i:sli 



114 Rates of Fare arid Rates of Speed on Railroads, 

fuel was cbeep, be probably three fold the amount per ton, for a double 
velocity. 

We cannot, in the limits of this article, demonstrate these positions with 
minuteness, but professional gentlemen will perceive at once their correct- 
ness. The deduction is, of course, irresistible, that on most of the railroads 
in our country, a rate of speed for freight is still practised, greatly beyond 
what is judicious, and, of course, if the transportation of freight is, in such 
cases, the source of any profit now, the companies may look to the same 
business as a source of great profit, as soon as their freight transportation 
shall be conducted with engines properly constructed, at slow velocities. 

We say, with engines properly constructed^ because the locomotives now 
in general use throughout the country, though susceptible of great improve- 
ment for the transportation of passengers, are, many of them, on the worst 
possible plan for freights. They have the advantage generally of only half 
their weight on driving wheels. They can. therefore carry at slow velocities 
but half the load, which with the adhesion of their whole weight they would 
be capable of transporting. In addition this half is usually on two instead 
of four driving wheels. The engine is consequently twice as heavy on each 
driver, and much more than twice as injurious to the road, even at a slow 
rate of speed, as a locomotive would be of the same weight, (but double the 
power,) equally distributed on eight wheels, so connected as to give to the 
engine the advantage of its whole adhesion. The engines of Winans, on the 
Western (Massachusetts) railroad are on this priacipel, but imnecessarily 
weighty and cumbrous, in consequence of the adoption in them of the verti- 
cal plan of boiler ; in our opinion particularly misplaced in a long engine 
on eight wheels, because in such an engine it occasions the necessity of great 
strength, and unavailable weight, {except for adhesion) in a cumbrous frame: 
With a horizontal boiler, (no frame worth speaking of being required,) near- 
ly the whole weight of the engine is in its boiler and wheek. A horizontal 
oigine of given weight can of course have a proportionally increased capa- 
city of generating steam. 

That such engines as we have described, or some modification of them, 
will ere long be introduced generally on our railroads for the transportation 
of freight, we cannot doubt, and when they are, and transportation shall be 
efiected by them at slow velocities, the public will be not less astonished at 
the greatly diminished wear and tear of both road and machinery than at 
the improved efficiency of the locomotive. Such an engine as we describe, 
of from ten to twelve tons weight, and, of course, not exceeding one and a 
half tons on each wheel, would draw with ease, over the Philadelphia and 
Reading railroad, a load of five hundred tons gross, or about three hundred 
and fifty tons nett, and with obviously little more injury to the road than 
if the cars were drawn by horses, for the simple reason that the weight on 
each wheel would only be about the weight on ordinary car wheels. 

But if such great advantages are to be anticipated from the introduction of 
low velocities, with suitable eoginee for the transportaticxi of freight, wo must 



' Rates of Fare and Rates of Speed on Railroads. 115 

look to the development of an opposite principle for the attainment of the 
highest success in roads for the transportation of passengers. In these, the 
object must be a proper system of police and the improvement of the engine 
for high, instead of low velocities. Valuable as time is in our country, any 
reasonable increase of speed on passenger roads is abundantly justified by 
the great increase of travel induced by it. The great intercourse between 
towns very near each other, is in a great degree ascribable to the increased 
relations which grow out of their contiguity, and the more near, of course, 
that distant points are brought to each other by railroads or by increasing 
the speed on them, the more they approximate to the case of contiguous 
towns, and the more their intercourse is increased. If the trip between 
Philadelphia and New York was, for instance, made in four hours, which, 
it seems to us, it might easily be, instead of six, we cannot doubt that the 
trips of men of business would be twice as frequent as they now are between 
those cities, even at the present rates of fare ; for they could then with ease 
and comfort go from one town to the other, transact their business, and re- 
turn by an early hour of the evening. The same would be the result of a 
higher speed between Philadelphia and Baltimore, points between which the 
intercourse must be greatly checked by the present very slow rates of travel 
on the Philadelphia and Baltimore railroad. If, in addition, between these 
populous towns, there was not only a greater speed, but a reduction of fare, 
the effect on the travel would, of course, be greatly enhanced. , 

And this increased speed, so valuable in the case of passenger roads, could 
not for a long time be attended with the same proportionally increased cost, 
w^hich would be requisite in freight trains, for this obvious reason, that on 
most, if not all, the railroads in our country, it will be many years before 
full loads of passengers can be had on them for engines of ordinary power, 
and in consequence the power of the engine expended in going at a high 
rate of speed, would be wasted at a low speed. Without reference, however, 
to this consideration, it will be at once perceived, that the great increase of 
travel, induced by higher rates of speed, while there is no corresponding ad- 
vantage in the case of freights, is the principal cause of the difference in the 
speed proper for freight and passenger roads. 

This being the case, we trust that the same attention which is now being 
paid to the construction of engines of slow velocity for freights, will be given 
to engines for the mail and passenger transportation. Such engines should 
have driving wheels of a diameter materially greater than that proper for 
freight trains. While three feet at farthest, with our notions as to slow 
transportation, should be, in our opinion, the maximum diameter of all the 
wheels of freight engines, as well as the guide wheels of passenger engines, 
the diameter of the driving wheels of the latter, on roads of great travel, 
should not be less than five feet. Of course, every precaution should be 
taken that such wheels are accurately set on their axles, and the fiaunches 
of both the drivers and front wheels of the engine should be sufficiently deep 
(say 1^ or 1} inches) to avoid any risk of the locomotive being thrown from 



; v.- 



.:..i; 



116 «?#' Notes on Practical Engineering, ^-t-'^ 

the track by any obstacle but one resting on both rails, or so elevated on one 
rail as to overturn it With these precautions and a proper police in rela- 
tion to the road and machinery, we are inclined to think that a speed of 
25 miles per hour at least may be attained on most of our roads, without 
any increase of risk at all correspondent to the greatly increased travel which 
would result from such speeds. 

As to the item of risk, it should be born in mind that for passenger trans- 
portation, every precaution should be taken, and with such precaution, it 
does not appear to us, that at the rate of speed before mentioned, there is any 
material risk. If the axles and wheels of cars are of good materials and 
abundantly heavy, and every part of the engine properly proportioned, and 
leaning to the side of unnecessary strength. If no engine or car is allowed 
to leave the shops of the company without being closely inspected, and with- 
out the slightest repairs which may appear desirable being effected, there is 
really very little risk in railroad travelling from any cause, but blundering 
management in the arrangement of trains, by which a collision may take 
place, or from the designs of malicious persons, who may place obstacles on 
the track. The former is so serious a matter, at even the slowest rate of 
speed which travellers would put up with, that it must be guarded against 
by legislative provisions, and the strictest discipline at all hazards. From 
the latter, (obstruction in the track,) there is no danger to passengers, even 
should the locomotive be thrown off, if the baggage car, or cars, are put in 
front of the passenger cars, and the simple expedient of wooden couplings 
is adopted, to connect the engine and tender with the trains. 

The above views will, we hope, satisfy many of our readers of the cor- 
rectness of our proposition, of the propriety of high speed for travel and low 
speed for freight We may perhaps present some further considerations on 
the subject in a future number, with comparisons between results on routes 
on which the policy advised by us, or an opposite one has been adopted. 

Vor the American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Ma^zine. 

NOTES ON PRACTICAL ENGINEERINa. — No. 6, 

» Wharves. 

Although some may consider the remarks on the present state of bridge 
engineering not quite just, few will deny that the wharves, even of the great 
cities, are wretched affairs, whether we regard their present state, or their 
original projection, if, indeed, they ever had any. The extent of the whjirves 
in this country is immense, and though all, or nearly all, of wood, there is 
still abundant room for the exercise of engineering skill in their construction, 
as well as in properly adapting them to the materials and business of their 
locality. These, as well as bridges, enter largely into the practice of the 
engineers of Europe ; and the state of the wharves in this country is the 
wonder, but not the admiration of foreigners, and, perhaps, still more so of 
citizens, who have spent some time abroad. It will, of course, require a 
long time to produce a general change, but might not a commencement be 
made by strenuous exertions on the part of the profession 1 4*\ 1^ -i ^' • ' 



"^^ 



1V^«I on PrkeHcal Engnturhii. 



117 



The following account of the construction of a wharf for the northern 
^rminus of the Champlain and St Lawrence railway, and of the wharves 
at Monieal, may interest some of the readers of the Journal. The former 
runs out one-fourth of a mile into the river, is 32 feet wide, and ends in a T, 
with 200 feet front. A single track is laid on one side, the other side being 
required for carts and passengers. On the face of the T there is a wide 
platform for freight, and on the upper side of the wharf piles are driven at 
a distance of about 8 feet, and on these and on the edge of the wharf lum- 
ber is piled, so as to be ready for the cars without interfering with the traffic. 
On the approach of winter, the platform, turntables, office, etc, are removed, 
but the track is left, being secured to the timber^ of the wharf Ice soon 
forms in that climate, the river rises rapidly above the wharf which is under 
Water from the beginning of December to the end of April, when the ice 



i**^ 







*»C^ 



118 



Notes on Practical Engtneerin^. 



dams below give way and the water falls in a few hours to its ordinary 
level. The piles to which the steamboat is moored, and which serve as 
fenders also, are drawn by the rising of the ice, they are then cut out, taken 
ashore, and driven again the following spring. 

The transverse section, fig. 1, shows the mode of construction. The sides 
are formed of horizontal courses of white pine with a batter of 2 inches to 
the foot rise, the ties are of round tamarack below water and of white cedar 
above, they are 10 feet apart, 8 inches square at the outer end and let 4 inches 
into the superior and inferior courses. The face timbers are further secured 
by a piece of | inches square iron, ragged, 3 feet long driven into a ^ round 
hole, each 10 feet of each course. Ties break joints, not as in brick work, 
but by steps, as it were, so as to offer their entire surface to the slate with 
which the wharf is filled to the dotted line, fig. 1. The side or face timbers 
are capped with an oak plate, and on the T they are further steadied and se- 
cured by a block and strap firmly bolted to the ties and face timbers as seen 

2. in fig. 2. The face of the 

wharf is planked. The upper 
end of the planks are ht 2 in. 
into the oak plate, as seen in 
figs. 1 and 2, and their feet are 
kept in place by the outer sill, 
which will be readily under- 
stood by the " plan" of the low- 
eat course, fig. 1. The inner 
ends of the ties are dove-tailed 
into the middle longitudinal 
timbers, which are merely flatted, and of the cheapest kind of wood. The 
comers of the T are arranged as in fig. 3, which is a plan of the upper 

course with the oak plate remov- 
ed. The face timbers lap at 
the corners, they are rounded 
off by a piece of oak, which 
with 3 or 4 of the plank, also of 
oak at this point, are firmly held 
in their places by iron straps 
bolted to the timbers, and also to 
a pile driven into each corner of 
the T. The foot of the oak cor- 
ner timber is nearly triangular 
in section, and just fills the space 
between the face timbers and the 
outer sills, which are also lapped. 
After eight years exposure, these 
comers remain as at first The wharf was commenced at the shore and 





Notes on Practicdt Engineering. £H| 

carried out 1200 feet ia one continuous mass of timbers, the T was sunk at 
the end of the wharf, and held in its place by piles ; the timbers above 
the level of the water are also continuous with the upper timbers of the 
wharf 

The river front of the city of Montreal is protected and adorned by a su- 
perb quay of cut lime stone, about 20 feet high, a mile in length and with 
numerous carriage ways leading down to the wharvcsk These are formed 
of piles of white pine about 14 inches square, driven at a slope of about 2 
inches to the foot. They are grooved on the two edges so as to receive an 
oak tongue about 3x4, and are secured at the top by a heavy wale timber, 
at the back with blocks, ties and straps very nearly as in fig. 2, the face tim- 
bers of which occupy the place of the piles. The corners arc| rounded off 
very gently, which I think a mistake, as it sacrifices much room, and is in 
other respects inconvenient. A heavy iron strap is carried along the face at 
low water. The workmanship is unexceptionable, and the wharves might 
serve as models but for one defect, which would have been avoided had the 
plan been submitted to any competent engineer. The distance between the 
wale at the top and the bed of the river must be more than 20 feet, and the 
pressure from the filling in has caused the piles to bulge out, and in some 
cases has actually forced an opening between them. The wharves are under 
water several months, and when the river falls rapidly the outward pressure 
from the saturated mass must be immense. The effect of this thrust, though 
it could not escape the attention of the engineer, was naturally enough over- 
looked by the commissioners and the respectable builders employed by them. 
Except in very extreme cases there can be no difficulty in guarding against 
this thrust, and in many instances this mode of constructing \vharves will 
be found very advantageous. A strong current is no very serious difficulty, 
and an uneven bottom, or one liable to wash — to a considerable extent — are , 
no objections. The timber is in the best position for durability, and the piles 
may be bored down to the level of the water and filled with oil, tar or any 
other preservative. Had the present steam pile drivers been in use in June, 
1835, I believe I should have adopted this mode of construction for the rail- 
way wharf When in Montreal, in 1842, 1 perceived that they were build- 
ing a new wharf of crib work, which was attended with some difficulty, on 
account of the slope of the river bank producing a tendency in the crib work 
to slide into the channel. They had even constructed a rude coffer dam to 
aid their operations, and after all it will be inferior to a piled wharf where 
the thrust is properly guarded against 

The wharves of the Reading railway are said to be admirably arranged, 
but I am unable to speak from observation of their merits in this respect, or 
of the mode of construction. The wharves described above are the best 
specimens of crib work and filling which I have met with, though like all 
ether structures admitting of endless variety and improvement 

W. R Gfw 
-Jfeto York, April, 1844 „.,,,. _ i' 






'WfB Indiana Railroad Report. '(i 

We desire to make our acknowledgements to J. Williams, Esq., treasarer 
of the Boston and Worcester railroad company, for a copy of the " Annual 
Reports of ihe Railroad Corporations, in the State of Massachusetts," as 
made to the legislature, giving a statement of their operations for 1843. 
The reports of the different companies, like the works to which they refer, 
are got up in a style commendable to those who manage those companies. 
It was our intention to have given in this number a synopsis of them, with 
our annual comparative table, showing, at a glance, what each has done dur- 
ing the past year — but other avocations have prevented, and it is defered un- 
til the next number. 



INDIANA RAILROAD REPORT. , 

We find in the Indiana State Sentinel of March 6th, the report of tne 
Madison and Indianapolis railroad company, which we give at length, that 
our readers may know what is going on in the west. This report shows a 
very favorable and progressive state of affairs, and must stimulate those in- 
terested in the work to renewed efforts for its speedy completion. We find 
in this report a 'beautiful illustration of the advantages of long., over shorty 
railroads. The rapid increase of receipts per week, when a new section of 
the road was opened for use, even though but a few miles in length, shows 
conclusively that eis our railroad system is extended, and different roads are 
connected with each other, the business will increase almost in a geometrical 
ratio, and that roads which now scarcely pay expenses, will become profit- 
able works, and good investments. We shall be gratified to record the com- 
pletion of this road to Indianapolis, and then its continuance to Lafayette and 
lake Michigan. Accompanying the report is a statement showing the de- 
tails of the freight transportation during the year. 

To the directors of the Madison and Indianapolis railroad company : 

One year having elapsed since the company took possession of the State's 
portion of the road, and since I have had the superintendance of all the af- 
&ir8 of the company, I deem it necessary and appropriate to lay before the* 
board of directors as full a statement of the operations of the road, both as to- 
transportation and construction, as circumstances will enable me and a pro- 
per understanding of the affairs and finances of the company may seem to 
require. 

At the time the company took possession of the State's portion of the road 
and the consequent charge of the operations in transportation, the cars were 
running a distance of 28 miles, to Griffith's. Owing to the severe weather 
which continued to a late period in the spring of 1843, the road was not com- 
pleted to Scipio until the 1st of June, at which time the cars commenced run- 
ning to that point, being an extension of only three miles ; at this point the 
northern terminus of the road continued until the 1st -of September, a period 
of three months. On the 1st of September we extended the running of the 
cars to Elizabethtown, a distance of seven miles from Scipio, and ten miles 
from Griffith's, On the 1st of February we commenced running the cars 
to Clifty, being a further extension of 4^ miles, and to a point about 2 J miles 
south of Columbus, making an entire extension of the road complete, 14^ 
miles north of Griffith's. 

The further completion of the superstructure to Columbus is in progress, 



Indiana Railroad Repor^ 131 

being so near completion as to secure the expectation that we may ran the 
cars to that point in the course of the next two months. 

Under authority of an order of the board, I contracted in August last with 
Mr. John McNickle, of Covington, (Ky.) for 180 tons of railroad iron, be- 
ing a quantity, estimated sufficient to iron the road to Columbus. Of this 
iron, 110 tons have been delivered and mostly laid down. The balance, ac- 
cording to contract, is to be in readiness by the time the superstructure is pre- 
pared for it. For this iron, acceptances have been given for the first fifty 
tons, at 4 months — for the next fifty tons 6 months, and for the remaining 
portion at 5 months from the periods of delivery respectively. The accep- 
tances have been made by drafts drawn by me, as treasurer of the company, 
on, and accepted and endorsed by gentlemen friendly to the road, who have 
lent their names to the company to aid in procuring the iron. 

The progress of the contractors for building the superstructure between 
Columbus and Edinburg has been tardy, but not more so than could reason- 
ably be expected. Considerable progress has, however, been made, and if 
some additional aid could be rendered 1)y substituting more available means, 
we might hope to have the superstructure complete to Edinburg in the course 
of the next autumn. 

The survey and estimate of that portion of Jhe^ifie^f the road between 
Edinburg and Indianapolis, whichJwas' completed last'summer, shows that 
the grading and bridging efthis part of the road will cost much less in pro- 
portion to distaaecf than that portion south of Edinburg. The whole esti- 
mate for grading and bridging the 30 miles being only $96,500. The ope- 
rations in the repairs of the road in use have been steadily in progress, but 
have been limited and confined to such repairs and improvements as seemed 
indispensable to the preservation of the embankments and superstructures, 
and such other work as was necessary to the successful operations on the 
load and the safe running of the cars^"-''' 

This limitation was in a measure imperative from the necessity of meet* 
ing the company's obligations on paper given for iron, and on which various 
persons had kindly lent their names as security, and which every honorable 
consideration to tl^ia,^d preservation of the credit of the company required 
should be promptly met Had abundant means been at command, a more 
extended operation in repairs might with propriety have been gone into ; but 
none has been neglected which a proper regard for the preservation of the 
road required. Much more has been done in this regard than had been per- 
formed the previous year while under the care of the State, and the condi- 
tion of the road is as safe and favorable for the running of the cars and the 
general operations of its business as when the company took possession of it ; 
ud the preservation of the superstructure is much better secured, in that 
pK)rtion at least, which relates to the bridges. 

A permanent depot has been completed at Madison, at a cost of nearly 
$1,200. Others of a cheap character have been provided by the lessors at 
Scipio and Elizabethtown, and a tempor^y one at Clifty, at the expense of 
the company ; all of which have begif necessary for the accommodation of 
the business of the road. The ^mpts from transportation and passengers 
have been favorable and have/ihet my anticipations suggested to the board 
on a former occasion, although our charges on many articles of freight are 
^too low. The receipts cp4ld not be expected to increase much while the 
road was unextended, and, indeed, as our charges were 25 per cent, below 
those charged by the State, it should not have surprised us if there had been 
a falling off in the receipts for the three months, and over, that we remained 
at Griffith's, but there has been a gradual increase in the business and re- 



/ 



|S|S Indiana Railroad Report 

ceipts of the road ; increasing greatly as it has been extended ; the weekly 
receipts running up from $240 to near $1000, and the business accumulating 
beyond the means of our motive power to perform. The receipts for trans- 
portation and passengers for the 3^ months that our northern terminus 
remained at Griffith's, averaged $270 per week, and for the next three , 
months while we were at Scipio, (an extension of three miles only) the week- 
ly receipts averaged $400, and for the succeeding 5 months, our northern 
terminus being at Elizabethtown, (a further extension of seven miles,) the 
weekly average receipts were $560, and since we have extended the running : 
of the cars to Clifty, a further distance of 4^ miles, we find that additional 
engines and cars are required to do the work, and our receipts running from 
800 to over 1000 dollars per week. 

This fully illustrates the certainty of greatly increased business as we ex- 
tend the road into the interior. The ratio of increase in business will be 
equal to the square of the distance of each extension. These facts and con- 
siderations should, it seems to me, encourage the friends of the road and all 
interested, (and all on the line or within available distance of it, and all in- 
terior Indiana, are deeply interested.) to persevere in efforts to carry it through. 

The total amount of receipts, exclusive of railroad scrip, from the 20th 
February, 1843, to the 3d February, 1844, have been $24,385 17 of which 
the sum of $22,110 33 were receipts from transportation. 

The remainder were receipts on stock subscriptions and miscellaneous. 
The receipts for the unexpired portion of the year since the company took 
possession of the road will probably swell the receipts from transportation 
to $24,250. 

At the period of our taking charge of the road, I signified my belief that 
the receipts from transportation would, with the other funds then on hand in 
State scrip, be sufficient to meet the demands against the company on the 
first iron contract, within one year from that date. This expectation has 
been fully realized, but the diversion given by the board to a portion of the 
receipts together with the necessity of paying for spikes, iron, freights, etc., 
has left a small portion of that debt yet unpaid ; say about $1500, but a por- 
tion of this will still be discharged out of the receipts accrued within the 
year. There has been paid out of this fund set apart to meet this iron con- 
tract an amount larger than the unpaid residue of the iron debt. The con- 
tract with Col. McNickle for 180 tons of iron for extending the road to Co- 
lumbus, will, including iron for spikes, call for the payment of about $11,000 
to be paid on acceptances as suggested in a former part of this report, the 
means for which, I have no doubt, will be realized in the receipts for trans- 
portation in time for the maturity of the paper. 

The required amount anticipated for the current expenditures for road re- 
pairs, cars, etc., will doubtless exceed, by a considerable sum, the outlays for 
the same purposes for the past year, but the greatly increasing business and 
consequent receipts from the road, it is presumed will cover such additional 
expenditure, except the purchase of an additional locomotive engine, which 
I deem indispensable, and respectfully recommend the board to authorize to 
be procured if means can be devised for its purchase. 

I have, in pursuance of the order of the board, contracted with Messrs. 
W. N. Jackson and John D. Morris for the building'of a suitable depot at 
Columbus ; a duplicate of the article of agreement is on file in the office, 
and will be submitted to the board. 

The main portion of the deed.s given the company for lands subscribed, 
have been sent to the proper counties and recorded ; an accoimt of the ex- .. 
penso of which will be submitted to the board. 



■I.J.'... L.ijL^ .i.''-:- :'■- _ ...Ji-j'U-- .•»-._.;.- ;'2'' 



Indiana Railroad Report. - 123 

I deem it due to the several officers in the service of the company, as well 
as the hands empJoyed in the various departments, to testify to the industry 
and fidelity of each and all, and that during the great press of business for 
the last few months they have been subject to severe labor and exposure 
which they have gone through with cheerfulness and alacrity. 

The greatly increased business of the road will require, without delay, 
some more efficient means of transportation over the plain at the Madison 
hill. The tardy and expensive mode now employed, together with the still 
more injurious results of delay, unavoidable in the present mode, render a 
change in this respect extremely desirable if not indispensable. The em- 
ployment of a locomotive engine adequate to the business of the road, would 
save, in money and time, which is precious, an amount equal to its cost in a 
short time, besides other important advantages that would result from its 
adoption. The condition of the slip at the plain is not at this time safe for 
the use of such an engine, but this, however, could be placed in a suitable 
condition by the time the engine can be procured. The amount of debt con- 
tracted by the last purchase of iron will require the nett income of the road 
for the main portion of the year to discharge it, and of course no considera- 
ble amount can with propriety be calculated upon from that source for the 
purchase of an engine. But if the nett proceeds of the road for a period be- 
yond the payment of the present iron debt, can by any mean^be anticipated, 
it seems to me that the engine should be ordered forth witlj. 

The remarkable weather which has visited us for nearly the whole time 
since the company has been running the cars, has been alike unfavorable to 
road repairs and to the business of the road, while its effects upon the em- 
bankments, cuts and foundations have been such as sh^d be expected from, 
the constantly wet condition of the earth. 

This has been equally un&.vorable to the running of the trains ; the track 
being, much of the time, so slippery that the engines could not take over the 
road more than one-half to two-thirds of the tonnage that can be taken in 
favorable weather. Yet with all these difficulties an amount of businees 
has been done (as will be seen by th^ tabular statements) far beyond any 
previous year, and repairs have been made also to a larger amount 

With obstacles thus difficult and opposing, and with a tariff of charges, 
on an average at least 25 per cent, below that charged by the State, the re- 
ceipts from transportation for the year ensuing the time of our talung pos- 
session of the road will have amounted to rising $24,000, not in outstanding 
and imavailable debts, but in actual cash receipts. The nett proceeds of the 
road, after deducting the rent to the State, will not vary much from 10 per 
cent, on the capital stock of the company paid in ; which amount will be 
subject to division among the stock, to be carried to the credit of the stock- 
holders as so much additional stock, agreeable to the consent in writing of 
most of the stockholders on file in the office, or to remain as a surplus to be 
hereafter divided 

But if the board should deem it advisable to declare a dividend, I would 
recommend that it should not exceed 8 per cent., leaving an overplus for fu- 
ture disposition. 

Statements will be exhibited to the board for its information, showing the 
general state of our finances, and the amount of receipts and disbursements 
\mder each appropriate head, together with tables showing the state of my 
account with the company as its treasurer, to which I invite a searching 
scrutiny by the board. 

Believing the taking proper care of money when earned, as important as 
to earn much, I have carefully watched the operation of our system of ac- 



124 



Indiana Railroad Report. 



countability, and checks, and balances, and have examined the waybilis and 
collated and compared the results with the weekly statements of the clerks 
of transportation and conductor, upon which these payments are made to 
the treasurer, and find that the system, though not pe/fect, is, if fully carried 
out, sufficiently guarded for the protection of our funds, and which is further 
secured by honest and faithful officers, having charge of th^ departments of 
transportation. 

This being the first year of the company's operation in transportation and 
control of the road, much interest has been manifested by the stockholders 
and the public as to its management and probable results which would flow 
from an extension of the road, both as to its own revenue and utility to the 
public. The practical illustrations which have resulted from this one year's 
experiment, in our system of management, accountability and economy, to- 
gether with the certain favorable eflfects of the extension of the road on its 
business and revenue, should be highly gratifying and encouraging to all 
the friends of the road ; and although this great undertaking (so far as the 
company is concerned,) is in its infancy, yet we have good reason to hope 
that the ultimate results will be alike propitious in profit to the shareholders 
and general utility to the community. 

In the management of a business so large as is now commanded by this 
Toad, and where every interest, so far as regards the details of its manage- 
ment, is antagonistical to the interest of the company — added to the fact that 
some delight in, and are incessant in manufacturing clamor, it could not but 
be expected that complaints would be made ; but so far as these several con- 
flicting interests have depended upon my action, I have carefully consulted 
my best judgment, 'and when convinced of the right and proper course, I 
have carried it out, as I hope, with firmness and moderation, and hold my- 
self responsible to the board and to the stockholders for my action as their 
agent and representative. All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Madison, Feb. 22, 1844. N. B. Palmer, President. 

The following table will show the amount and quantity of the several ar- 
ticles of freight (inward bound) or going south, which passed over the rail- 
road from the 20th of February, 1843, to the 3d of February, 1844. A 
statement of the outward bound freights, together with other interesting tables, 
will be shortly published, but which are not at this time in perfect readine 



through passengers, 
way " 

hhds. 



2,340 
2,»74 

402 hhds. bacon, 

243,763 bacon and bulk pork, 
15,038^ bushels wheat, 

5,570 bbls. flour, 

260,918 lbs. miscellaneous freight, 
1,382^ bushels flaxseed, 

1,956 kegs lard, 

1,157 bbls. lard, 

1,981 bbls. pork, ».-- ' -r.^v 

1,153 cords wood, -\. 

210,692 pounds hay, '' "'• 

17,376 live hogs, ^' ^^■ 

483 slaughtered hogs, 

1 1 bushels com, 

43,838 pounds hemp, 

254,306 pounds tobacco. 

158 bushels meal. 



1,328 flour barrels, 
31 i bushels barley, 
87^ bushels grass seed, 
20,324 hoop poles, 
489 bushels potatoes, 
head cattle, 
head horses, 
bbls. whiskey, 
pork barrels. 



{)ounds furniture, 
a 



18 

281 

256 

2,211 

23,277 

868 lard kegs, 
325,286 feet poplar lumber, 
4,535 feet ash and cherry do., 
92 car loads staves, 
11 perch stone, 
89^ thousands shingles, 
365 bacon hhds., 

18 carriages, 
757 bushels oats. 



:r\- 



'i:. 






Lord Rosses TtUscopt,^^ ^ 196 

The following description of preparing the speculum for a large telescope 
will be found interesting to many of our readers. It is taken from the Feb- 
ruary number of " The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal." ^ ^^. 

LORD BOSSE's telescope. "^ ' 

At a meeting of the Belfast Natural History Society, the steps by which - 
difficulties were overcome in making the speculum, were explained by Mr. 
Stevelly in detail, under the following heads : 

Metal for the Speculum. — The metallic alloy for the speculum con- 
sists of four atoms or chemical combining proportionals of copper to one of 
tin, or by weight 1264 copper to 689 tin. This alloy, which is a true 
chemical compound, is of a brilliant white lustre, has a specific gravity of 
S-Sll ; a twelfth of a cubic foot, or 144 cubic inches of it, weighing, there- 
fore, a little over 45| lbs. avoirdupoise, or to allow for all waste when casting, . 
60 lbs. which is the rule by which Lord Rosse estimates the weight of metal . 
he requires. This alloy is nearly as hard as steel, and yet is almost as brit- 
tle as sealing wax. Of this most unpromising material Lord Rosse has cast, 
ground, and has ready for polishing, a circular mass, 6 feet in diameter, SJ 
mches thick, and weighing upwards of three tons, with a surface perfectly 
free from crack or flaw, and quite homogeneous. The next head is 

Casting. — On the first castings having flown into pieces, finding that the 
fragments no longer fitted each other in their former places, he perceived • 
that they had been in a state of violent strain arising from the cooling and - 
setting of the outer parts, while the inner parts, yet fluid, were also largely 
expanded by the heat ; this, and the porous surfece, led him by many stages 
and trials to the remedy, which is simple and complete. The bottom of the 
mould is made of a ring of bar iron, packed full of slips of iron hoops set on 
their edges, which lie in parallel cords of the ring. These, though packed ■ 
very tightly together, and so closely fitting that the melted metal cannot run 
between them, yet allow any air that is carried down to the bottom of the 
mould when the metal is cast in, to pass out through the interstices. After ; 
the ring is packed, it is secured in a lathe, and the face, which is to be the f- 
bottom of the mould, turned true to the convex shape to fit the concave spec- *■ 
ulum required. It is then placed flat on the ground by spirit levels (between *' 
the surface in which the metal is melted, and the annealing oven,) and the 
mould completed at the side with sand, in the way practised by founders, but 
left open at the top. The metal is then melted in cast iron crucibles ; wrought -, 
iron would be corroded by the speculum metal, and injure its properties, while • 
fire clay crucibles will not answer. Unless the crucibles be cast with their * 
bottoms downward, they will be porous, and the metal alloy will run through * 
their fine pores. When the metal is melted, and still much too hot to pour, ^ 
the crucibles are brought by a crane, and set firmly, each in a strong hoop 
iroii cradle, which turns on gudgeons, and so arranged round the mould 
that when the handles of the cradles are depressed, they pour out their mol- 
ten mass direct into the mould. An oxide forms rapidly on the surface of ^- 
the metal while too hot — this is as rapidly reduced back to the metallic state ' 
bv constantly stirring it with a pine rod ; as the temperature sinks, the in- ■ 
stimt this reduction of the oxide begins to cease, is seized on as the proper ; 
moment for pouring. The liquid mass descends with a few fiery splashes, 
and after waving back and forward for a few seconds, the surface becomes • 
stilL The setting process begins at the hoop iron bottom, where a thin film * 
first sets — ^the process extends upwards in horizontal layers, and at length « 
the top, thou'gh red, becomes fixed in form ; the mass is then as tough as 



1S5 Liord Rosses Telescope. 



1. 



■"TJ.i 



melting glass, and being turned out of the mould upon a proper trucV, With 
the fac© upwards, is drawn into the oven to undergo the process of 

Annealing — or very slow cooling. Here it is built up into the oven, 
previously heated red hot, and fire is kept up under the floor of the oven for 
some days ; the under fire places are then stopped, and all left for weeks to 
cool down to the temperature of the air. The six feet speculum vras left 
here sixteen weeks. Here the particles of the alloy slowly arrange them- 
selves into the arrangement in which the aggregating forces are in equili- 
brium, or natural and equal antagonist tension. When the oven is opened, 
the speculum is removed to the workshop, to undergo the process of 

Grinding — which process was illustrated by working a model. In the 
workshop it is placed on a circular table, in a cistern filled with water, of 
temperature, say 55^^ Fahrenheit, with the face to be ground upwards. The 
circular table is turned round by the motion of the grinding engine. But 
first, the edge is made truJy cylindrical by being surrounded by many pieces 
of deal board set in an iron ring pressing against the edge ; emery being in- 
troduced as it turns round, soon grinds it cylindrical j it is then placed in the 
box in which it is to be used ; here it is firmly secured by a ring of iron 
brought to embrace, firmly yet gently, its now truly cylindrical edge. The 
box and speculum, with the face to be ground placed upwards, is now again 
placed on the circular table in the cistern of water. Emery and water be- 
ing placed upon it, the grinding disk is laid on, which is a cast iron plate 
turned at one surface to the shape to fit the speculum when ground, and 
grooved on that surface with many annular grooves concentric with the plate, 
and with many straight grooves running across at right angles to each other. 
The back of this grinding plate is ribbed with six or eight radial ribs, to 
give it stiffness. This plate sits rater loosely in a ring of iron a little larger . 
in diameter, which is driven back and forward by the motion of the steam- 
engine. This ring has two motions, longitudinal and transverse. The en- 
gine causes it to make 24^ strokes for one turn of the speculum on its axis 
under the grinding disk, about 80 strokes taking place in a minute ; the 
length of this stroke is one-third of the diameter of the speculum. The 
motion is produced by an eccentric pin. The transverse stroke takes place 
172 times for each turn of the speculum, and its extent is. at the centre of 
the speculum, -^^ of the diameter of the speculum ; it is produced by an 
eccentric fork. A fourth motion takes place by the grinding disk, while for 
an instant free of the ring, at the turn of the eccentrics, being carried round 
a little by the speculum, on which it is then lying as it were free ; this causes 
it to turn once for about 15 turns of the speculum. Emery and water being 
constantly supplied, the surfaces of the grinding disk and speculum in a few 
hours grind each other truly spherical, whatever be their original defects of 
form. The process is finished, when, upon drawing off the grinding disk 
with one steady long pull, the surface of the speculum is left every where 
uniformly covered with the fine emery arranged in uniform lines, parallel to 
the hne in which the disk was drawn off. A slight polish being now given 
to the speculum, its focal length is tested by a very simple process. The 
floors of the loft above the workshop, in the tower of the castle, contain trap 
; doors, which are now opened, and a mast erected on the top of the tower, 
which carries at its top a short cross arm, to the under surfare of which a 
watch dial is fastened, the face of the dial looking down on the speculum, 
. now directly under it, and at a distance of 97 feet. A temporary eye piece 
erected in the upper floor of the tower, soon finds the place of the faint and 
still imperfect image of the watch dial, the proper place of which is a mat- 
ter of simple calculation, if the speculum be ground to the expected foctis. 



• • . .V "j-*'i 'i -ti, •- -.>>. -1 s'.' 



An Enormous Steam Engind. '" X^s'.- W' 

If it be found incorrect, the grinding disk is rendered a little more flat, or a 
little more convex, and the grinding process is renewed, and so on, until the 
spherical face of the speculum is given its proper length of radius. When 
this is accomplished, tne brilliant reflecting surface, and true form for pro- 
ducing a good image, is given to the speculum by the final process of 

Polishing. — In this, two matters require attention, the polishing powder 
and the surface of the polisher. The powder used by Lord Rosse is not 
putty or oxide of tin, as used by Newton and his followers, but red oxide of 
iron procured by precipitation from green vitriol or sulphate of iron by water 
of ammonia ; this is to be heated carefully in an iron crucible, for it has a 
tendency to take fire, and thus run many particles into one, and render the 
polishing powder too coarse. The surface of the polisher used by Newton 
was pitch in a very thin layer. Instead of pitch, which Lord Rosse found 
too full of gritty impurities, he uses resin tempered with spirit of turpentine, 
A large quantity of resin being melted, the spirit of turpentine is poured in, 
and well mixed and incorporated (about a fifth by weight suffices.) The 
proper temper is known by taking up a little on an iron rod, and putting it 
mto the water until it acquires the temperature, say of 55° Fahrenheit 
Then if the thumb nail make a slight but decided impression, it is rightly 
tempered ; if not, more resin or more spirit of turpentine is added, until the 
proper temper is attained. The tempered resin is now divided into two par- 
cels ; to the one parcel a fourth part (by weight) of wheaten flour is added 
to give it tenacity and diminish its adhesiveness. This is incorporated by 
stirring until it becomes clear. To the other parcel an equal weight of resin 
ia addal, which makes it very hard. Upon this, when cooled to 55°, the 
nail will scarcely make an impression. The grinding disk, with its spheri- 
cal surface turned upwards, is now heated by fire underneath, and the resin 
rendered tenacious by flour laid on with a brush in a thin even coat about 
150° Fahrenheit. This coat and the grinding disk are then allowed to cool 
down to about 100<^ Fahrenheit, when a thin coat of hard tempered resin is 
laid on as evenly and thin as possible. The smooth ground concave specu- 
lum is now covered with a creamy coat of the fine polishing powder and 
water, and the warm polishing surface turned down upon it at about 80^ 
Fahrenheit, when it soon takes the form of the speculum as in a mould ; 
care must be taken not to put on the polishing plate too hot for fear of crack- 
ing the speculum, which the interposed creamy polishing powder helps to 
protect ; nor too cold, else it will not take the proper figure. 'The grinding 
engine now gives the same motions to the polishing plate as before, but its 
weight is much diminished by counterpoising it The soft tenacious coat 
below, and the grooves on the surface of the grinding disk, permit the pro- 
per lateral expansion, while the hard outer coating retains its form, and holds 
firmly embedded the particles of polishing powder. The pohshing now 
proceeds rapidly, and as soon as what is technically called the black polish 
is attained, the defining power is judged of by examining the minute divis- 
ions of the image of the watch dial under an eye piece of high power. The 
true form is known to be given as the polishing proceeds, if the focal length 
slowly increases in a tabulated proportion to the time. The six foot specu- 
lum it is expected will be finished after six hours* polishing. 

An Enormous Steam Engine — by far the largest ever constructed — is 
now in process of manufacture at Harvey and Go's, foundry, Hayle ; the 
piston rod, which was forged last week, is 19 feet long, 13 inches diameter 
m the middle, and 16 inches in the core ; and weighs 3 tons 16 cwt It will 
work in an 80 inch cylinder, which will stand in the middle of another cyl- 



198 



J»^f^fSk Itemsi ■■■'''- -^^^^ ^^■ 



i 



inder, of 144 inclies diameter. Five other piston rods will wort t)etween 
the inner and outer cylinders. We conclude, for this has not been explained 
to us, that the piston of the external giant cylinder will be perforated in the 
middle for the 80 inch cylinder to stand in it, and will work between the two. 
The 80 inch cylinder was cast last week, and the large one will be cast soon. 
The pumps are to be 64 inches in diameter ; a measurement which may af- 
ford some idea of the size of the engine. It is intended for draining Haer- 
lem lake, in Holland, and it is expected that other orders for similar engines 
will be received from the same quarter. It is truly gratifying to us to ob- 
serve that Cornish engineers still keep so far in advance of all the world, 
and not less gratifying to see that foreign powers know and can appreciate 
their excellence. Let this wonder of engineering and mechanical skill be 
considered, as well as the duty done by our common mine engine ; and it 
must be confessed that our Cornish mechanics are, in this branch, far in ad- 
vance of every competitor ; and we may reasonably hope, as superior merit 
must be appreciated at last, that our engine foundries will at length have 
their full share of public and government patronage. 

Bothwai/s Iron Blocks. — An experiment has been made in Plymouth 
dockyard, to try the comparative strength of Mr. Bothway's single metal 
blocks against the rope it is calculated to take, viz., a 3 inch one. A rope 
of that size was rove in the block, and one end brought to a windlass, and 
hove on until it broke. A 3| inch was then tried ; though larger than re- 
quired for such a block, this also gave way ; and the last is considered by 
practical men fully equal to the powers of an 8 or 9 inch block. The iron 
blocks have also another great recommendation in doing away with the rope 
strappings, as many serious accidents have occurred by their breaking. — 
Itondon Mech. Mag. 

Street Sweeping by Machinery. — The first exhibition in the metropolis 
of the self loading cart, or street sweeping machine, which has for some 
time been in use in Manchester, and is fully described in the " Mechanics* 
Magazine," No. 1014, took place recently on the wood pavement in Regent 
street, and attracted crowds of persons to view its very novel apparatus. 
The cart was drawn by two horses, and attended by a driver, and as it pro- 
ceeded caused the rotary motion of the wheels to raise the loose soil from 
the surface of the wood, and deposite it in a vehicle attached to the cart 
Proceeding at a moderate rate through Regent street, the cart left behind it 
a well swept track, which formed a striking contrast with the adjacent ground. 
It filled itself in a space of six minutes, its power being equal to that of forty 
men, and its operation being of a three fold nature — that of sweeping, load- 
ing and carrying at the same time, which imder the old process formed three 
distinct operations. — Ibid. 

A Handsome Present. — The little steamer built by Mehemet Ali to send 
as a present to the Sultan, is a most splendid little vessel, furnished in a most 
costly style. The cabins are entirely built of rosewood and mahogany, 
with silver columns, and rich satin curtains covered with gol^. She is 
schooner rigged, and the masts are all of solid cherry wood. The engines 
are of thirty-six horse power, and there is no doubt that she will be a most 
acceptable gift to the Sultan as a pleasure yacht. — Herapath'j Journal. 



CONTENTS: 



T 



ingiperiiig— : 



Cost of trancportation ou railroads. — Charles 

Ellet.Jr. C. E., 
Inntitute of civil engineers, 
Communication. — X., 
Rate* of tua and rates of ipeed on raiIroa<l(, 



Page. 



Notes on practical e; 

98'Indiana railroad repory 

106 Lord Ilossn's telescop*; 



No. 6, 



109 
111 



An enonaoua XMUna^jjuw. 
Itemt, 1 "" 



16 
120 
125 
1» 



LlM^ 






tMt'in. AMERICAN 

'»» RAILROAD JOURNAL, 



<')•' 






A;h:c- ■'-' "' '.■ AND - 

;; MECHANICS' MAGAZINE^. 



tiAl.!* 



Piiblighed Monthly at 23 Chambers-st New York, \ \ By GEO. C. 8CF?AEFFER, and 

«t »2 a-year, in advan ce, or ') copies lor $5. S f !*• ". MINOR, Editors. 

Ko. 5, Vol. 2. \ ]UAV \<iLAA J Whole No. 436. 

Third Series. \ MAY, 1044. \ Vol. XVU. 

■WEAR AND TEAR, AND DESTRUCTION OF IRON RAILS. •''- ^ ■ "■ - i» 

We had hoped that ere this we should have received from some of our 
correspondents a review of Mr. EUet's communications on '• the cost of trans> 
portation on railroads." In these there is much in which we concur ; but 
there is, on the other hand, so much of error mixed up with the truths that 
they contain, that it is extremely desirable that some practical engineer, who 
has constructed and managed railroads, should review them, and inform the 
readers of the Journal, many of whom are large stockholders in their un- 
dertakings, where the views taken in Mr. EUet's papers are correct, and 
where erroneous. 

On one point it seems to be generally conceded that Mr. E. has adopted 
most exaggerated views. We mean in relation to the wear and tear and de- 
struction of iron rails. This has been hitherto much greater apparantlp^ 
than it is really, from the disposition of railroad companies, both in England 
and America, to progress in the improvement of their superstructures with 
the increase of their business, which has led them often to substitute a heavier 
rail for a lighter, long before the latter had given out, and in some cases 
even before it was materially injured. It is obvious, however, that what- 
ever may have been hitherto a fair allowance for the wear and tear of iron, 
a very small one comparatively will be sufficient hereafter^ for the following 
reasons: • - \'. ■ , 

1st. The value of slow motion for freights is now beginning to be geher- 
kily understood, and the wear and tear and destruction of rails, occasioned 
by the passage of a train oyer a railroad, is much more than proportionally 
diminished with every diminution of speed. 

'2d. The locomotives now being introduced for freights, with much more 
adhesion, and, in consequence, much more capability than the old, have their 
weights more equally diffused, and less on a single pair of wheels than the 
old, and the motion of a train over a road, drawn by such a locomotive, is, 
therefore, much less injurious. 

' 3d. While by the use of these effective, but slightly oppressive machines, 
at slow motion, the passage of a train over a railroad is much less injurious 
than it formerly was, inasmuch as the injury to the rail (that arising principal* 



130 Cost of Transportation on Railroads. 

» ■ 

ly from the passage of the locomotive and not of the cars,) is but little more 
for a long than a short train, the amount of injury per ton conveyed i* 
still farther diminished compared with what it has been, in consequence of 
the increased length of trains. 

For the above reasons it is obvious that Mr. EUet's calculations, as to the 
wear and tear of railroad iron, per ton conveyed, deduced from roads on 
which high speeds, engines with great weight on a single pair of wheels, 
and short trains, are run, must necessarily be immensely exaggerated, when 
applied to the Reading railroad, on which, if we are correctly informed, 8 
wheel engines, at a moderate velocity,draw trains averaging 160 tons nett,and 
on which, it is believed, that engines of the same weight with those now em- 
ployed, so constructed as to have the benefit of their whole adhesion, and 
with the weight equally divided on all the wheels, (so as to have but little 
more Aveight on a wheel than the weight on an ordinary car wheel,) may 
draw 300 tons. With such engines, and we have no doubt they will be ere 
long introduced on the Reading and other roads, the iron of railroads may 
be expected to last as long, with slow transportation on locomotive as on 
horse power railroads, and on the latter the wear of a well made edge rail 
may be considered so small an item, as to be scarcely worthy of consider- 
ation. 

We have designed in the above remarks only to advert to the subject 
noticed in them, by way of inviting the attention of some intelligent and prac- 
tical professional gentleman to it, and to the other elements of the cost of 
transportation on railroads considered in Mr. EUet's communications. We 
have indeed to regret that those members of the profession of civil engineers 
who could do most to enlighten the public mind on subjects connected with 
their profession, have but rarely listened to our appeals to them. We shall 
continue to hope, however, that this may be more the case hereafter than it 
has been heretofore, and that those whose experience is greatest in their pro 
fession may be willing occasionally to present through our columns their 
views on important professional subjects in relation to which it is desirable 
that the public mind should receive correct impressions. ^ 

BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILSOAD TRANSPORTATION OP IIEAVT FREIGHTS. 

Through the politeness of B. H. Latrobe, Esq., chief engineer, we have 
received a pamphlet, entitled " Two replies of the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road company, to interrogatories propounded to the said company by the 
house of delagates of Maryland." The main object of the inquiries ap- 
pears to have been to ascertain the rates per ion at which " the railroad com- 
pany would engage to transport coal, iron, etc., from Cumberland to dam 
No. 6, provided an arrangement be made for such transportation to last for 
two, and also for twelve years, or permanently." To these, and other in- 
quiries, the company replied, under date of 1st February, 1844, as follows, 
to the 1st and 3d inquiries — the answer to the 2d, 4th and 5th are here omit- 
ted, a| the whole subject is fully answered in the reply of the company, 



^L 



Cost of Transportation on Railroads, 



131 



through their able president, Louis McLane Esq., in answer to a second 
call from the house of delegates, which, with the accompanying estimates, 

v* and statements, we give at full length. -^^x-- 

1st inquiry. What is "the lowest rate of toll per ton per mile at which 

. ; the company would agree to transport coal^ iron, etc., from Cumberland to 
dam No. 6, etc. 

" 1st. That, prorided a satisfactory arrangement be made within the en- 
suing twelve months, for the transportation of not less than 105,000 tons of 
cdal annually, in equal daily quantities, during the canal season, assumed to 
be 250 day.s, from Cumberland to dam No. 6, to continue for twelve years 
or permanently, this company will engage to transport that amount, or any 
greater quantity not exceeding 500,000 tons as aforesaid, between those ooints 
at 1^ cent per ton per mile." 

2d Inquiry, Requests a " statement of the relative cost of transportation 
by mean« of the railroad and canal from Cumberland to Greorgetown, and 
by the canal alone, if finished," to the latter place. ">: : . - 

* . " 3d. That this company decline to assert positively the lowest cost of 
transportation by the canal alone, if finished from Georgetown to Cumber- 
land^ but assuming such cost to be, as stated in the report of the canal com- 
pany of the 16th of November last, 1 ^^^ of a cent per ton per mile, the 
relative cost of transportation by means of the railroad from Cumberland to 
dam No. 6, and thence by canal to Georgetown^ and by the canal alone, if 
finished from the same to the same, will appear as follows : ■ >f? ; - V 

" Tolls and charges on railroad to dam No. 6, 45 miles at 1 J cent, 60 
* Tolls and transportation on the canal from dam No. 6 to George- 
town, 136 miles at 1 1^^^ cent per mile. 1 70^ 



* The cost of transporting a ton of coal from Cumberland to George- 
town by the canal alone, 184^ miles, at the above rate of 1 i 



$2 30^ 



26t 
OQO 



cent per ton per mile, $2 31" 

From the estimates here given, which have unquestionably been made 
with great care, it will be seen that heavy freights may be carried on a rail- 
road at very low rates, and at a fair profit — where the trade is regular arid 
certain. 

These " replies" arfe from practical men who have been long in the school 
of experience— and will be, by many, deemed conclusive answers to Mr. 
EUet's theory in relation to the wear and tear of iron rails. 

Office of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad company^ Iv 

February 15th, 1844. 
To the honorabU the speaker of the h»ust of delsgates : 

Sia: I had the honor to receive on the 12th inst, the order of the house 
of delegates passed on the 10th, and having at the earliest day practicable 
submitted it to the board of directors of this company, I am authorized to 
transmit the following reply. ' >.; 

In the first place, the board desire it should be distinctly understood that 
the investigation into which the house of delegates have been led, has been 
without their prompting or knowledge, and that in responding to inquiries 
into their resources and business, which, by exposing in detail the course and 
results of a single branch of their operations, may possibly lead to errone- 
ous inferences in respect to others — without a like opportunity of ezplaaa- 



.>-'i......i 



Cost of Transportation on Railroads. 

tion — they yield only to a sense of respect due to the legislature of the State t. 
having so deep an interest in the trade and revenues of the road. The se- 
quel of this present answer will satisfactorily show that the board need have - 
no other objection to the amplest exposition of their credit and resources, and ' 
of the whole range of their transactions, on any other gro'ond than that al- :. 
ready indicated. 

The board have at no time heretofore deemed it expedient or desirahle to 
make expensive preparations for the transportation of any considerable . 
amount of coal from the mines in Allegheny county. It has been quite oh- 
vious to them, as indeed they must presume it will be to all, that without the 
facilities of railroad communication between the mines and Cumberland, the 
article could not be brought to the latter point in quantities sufficient to war- 
rant a large expenditure in providing means of transportation by any chan- 
nel whatever. Up to this period the ultimate route of the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad from Cumberland to the Ohio river is too indeterminate to au- 
thorise any attempt to extend it to any part of the coal region, and it is only 
recently that the board have seen any evidence of the existence, in any other 
quarter, of the capital sufficient either to construct a road to the mines, or to 
develope, except in a partial degree, their resources. It would be manifestly 
unwise in this company, or, as it may be presumed, in any authority what- 
ever, to venture upon a large expenditure to acquire the capacity to accom- 
modate a particular branch of trade, without at least some reasonable assu* • 
ranee that after the capacity should be acquired, sufficient trade would exist 
to employ it; and this consideration is particularly applicable to the opera- 
tions of the railroad, inasmuch as the greater part of the preparations ncces- . 
sary for the transportation of coal would not be needed, and could not be ad- ;■ 
vantageously employed in any other business. 

This board, moreover, after thorough investigation of the subject in all 
its bearings, have placed no great confidence in the expectations lounded ;" 
upon the rapid and extensive developement of the coal of that portion of the .' 
State. If the requisite capital for the purpose can be commanded, they have ^' 
been unable to discover any evidence that the demand for consumption will ' 
be such as to authorize, on their part, at least, any great preparations for en- • 
gaging in the trade. They have become convinced, on the contrary, that 
many years must elapse before the demand will require more than 100,000 
tons in any one year, whatever lacilities of transportation may be afforded. 
It is to be observed also that to justify the railroad company in engaging ex- 
tensively in the transportation of coal, at such rates as would bring it to 
market upon equal terms with coal of other States, it would be necessary '• 
that the trade should be large in amount, and of certain and regular supply^ , 
throughout the year ; of which, up to this time certainly, there has been no 
satisfactory assurance. Of the capacity of the company, with those advan- 
tages, to engage in the transportation of coal, at rates extremely profitable^ ' 
• and at the same tinie so low as to exclude the apprehension of rivalry from ' 
other works — according to any rate of charge at present known — the board 
have never doubted. The estimates accompanying this ariswer. and the large 
margin of profit which they exhibit upon the terms assumed, will show that 
if the board would be content with a nett profit of six per cent, upon the 
capital employed, it has the capacity to engage in the trade from the mines 
to the city of Baltimore at rates below any other mode of transportation at 
present known. The indisposition of the board, therefore, heretofore to en- 
gage in the transportation of coal, has proceeded from no other apprehension 
than the want of certainty and regularity in the amount ; and on this groun<L. 
they have preferred waiting events, and to test the practicability of develop-. 



CSo5t of TreuuporiatioK on Railroads. 



m 



ments so confidently predicted by others ; wdth entire confidence, at the same 
.^me, that if those expectations should be realized and the trade in coal be- 
come sufficiently regular and certain, they could, at any time, engage in the 
transportation of it to Baltimore without danger of serious competition with 
«ny other rival. 

Previous to the order of the house of delegates of the ^th of January, 
however, the board were officially informed by the president of the Mary- 
land and New York iron and coal company, that he had procUre<i the re- 
quisite funds for the construction of a railroad from the works of that com- 
pany to Cumberland and was anxious for the completion of the road in the 
■ihortest possible time. The same officer also verbally communicated his 
desire to adopt the Baltimore and Ohio railroad to Baltimore for the trans- 
portation of coal and iron, if this company woujd engage in the trade at such 
rates as would enable him advantageously to do so. The investigation to 
which this application led only confirmed the opinion of the board that they 
might engage in the transportation with great advantage to the stockholders, 
«nd upon terms which, considering the speed at which they could perform 
the business, and the superiority of the Baltimore market, he might be well 
content to accept. Under such circumstances, they felt an obligation not to 
withhold their aid from the development of the resources of that important 
region. The order of the house of delegates of the 25th January, there- 
fore, came while investigations into the practicability of arrangements for 
this purpose were actually in progress. A few days subsequent to the an- 
swer of the board to that order, the president of the Maryland and New 
York iron and coal company submitted a further and specific proposition; 
and it uny be proper to remark, that in this proposition that company, of 
acknowledged means and capacity, does not appear to contemplate a greater 
amount of transportation than 62,i500 tons per annum for a period of five 
years, and that not of coal only, but of " coal, pig iron, bar iron, fire bricks, 
castings, and other manufactures of iron." The object of the propositioa 
was to ascertain the terms upon which this board would tran.«port that amount 
from livt mines to Baltimore, if the Maryland and New York company 
would make a railroad from the mines to the depot at Cumberland, and enter 
into an agreement for five years to furnish a freight, for one train of cars, 
•apposed to transport 175 tons per day for three hundred days in the year. 

In answer to the proposition, this board have offered to enter into an en- 
gagement to transport that amount of freight, in the manner proposed, from 
the mines to Baltimore^ at one and one-third cent per ton per mile, a distance 
of 188 miles, with ten cents per ton for transportation through the streets of 
Baltimore; and one cent per ton per mile for 188 miles in addition upon 
manufactured iron, when required to be transported in house c^irs ; the Mary- 
land «nd New York company to load and unload the cars. An official es- 
timate, forming the basis of this ofl!er upon the part of the company, and 
showing the results of the operation, is herewith submitted, marked D. 

I have now to add that since the preparation oi this reply, a communica- 
tion h:is been received from the president of the Maryland and New York 
iron and coal company, announcing the acceptance by that company of the 
foregoing ofi'er ; and stating his readiness to conclude a formal agreement 
to carry out the arrangement. 

With these remarks, which have been deemed proper for a full under- 
standing of the whole subject, I proceed to a more particular reply to the 
several questions propounded in the order of the 10th instant 

rX&X. 'I'he terms " satisfactory arrangement," in the answer of the board 
of the 1st instant, are to be understood to require a reasonable assurance that 



134 Cktst of Transportation on Railroadx 

the amount of transportation for which the company would be compelled to 
qualify itself, should in good faith be furnished ; and with such regularity 
and punctuality, during the period assumed, as would authorize the board to 
engage in it at the low rates proposed. 

If such reasonable assurance could not be given by those who are inter- 
ested in the trade, and who are seeking the means of reaching the market, 
it is not perceived upon what grounds they can with propriety demand a 
large expenditure of money for the preparation of any means oi' transporta* 
tion. 

It has already been remarked that without a railroad communication from 
the Frostburg mines to Cumberland, it is obviously impossible that the Te> 
sources of the former can be sent forward in quantities to justify any consid-v 
erable preparation of any kind ; and it is not to be supposed that these workf 
will be constructed until the market shall demand an adequate supply, and. 
the capital be provided to meet such supply. As the basis, therefore, of any 
*' satiisfactory arrangement" contemplated in the former answer, the boanl 
would require, — First, that the necessary communications from the mines 
to Cumberland, should be constructed ; Second, that adequate capital for 
working the mines to the proposed extent should be provided ; and Third^ 
that responsible parties, engaged in the business, should enter into an agree- 
ment to furnish the requisite amount upon the terms and in the manner pro- 
posed. The board would take it for granted that responsible parties would 
not perform these things without a reasonable certainty that they wouM find 
a market for the products of their labor and capital ; and until they can have 
such certainty they would not be justified in demandkig extensive and unne- 
cessary expenditures, of which they could not avail themselves. 

2d. For the charge of I^ cent per ton per mile, as specified in their an-v 
swer of the 1st instant, the board contemplates a ton of 2,240 lbs. 

3d. In re(ily to this answer, and in illustration of other parts of this answer 
I herewith submit a report and estimate of the superintendent of machinery 
. and repairs, approved and confirmed by the chief engineer of the company, 
marked B. From this it will appear that to provide the necessary "convey* - 
ances, cars and machinery, to accommodate a trade of 105,000 tons, annually, 
between Cumberland and dam No. 6," it will require the sum of eighty 
seven thousand dollars, and for additional sideling tracks at dam No. 6, tkr^ 
thousand dollars, making together ninety thousand dollars ; and " for the 
accommodation of 500,000 tons, annually, between the said points," it would 
require $450,000, including, of course, the previous sum of $90,000. 

4th. Under other circumstances, it might be a sufficient reply to the ques- 
tion to state that the company expect to derive the means to enable them to 
engage in the transportation they have contemplated, from those sources from 
which all railroad companies derive the noeans of maintaining their workt 
and carrying on their trade ; and that this board is quite incapable of ven- 
turing to engage in any branch of trade, without a just reliance upon their 
ability to fulfil their engagements. Upon the present occasion, however, 
the board desire to give a more particular answer. 

In their annual report of October, 1842, the board stand pledged not to 
apply* any portion of their annual revenue to the extension of the road west 
of Cumtlerland, without at least the consent of the stockholders ; and. ad- 
hering to the determination to prosecute their work with the least possible 
delay to the Ohio river, they would deem it unwise to use any part of their 
fund appropriately applicable to the extension of the road, for the purpose 
of increasing their machinery for the accommodation of trade from the pre- 
set terminus. 



X...-,. .^\-:,:: -r. .--■.■ X...- ^■.,\^^-'^- 



I Cost of T^ransportation on Railroads. ^Ipl 

■■ ■-'■!*i%"A'iV''r^"'^ '-■'■ ■ ■■ ; ' ^-^' 

The trade upon the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, however, is obviously 
«n the increase, and in the course of the next year may require some aug- 
mentation of its machinery for the accommodation of the regular and accus- 
tomed business. For this purpose, and for any new trade in which the board 
may decide to engage, the ordinary and legitimate resources are the credit 
and rexxntu of the company. From one of these the capital needed for the 
contemplated transportation of coal must be drawn, and that either will prove 
entirely adequate, is not to be doubted. 

Of the solidity of its credit, this company has just reason to be proud ; 
and they have the gratification to know that under its financial arrangements, 
the improved economy in its operations, and the continual increase in its 
business, its credit is daily becoming better entitled to public confidence. It 
has, at all times, promptly complied with its obligations to the State, and to 
individuals ; its ability in the fature is not less than in the past ; and its bonds 
now outstanding for the debt incurred on account of the Washington road, 
are in demand in the market at a premium of five per cent. If it may be 
assumed that capitalists will be found to advance the requisite funds for work- 
ing the mines which are to yield the coal for transportation, and for the coa-. 
Mruction of the roads necessary for its conveyance to Cumberland ; or if it 
be probable that the same facilities may be found to raise the millions requi- 
site to provide other channels of conveyance, not merely dependant upon the 
developement of the trade, but in competition, as the estimates herewith sub- 
mitted show, with a work in full operation, capable of transporting at as low 
a cost ; the ability of this company to raise, upon its credit, some addition to 
its revenae, to be employed ia a business certainly yielding a nett annual 
profit of Hot less than 20 per cent, will scarcely be deemed less probable. 

The revenue of the company, should h be proper to use it, presents a re- 
source equally available. 

The nett revenue of the last year amounted to nearly $280,000, and 
eaoHgh is already known to authorize the presumption that for the present 
it will not be less than $300,000. Hence it will be clear, from the estimate 
already referred to, that to accommodate a coal trade of 1<^,000 tons per 
annum, from the mines to dam No. 6, little more than font months of the 
nett revenue will suffice ; and that for the same amount of transportation 
from Cumberland to dam No. 6, a much less sum will be adequate. It is to 
be remarked also, that upon either amount, should it be drawn from the 
revenue, the stockholders will annually receive nearly 20 per cent, from its 
new employment, and one-third per ceitt. upon the entire capital of $7,000,000. 

Whether the boaid will resort to its credit or to its revenue, will depend 
upon the best view they may take of the interest of the stockholders, when 
it may become necessary to resort to either. 

The conviction entertained by the board, of the progress and amount of 
the contemplated coal trade, if the supply for consumption should immedi- 
ately require the transportation of 1(^,000 tons in one year, they are quite 
confidefll that after reaching that amount, whenever that may be, the annual 
increase from that time, may be accommodated from the profits derived from 
this branch of trade. It may well be supposed, that no one csm be found 
so sanguine as to imagine that the consumption of this coal will at t^e end 
of eight years require the annual transportation of more than 500,000 tonsj 
and upon this hypothesis, the statement herewith submitted, marked C, will 
show that the transportation of such amount at that period, as well as pre- 
vious thereto will be maintained by Ae profits of this single operation, with- 
out further recourse to the revenue or the credit of the company. If, how- 
ever, the board should, in any degx€e be disappointed in these expectations 



t», ' .^■k «^ ^ 



^136 - . Cost of Transportation on Railroads. 

.—-which they by no means apprehend — the deficiency, small as it must ne- 
cessarily be, may be readily supplitd from either of the sources already in- 
dicated. 

5th. In reply to this question also the attention of the house of delegates 
is particularly requested to the estimates already referred to, and marked B ; 
which were taken as the basis of the previous answer of the board of the 
1st instant. 

These estimates and the expenses of transportation are in every instance 
derived from the actual experience^ not only of other companies but of this 
company ; an experience in our operations of many years, and from their 
uniformity, and the economy we have been enabled to introduce, all estimates 
founded upon them possess, in all our calculations, the most satisfactory au- 
thority. 

It is to be observed also that the principal means by which we are enabled " 
to engage in the transportation of coal at the low rates referred to, are found 
— 1st, in the use of the approved heavy engine, possessing nearly triple the 
capacity of those formerly, and now in use by the company — 2d, in the com- 
parative cheapness of the description of cars, and th^ less weight they are 
required to have in proportion to the load they carry — and, 3d, in the amount 
and regularity and punctuality of the trade. 

It may therefore be stated, that from Cumberland to dam No. 6, a distance 
of 45 miles, the cost per ton per mile of transporting 1C5,COO tons in 250 
days of canal navigation, is estimated at -^^^ of a cent. If the charge be 
1^ cent per ton per mile, the nett profit will be t^oVu o^ ^ Cfnt'per ton per 
mile ; and upon 105,000 tons transported 45 miles, or 4,725,000 tons carried 
one mile, it would be $18,522, being upwards of 20 per cent, upon the ca- 
pital employed, and more than one per cent upon the entire cost of the road 
of 45 miles used for the transportation. Upon the same quantity transported 
from the mines to dam No. 6, and requiring a capital of $1C2,CC0, the nett 
profit would be $23,215, being nearly 23 per cent, upon the capital employed. 

It will also be observed that the expenses of transporting 1C5,CC0 tons of 
coal from Cumberland to dam No. 6, include interest at 6 per cent, upon the 
whole cost of machinery employed in it, as well as every other item of cost 
arising out of the trade ; and the estimate also allows one-fourth of a cent 
per ton per mile for the increased wear and tear of the road due to the ac- 
cession of the additional trade. Regarding this specific transportation be- 
tween the said points as no part of the general trade of the road, upon which 
all the present expenses of working it are charged, it was deemed unjust to 
charge the new trade with any part of the expenses already incurred, and 
which would continue, although the additional trade should not be under- 
taken ; and, therefore, it is not doubted that one-fourth of a cent per ton per 
mile will prove ample allowance for the additional wear and tear it is in- 
tended to cover. 

In any view, therefore, whether we regard the investment of the addition- 
al capital in the machinery alone, or in that and the road together,* it is pre- 
sumed that the transportation proposed will be considered " profitable.** 

6th. At two cents per ton of 2240 lbs. per mile, the company would be 
willing to transport coal from Cumberland to dam No. 6, at all times, with- 
out requiring a stipulation that it should be delivered in equal daily quanti- 
ties ; and would be willing to "increase its machinery for that purpose ac- 
cording to the growth and requirements of the coal trade ;" provided such 
trade between those points shall be equal to 50,000 tons per annum, and the 
company not be required to transport more than 420 tons in one day. Or. 
if the trade should amount to 100,000 toss per annum, the company wotiM 



"f^ "L.'ti '¥-wi. ■"- -^ -t* '1 



V ~y- ' ' 



Coft ef Tran$portatio» on Railroads. ^^IR' 

tratispoff It Iq the'same manner, and at the same rate not exceeding 840 loTM 
per day. 

7th. Since the opening of the road to Cumberland, in November, 1842, 
the rate for the transportation of coal has been two cents per ton per mile; 
and until there should be greater facilities for its conveyance from the mines 
to Cumberland, the company did not increase its machinery for the accom- 
modation of this trade. The whole quantity of coal, other than that for the 
use of the company, taken from Cumberland upon the railroad to all points 
amounted to 5625 tons of 2240 lbs. ; and all that was offered for transporta- 
tion was not invariably carried when presented. There was occasionally 
also, "delay when other tonnage was seeking transportation." This was 
the consequence of an insufficiency of niachinery to transport all articles 
offered for that purpose ; and when it became necessary to choose between, 
different articles presented at the same time, such as were perishable or most 
valuable, were preferred. Such, moreover, was the irregularity in the de- 
iiverv of co.il as to render its prompt transportation in many cases imprac- 
ticable, even if the company had been better prepared for the trade. The 
limited means, during the past year, for the transportation of coal, was well 
known to the dealers ia that article, who without any expectation of its im- 
mediate transportation, must have delivered it with full knowledge of the risk 
of delaj'. 

8th. The highest ascending grade on the railroad, from west to east from 
Cumberland to dam No. 6, is 26-,*^ feet per mile. 

9th. In the recent answer to the house of delegates, it is stated, thM upon 
a railroad from the mines to Cumberland, worked in connection with the 
road from Cumberland to dam. No. 6, and with the same machinery, it will 
cost two cents per ton per mile on the former, and IJ cent per ton per mile 
on the latter; because the road from the mines to Cumberland is but ten 
miles in length, and dependant for its revenue entirely upon the coal trade. 
On this account its general expense.<( would have to be borne entirely by that 
trade, inasmuch as it would derive no such aid as it yielded to the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad from the travel, and transportation of burden, by which 
this road is now supported. It is, therefore, obvious that the charges cannot 
be the same on both roads, although worked by the same machinery, as it is 
supposed in the recent answer. 

Of the two cents per ton per mile, the assumed cost on the road from the 
mines to Cumberland, ly-^^ cent would be received by the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad for transportation, and the remaining -i^u^,V cent would belong 
to the proprietors of the former road ; and if the road be supposed to cost 
$150,000, and the expenses of repairs and management to be at the rate of 
$600 per mile per annum, it would require a trade of 163,576 tons over its 
entire length, in each year to pay an interest of 6 per cent, per annum upon 
the cost of construction. It might indeed be questioned whether the propri- 
etors of a railroad from the mines to Cumberland would, for some time to 
come, be justified in charging so low a rate of toll as two cents per ton per 
mile, assumed in the receat answer. I have the honor to be, sir, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, i, 
Louis McLase, President 
I B. ] 
Estimates of the cost of transporting coal from Cumberland and from the 

Frostburq mines to dam No. 6, on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal — ex- 

tracted from report of the undersigned^ bearing date 31s< Jan.^ 1844. 

Ist. As to the cost of transporting coal from Cumberland to dam No. 6, by the Baltimore 
vcA Ohio railroad, distance 45 miles. This estimate contem|dates the employment oi loco- 



8 10 
1 36 
504 
350 
325 
684 

23 62 
1 50 


$55 80 
0591 
©250 
0^100 



119 ' Cost of Transportation on Railroads.' 

motiTes weighing 20 tons, and of safScient power to tram^rt 30 can carrying 7 tons each, 
or 210 tons of coal per train, and that three locomotives will be required to perform the 
worii of two, and that the season of canal navigation will continue 250 days — cars loaded 
in one direction on>y. 

ESTIMATED COST PCX DAT OF TRAIN CARRTINO 210 TONS COAI^ 

Interest on 1 1-2 times cost of locomotive and tender per working day, 

(the cost of engine and tender being estimated at $10,000,) - $3 60 

Repairs and renewals of engine and tender at 9 cents per mile run with 
trains— 90 mites per day, -....» 
Oil for engine and tender, 11-2 gallons, at SOcenti. • • 

Fuel, 3 tons of coal at $1 68 per ton, • . . . • 

Wages of engineman and fireman, - - • . • 

Wages for two breakmen, one at $1 25, and one at' $1, « • 

Interest per working day on 75 coal cars, at $3 80 each, • 
Repairs and renewidsof cars at a 1-4 of a cent per ton per mile — ef load 
hauled, ...--..- 

Grease for cars. - - . • ^ • . 

Making a total of . » - ^, .,15 ., ,.•_....* 

Being at a rate per ton per mUe of - •• . •."r;''^*. 0591 cenu. 

Add to this for wear and tear of road, bridges, etc., - •■i^j >c - ~ 

And for contingencies, - - - - ••-'->•-. 

The total cost per ton per mile will then be • - - 0*941 cents. 

Two such trains as that above estimated (with less than which the trade could net be so 
economically conducted) would carry 105,000 tons of coal from Cumberland to dam No. 
6 during the 250 days of canal navigation, which at two cents per ton per mile would yield 
a nett revenue of $50,037 75 at 1 1-2 cents per ton per mile, $26,412 75. 

The amount of capital reouisite to procure the macninery for two sack trains would be 
387,000. 

2d. As to the cost of transporting coal from the mines in the vicinity of Frostburg to 
dam No. 6, say 55 miles, engines, loiul, etc., as before — engines working two days and lay- 
me by the third for examination — average day's work of engines and attendants of train 

ESTIMATBD COST OF TRAIN PER ROUND TRIP OP 110 MILES. 

Interest on 1 1-2 times cost of engine and tonder per round trip, (cost of enj^e 

and tender as before,) .-.-... 
Repairs and renewals of engine and tender at 9 cents per mile run, with trains, 
Fuel, 4 tons coal at $1 per ton, ...... 

Oil for engine and tender 1 3-4 gallons, at 90 cents per lonnd trip, • 
Wages of engine and fireman, per round trip, .... 

Wages of two breakesmcn, one at $1 25, and one at $1 per day, per round trip, 
Interest on 75 cars at $ 380 each, per round trip, .... 

Repairs and renewals of cars at 1-4 of a cent per ton per mile, of load hauled, 
Grease for cars, ..--.--- 

Total cost of train per round trip, - • • - • $67 07 

Being at the rate of - - - - • - 0581 cents per ton per milik 

Add to this for wear and tear of road, bridges, etc., • 0*250 " " 

And for contengincies, - . - . . 0*100 " ** 

And we have as total cost, ... 0*931 " " 

Amount of money required to procnre the machinery to nm two trains per day under 
the above system would be 102,000 dollars. 

The quantity of coal transported would be the same as in the former case — 105,000 tons. 

Nett earnings at 1 1-3 cents per ton per mile would be ... $23,215 

" ♦' 1 1-2 cents " " " • - - 32,859 

» «« 134 cento " " " -^ > - 47,927 

" " 2 cento """..- 61,734 

The cost of transporting a ton of coal from Cumberland to Georgetown, by railroad to 

dam No. 6, and thence by canal, will be as follows, viz : 

First. — Supposing tolls and charges upon the railroad to be 1 1-3 cento per ton 
per mile, on 45 nules wonld be - - - - - -$060 

And supposing charges for tolls and transportation on canal to be the same as as- 
sumed by the president and directors of the canal company in their report of the 
I6th November last, viz : 1 254-1000 cento per ton per imle, on 138 would be I 70 1-4 
Total cost of transportation, ..... '$2 301-3 

Second. — Should the charge upon the railroad be fixed at 1 1-3 cento per ton per 
mile, add to the above ....... 07 1-3 

Total cost will then bt-- ... ._. S |8 



$5 40 


9 9ff 


4 00 


1 57 


5 25 


p, 3 37 


6 84 


28 87 


1 87 






jlwntttti H«/ttm of {he^^assaehuseUs 'tidtlroais. 139 

TMrd.— Should the charge upon the raUroad be fixed at 1 3-4 cents per ton per '^'^ 
nule, add the further sum of ------ . , . ,- " " 

Total cost will then be - - - - ,- * 2 491-4 

Pourth.—Should the charge upon the railroad be fixed at 2 cents per ton per nule 
add as before .-..---- ^^ ^•^ 

Total cost from Cumberland to Georgetown will then be - - 2 60 1-3 

Fifth. — Should the road be extended to the mines, add for transportation and , 
charges from the mines to Cumberland — say . - - - 20 

♦ . Making the entire cost from the mines to Georgetown, - - 2 80 1-3 

The cost of conveying a ton of coal from Cumberland to Georgetown by the 

canal alone, at the rate above assumed, distance 184 1-2 miles, would be 2 31 

Add to this the cost upon railroad from the mines to Cumberland, which upon a 
road 80 short as 10 miles, with no other support than that derived from the coal 
trade, and to be worked independently of tne Baltimore and Ohio railroad can- 
not be much, if any, less than ..---. 30 

And we have as the cost to Georgetown, by railroad to Cumberland, and 
thence by canal, - - - - - - -^ft 

Respectfully submitted by James Mcbray, ;•• ■ 

Engineer of machinery and repairs, Baltimore and Ohio railroad. 
Baltimore, February 13, 1844. 

I have carefully examined the preceding estimates and have confidence in their suffi- 
ciency for the purposes intended. Benj. H. Latrobe, Chief Engineer. 

^-^ 

ANNUAL RETURN OF THE MASSACHUSETTS RAILROADS FOR 1843. 

In presenting an abstract of the Massachusetts railroad reports for the 
past year, we have to regret that the information to be derived from the ac- 
cumulated experience of years is much less than might have been expected 
—owing to the absence oi much of the detail necessary to a correct under- 
standing of railroad statistics. There is, however, one exception, which par- 
ticularly deserves notice and commendation — we refer to the Western rail- 
road company, which, following the plan of the last report, has given xu 
again a full statement of all its expenditures, classed under various heads, 
imd affording at a glance the cost of any one department of the business. 

Before, laying before or readers the usual tabular statement, we shall offer 
■an analysis of each of the reports, with such remarks as may be suggested 

Western Railroad. — From this very voluminous report we notice briefly 
auch matters as may interest the general reader. The receipts for 1843 ex- 
ceed those of the previous year by $61,194 23 — a favorable indication of 
the prospects of this great work, as yet but barely entered upon its regular 
business. It is well known that the adoption of comparatively high or low 
fares has during the greater part of the last year, seriously occupied the at* 
tention of this corporation. From the report it appears that the determina- 
tion of this question, as far as regards freight, was easily made — but that 
with regard to passengers a greater difference of opinion prevailed^-owing 
to a w^ant of co-operation on the part of the Boston and Worcester railroad 
company, the reduction of farer proposed was not as fairly tested as had been 
intended. The results are, however, strikingly in favor of the reduced ratea^ 
From the 12th of April to the 1st of December the fare for first class through 
passengers was reduced to two cents, and for first class way passengers to 
two and a-half cents per mile. The fare for second class passengers appears 
to have been about two-thirds of this. The reduction of fare has added most 
to the number of through passengers, and of these the increase is proper- 



140 Annual Return of the Masiackuutts Railroads. 

tionaily greater for the second class, the number of which is more thun 
doubled. The number of first class way passengers is but slightly increased 
while that of the second class has gained much more. 

The whole nett tonnage of the road has increased a little more than fifty . 
per cent., while the through tonnage has more than doubled. That this in- 
crease of business has not been unprofitable, we may judge from the fact 
that the number of miles run by all the engines has increased but about 11 ^ 
per cent — 10 per cent beii^ the increase ibr the freight trains. 

The report gives in detail the measures which have been taken to diminish 
the expenses of the company — these are chiefly directed to the reduction of 
salaries, and in some cases of the number of officers in the serriee of the 
company. ""' 

In comparing the expenses of 1843 with those of the previous year, se- " 
Teral items are to be noticedi as not included ia former years, and, therefore, 
apparently adding to the expenditure of 1843 — among these we notice $6000 
as a settlement for the collision damages o[ 1841. A reference is made to 
the connection with other railroads — of these h would seem that the Boston 
and Worcester railroad company receive most profit from the Western rail- 
road, the share of that company from the joint business for 1843 being $153,0001 
The arrangements at present existing are thought to be onerous to the 
Western railroad company, and are about to be revised. 

The number of engines and cars has been augmented to meet the increased 
business of the road. Fire locomotive engines have been added to the stock 
and three more are ordered. 

The wood sheds are now sufficient for the protection of upwards of 20,%^. 
000 cords of wood. The expenditure for this purpose, and for the supply 
of water for the protection of the bridge over the Connecticut and other pro*, 
perty from fire, are made in the proper spirit, and come imder the good old 
rule as the " ounce of prevention." 

Another item of expense of a novel character is deserving of notice— the 
erection of 5000 feet of fence to protect the road bed from snow drifts — ^the 
result is stated to be " highly satisfactory," and this mode of protection will 
probably be extended. When we find under the head of snoto the sum of 
$11,867 45 expense for 1843, we can easily imagme the necessity of some 
defence against the attacks of this enemy. 

■^■^ The arrangements of the depot at Greenbush are completed upon a mag*- 
nificent scale. By means of steam power, goods are transshipped with a 
difference of level of over 20 feet between the cars and canal boats. The 
imiavorable nature of the site has added to the expense of this and other 
necessary arrangements at the depot. 

*> The Albany and West Rockbridge railroad has been completed attht 
cost of $1,756,342 7f. ^. 

<* la fine, we cannot but think that this most important work is destined tO| 



xi^r-.-. 



Annual Return of the Massachusetts Railroads. '- 

become as profitable to its stockholders as it is already beneficial to the pub" 
lic. It is true there are serious difficulties to contend with — a mountain 
region with severe grades, subject to obstruction from snow in winter, costly . ' 
depots, and heavy expenditures at vajpious points. These are, however, fully 
counterballanced by the value of the route and the constant growth of local 
al well as through traffic. The results, too, which have been attained, kre 
for the first two years, everything being comparatively new and untried. N»^. 
doubt a judicious economy and suitable regulations as to fare, together with? 
an equitable arrangement with various connecting roads, will lead to a pros- 
perous condition. 

Berkshire Railroad. — This company has arranged matters so that the 
capital, $250,000, shall exactly meet the cost of the road, depots, etc. It ia 
now loaned for 7 per cent to the Housatonic railroad company, and no stay 
tistics can consequently be furnished by the owners of the road. The small 
incidental expenses are met by a fund appropriated to that purpose. 

Boston and Lowell Railroad. — This company in the full tide of pros- 
perity has given a very short and rather meagre report — at least as far as 
statistics are concerned. More than two-thirds of its revenue is derived from 
traffic, in connection with the Boston and Maine, Nashua and Lowell and 
Concord railroads. ^^ . 

^ A dividend of 8 per cent, has been paid out of the profits of the last year. 
The sale of the old iron has been completed, and the entire cost of the new 
having been formerly charged to repairs, the diflierence, together with bal- 
lance of interest account, is taken from the cost of the road — which now 
stands at $1,863,746 16. All calculations of annual expenses, based upon 
the previous reports of this company, will therefore need a large discount} 
h is hardly necessary to say that all estimates as to the wear wai tear of rail- . 
road iron will need a like alteration. 

Boston and Maine Raihoad. — Since the last report, this road has been 
so far completed as to be in use throughout its whole length ; the following 
statistics will, therefore, be of interest : 
Amount expended in construction of road in 

Massachusetts, $431,592 16 oAj^'>' 

^l'- do. da New Hampshire, 723,058 11 

^ r. Total, $1,154,650 28 

Amount expended in engines and cars, 93,886 73 

do. depot and other buildings in Mass., 21,146 78 
do. do. New Hampshire. 17,666 43 

- • Total, 38,813 21 

do. do. other miscellaneous ex- 
penses in Massachusetts, 45,914 85 ^ 
do. do. New Hampshire, 45,734 67 

Total, 91,69 9 58 

? Total amount, $1.384,049~7« 



#fr 



142 Annual Return of the Massachusetts Railroads. 

Length of road in Massachusetts, S0-3S4 mitesi 

do. New Hampshire, 34 954 " 

do. Great Falls branch, 3936 « -;; 

"S*?^'-— Total, 58244 »* k 

Length of road in side tracks, 3092 " 4. 

Number of planes, 130 — of which 32 are level, 67 ascend and 40desceixl 

from Wilmington. By a singular mistake, the report makes these grade* 

1000 feet per mile, we presume that ten feet is intended. x^ 

The greatest curvature is 1050 feet radius ; the average width of grade 

14 feet. 

'"The manner in which the superstructure is laid b as follows: 
" The earth excavations and embankments are levelled off and one and a half feet 
•f sand, or gravel, is then filled on to the road ; the subsills of plank are then laid lon- 
gitudinally, and the sleepers of chesnut, cedar or hackn»etac are takl transversely, paorttj 
two and one half feet, and partly three feet apart. Iron rails of the T pattern are then 
laid, supported at the joints by cast iron chairs, and spiked to the sleepers ; sand or gravel 
is then filled in between the sleepers. 

" The Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts railroad is an extension of the BoMtmt 
and Maine railroad, through Berwick so as to intersect the Portland, Saco and Portsmouth 
railroad at South Berwick, in Maine, and the Boston and Maine raikoad have contracted 
to pay the stockholders of the Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts railroad compa- 
ny the same dividends per share as is paid to their own stockholders. By virtue of this 
agreement there has been received by the Boston and Maine railroad the funds of the 
Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts railroad company, not required to construct 
their road, and their surplus funds will, upon the union of the two corporations, be apphed 
to the payment of the debt of the Boston and Maine railroad." 

''' The above named roads have likewise entered into a contract for the mu- 
tual advantage and co-operation of their respective lines. 
*" Although this road has not been completed throughout, and in operation 
for tlj^e whole year, a dividend of 6 per cent, has been declared on last year's 
profits. 

Boston aiid Providence Railroad. — During the past year 18,598 new 
sleepers have been laid, about 13,000 will be required this year — the road 
is said to be now in better order than ibr several years past 
* The earnings on the Dedham branch are said to be " very satisfactory," 
and fully to compensate for running a locomotive engine for the accommo- 
dation of the inhabitants of Dedham. 

An arrangement has been made with the lines from New York, by way 
of Stonington and by way of Norwich, by which the rates of fare for freight 
and passengers for both the lines are the same, and the receipt equalized, 
except that the line transporting an excess receives a reasonable compensa- 
tion therefor. 

The amount charged to the account of construction has been increased 
this year by about $2000, but will shortly be diminished by the sale of pro- 
perty worth over $15,000. iWividend of 6 per cent, has been paid for the 
past year. 

Boston and Worcester Railroad. — Since the last report the second tmck 
has been laid upon this road, and to meet this and other expenses, 2000 
shares have been created and taken up proportionally by the stockholders. 
The capital is now $2,900,000. 



rj:--~'^h^^^if^y^-. r\^:\:.'r-^-'-r',-,~ : >i ■■:-■_ ^' ■.■ -v »•■■'. - >-*■ 



Cause of the Failure ef Caiuils in America^ , lijb 

The second track is laid with a heavier rail than the first, and in a more .. 
substantial manner, being therefore better adapted to the present heavy traffie^^ 
of the road. 

; Two trains run daily, in connection with the Western railroad, to and from 
Albany, and one train daily connects with the Norwich and Worcester rail-^- 
road, forming a daily communication to and from New York. A perma- 
nent arrangement has been made with the Norwich and Worcester railroad 
company, by which the joint transportation of passengers and merchandize 
over both roads is regulated on terms said to be " mutually advantageous 
and satisfactory, and also advantageous to the public." . 'Sf^'' **v 

Beside the regular through trains, three trains run daily in each directimt 
between Houston and West Newton, affording accommodation to the vicinity 
of the city, and relieving the regular trains of their heavy loads at this end 
of the line.. By these arrangements it will be seen that forming impoi^ 
tant connections, this is preparing to meet the vast trade to which it is destined 
and which, in a great measure, it already receives, ':i<:^-^fj<>i.:^-:fe:v:': m":>''':-^' . 

; (To be continned.) ■ V>> ''*-l^ ■? "" ■ l ' 

Vvt (it* American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. 

ON THE CAUSES OF THE GENERAL FAILU&E OF CANALS IN AMEBICA. ^BT W. 

E. CASEY, CIVIL ENGINEER. aC,^ -i "^ 

^ It is obvious that some inherent defect must exist in American canals gen> 
erally to have brought about the present deplorable results. It is true that 
nearly all these works have been constructed by the governments of the dif> 
ferent States and Provinces and under all the well known disadvantages of 
that system ; and, we might argue with some reason, that in the hands of pri- 
vate companies they would have been more efficiently as well as more cheap- 
ly completed,^wing to the superior sagacity, integrity and skill of the di- 
rectors and engineers of works carried oh by private enterprize. Thus it is 
no uncommon thing to see a president, board of directors and engineer at 
the head of a S^all private work, costing two or three hundred thousand 
dollars, in every respect — character, skill and wealth — incomparably abovp 
the government commissioners, boards of works and their engineers, en- 
^trusted with the disposal df millions. But admitting all this, it would mep^' 
' show that the^t^t of the works had been too great, while in practice we 
find, that besides this obvious disadvantage, they \sl66t under the still greater , 
one of having — practically speaking — no income, as in the case of the Che- 
nango canal, which has a gross income of about 913,000, on a cost of 2| 
millions. The following extract from this Jourtu/tltSr 1839, p. 363, gives 
the true solution: 

" In some States, the grand argument will be, that if they can only completeike woiki 
commenced, a revenue is immediately certain, which will render taxation to pay the inter- 
est anneceasary. That the completion of these projects will make the fortunes of many ixh- 
dividuals, is well known, but, for the permanent interests of the State, the only plan u, t» 
sell out at one* with the present comparatively trifling loss. It is impossible to pay too 
much attention to the feet, that the greater part of the works projected by the governments 
of die different States are not such as will ever be of any essential benefit, and When w« 
add to this that they are constructed at twice the cost of similar works in the hands of com- 
panies, are generally macb inferior J,^ ^e94tio!i and always managwl a^ iqiaired in Um 



;^.i^ 



* 



144 ' Cause of the Failure of Canals in America^ " 

most inefBcient manner — we shall be at no loss to account for the present condition of Stat* ^ 
works in general." (See also Civil Engineers' Journal, vol. iii, p. 124 — London.) t: ■_, 

The only canals which now yield a surplus are the Erie and Ohio canals,{v 
owned by the Stales of New York and Ohio, and the Delaware and Hud- 
son and Schuylkill canals, owned by private companies in New York and^; 
Pennsylania.* The Larkine canal in Canada was productive, but being 
now in the hands of a " board of works," is not likelv to remain so much 
longer. Its "enlargement" has been already commenced. Volumes would 
not convey to the citizens of New York all which that single word con><f 
jures up. .5 

iiHad the Erie and Ohio canals been left to their own resources their stock •'' 
would never have been at par. The former received six millions from tolls fi' 
during the first four years of its existence — nearly its entire cost — and the 
comptroller shows, doc. 40, p. 45, 1844, that, charging and allowing inter- 
est, the balance is $4,179,291 46 against the canal — omitting, of course, * 
the enormous sums spent on the enlargement. The canals of Ohio have 
been, and continue to be supported by direct taxation, and that alternative 
has become necessary here for a few years at least. The two private canals 
above alluded to lead to the anthracite region of Pennsylvania ; one, the 
Schuylkill canal, ^gLS made immense dividends, but the stock has fallen great- 
ly, and the toll has been reduced to three mills per ton per mile! the other 
is successful. ■ 

i«The Erie canal, though conferring considerable benefits on the country,'. 
has also exerted a powerful influence in a contrary direction, and for five 
months of each of the last four years it has been complained of — each suc- 
ceeding year more bitterly — as an intolerable nuisance, injuring alike the 
western producer and eastern consumer by its hideous monopoly. Canals 
intended for the coal trade are comparatively little afTected by the long win-- 
ters of New York and northern Pennsylvania ; but, canals drawing their 
main income from the country through which they pass, and, still more so, 
those depending on the trade of the lakes, have their usefulness greatly im« 
impaired by being closed during the winter months. This objection is in- 
superable, becomes stronger every year, and wilJ^ in my opinion, prevent ^ 
the undertaking of any more canals in the couniry, north of Philadelphia 
at least. ' 

'* Again, the grasping spirit in which many canals have been projected has 
been ruinous to their prospects for any reasonable period. The enlarged 
Erie and the Brobdignag canals of Canada were each to bear to the ocean 
the trade of the west ; the Lehigh and Schuylkill canals were each to fur- 
nish the avenue for the coal trade of the country. But we find the coal as 
well as the western trade flowing through numerous channels already, and 
many more will soon be added. In England, canals are generally success*: 
ful, but though doing an immense business they are very sraalfj some of the 
most important having locks only eight or ten feet wide. Again, the capital 

^* The canml round the falls of the Ohio is of course omitted, -^^v- ' • — •T-^:-^^rv-*^- 



»• 



■ 1 Cause of the Failure of Canals in America. 146 

invested in all fhe private canals in the kingdom is only £5,775,000 sterling, 
about the sum expended on canals in New York, little more than the cost 
of the canals of Pennsylvania, and about twice the probable cost of the ca- 
nals of Canada. What a contrast between the views of those investing their 
own money, and the conduct of those who expend the money of the publicl 
Eighteen millions of people, with wealth, industry and enterprize unparalled 
in the annals of mankind, expend in fifty or sixty years about thirty-four 
millions of dollars : six millions in Pennsylvania, New York and Can- 
ada, with wealth comparatively nominal, contrive to lay out about sixty mil- 
Ijftns of dollars in one fourth the time. The capacity of these little English 
canals is immense, their cost and management comparatively slight and easy. 

A boat will carry about 30 tons, and as one of the old single locks of the 
Erie canal passes IIG boats in 15 hours, a lock little more than half the 
width will easily pass 200 boats per 24 hours, and is abundantly adequate 
to the trade of any canal likely to exist in this country. The English ca* 
nals, with a small amount invested in their construction, accommodate an 
immense traffic, and are as valuable to their proprietors as they are useful 
and honorable to the country. Here the reverse is generally the case. For 
example, the Genesee valley canal will cost about $60,000 per mile, the 
cost of the Lowell railway, the best in America ; the income of the former 
is estimated by its friends at one-half of one per cent, per annum, the actual 
income of the latter is 15 per cent. Again, one mile of the Cornwall canal 
in Canada cost as much as fifteen miles of the Champlain and St. Lawrence 
railway, with cars, engines, buildings and wharves, and it will be fortunate 
if the income from the twelve miles of canal equal half the revenue of the 
railway. The two private railwarj's are adapted to the business of their re- 
spective localities; viewed in this light, the two government canals are 
monstrosities of the first order. '"1,>1' 

The Ohio canal is well worthy of the most serious attention. This work 
is above 300 miles long, is without a rival, cost only $4,000,000, traverses 
the heart of a superb country containing two millions of inhabitants, and 
connects the two greatest chains of inland navigation on the face of the globe 
—the Ohio with the lakes. Yet the gross income last year was only $322,- 
754 82, yielding, according to the commissioners, " 4J per cent on fhe cost 
of the canal." Had not this canal been constructed at the moderate cost of 
$13,000 per mile, it must have been supported by taxation, as is now the 
case with the other canals of that State, for some of which money has been 
borrowed within a few years at 7 per cent. ! though their sources of income 
are far inferior to those of the Ohio canal, which, in fact, ranks next to the 
Erie canal. Ten years' experience on this canal demonstrate, in a manner 
admitting of no cavil, that the wealthy and — for America — populous region 
of Ohio barely supports one of the cheapest, if not the very cheapest canal 
in the country. The Erie cnal has oeen a complete " ignis fatuus", to the 
other States, having been paraded before the country as a work whidh had 
cleared its prime cost, when in fact it was in arears for interest. The singu- 



""■.♦.'; 



.- r 



• I j 



146 



Cause of the Failure of Canals in America. 



lar advantages of the position of the Erie canal, its heavy grants and peculiar 
privileges render it a dangerou-s, a ruinous precedent. The following ex> 
tract from Hunt's Merchants' Magazine for August, 1843, gives a general 
view of the causes which prevent the success of canals in this country : 

" Well projected railways claim the favorable attention of the merchant, because they 
offer safe and profitable investments, besides aiding commerce generally by their unrivaiied 
facilities. They are peculiarly ada^ed to this country, where the population and busineai 
are so scattered, and where capital is not abundant. Unlike canals, the cost of a railway 
may be adapted to the trade. In most parts of the country a railway can be put into ope> 
ration for about ^20,000 per mile, including engines, cars, buildings, etc., for a single track 
— less than half the average cost of the Chenango, Black river and Grenesee valley canals, 
without boats, buildings, horses, etc. Again, a railway carries passengers as well as freight, 
and both throughout the year ; so that, with less than half the cost of the canal, its recei|t8 
are several times greater. It is on this account that canak must be coetructed as cheaply 
as possible, to have any chance of success here. Even in a mineral region — the most &• 
vorable of all — their being useless half the year is an insuperable objectien ; and this again 
becomes intolerable when advancing civilization renders a communication, open through- 
out the year, indispensable to the community. It appears, therefore, that three vital ob- 
stacles to the success of canals exist : their enormous cost, compared with railways, their, 
small income, their being closed nearly half the year in this wintiy region. The two last 
objections are insuperable, and will as effectnally deter individuals from embarking their 
own means in canals as would the first. With politicians, spending the money of the 
pubUc, the case is reversed. They uniformly prefer those works which require the largest 
expenditure and the longest time to execute, these two conditions furnish the best " oppor- 
tunities." The $^,000,000 spent in this State, on works which can never be required, 
afford only too true an illustration ; but the course of the Canadian government, for the 
last two years, distances the wildest visions of the wildest western States, even during 
the phrenzy of "36.* 

" The railways diverging firom Boston in all directions, which have been projected, ex> 
ecuted and managed by companies, form the only successful system of public works on 
this Continent, and would command a large advance on their total cost." 

The railways of the United States were undertaken, principally by indi- 
viduals, after the canals, and though nearly one hundred millions of dollars 
have been invested in them, they yield about five per cent The railways 
of England — the most extraordinary wo][ks the world has yet seen, and ex- 
clusively the results of private enterprize — have been constructed within fif- 
teen years, at the enormous cost of £52,000,000, and yield a fair return on 
the capital. It is obvious, therefore, that their sources of income differ ma- 
terially from those of canals — in other words, that, though both may succeed, 
a railway may flourish where a canal cannot exist For example, the Mid- 
dlesex canal has been abandoned, and its place supplied by the Lowell railway. 

The trade of the canal between Liverpool and Manchester has increased 
since the opening of the railway between those points. When the popula- 
tion and trade of this country shall approach those of England, it is not im- 
possible that canals of reasonable dimensions, cheaply constructed, may suc- 
ceed in some of the more southern States. 



* To prevent erroneout concliuiont, it may be well toitate that the resource* of a Britiih ProviDce 
differ materiallT from tho«e of a State. The Cornier ha* the daties Imperial a* well as Colonial, and 
contribntes nothing to the support of army and navy ; it ha* al*o the pablic land*. Hence Canada, 
as a Colony, bear* an expenditure, which, a* a State, would be entirely beyond her ability. For te* 
▼eral years no statements have been published from which the true state of the finances of the Pro- 
rince, and consqnently of the public works, could be gleaned. But the remarkable man now at the 
haad of the eovernment will unquestionably force from the Board nf works somethini: definite and 
tangible, and, I wilt venture to predict, that a clear straightforward statement of the sums actually 
•xpended,t he probable — not estimated — amount required to complete the works as well as their present 
ana probable future income, will literally " a*toni*n the natire*/' who will at once wabe up from their 
puerile discussions of colonial abstractions to the thorough conTiction Viat the utmost efforts of their 
able governor, as well as of themselves, will be required to counteracf, even in a small degree, tlM 
withering influences of a debt contracted for the most visionary purposes — a term, I fear, far too miM. 
Tkere is, of course, littla probability that the works commenced will ever b« completco. 



-\' Cause of the Failure of Canals in America. 147 

The public are just beginning to appreciate the losses sustained by the 

('fire months' annual sleep of the canals, and the papers from Boston to De- 
troit have, during the past winter, teemed with invectives against the law of 

..New York which actually denies to the farmer that which the State of Ma- 
ryland accords to the slave — the right to send his produce to market ia 
any way he pleases — by turnpike, railroad or steamboat. But not only do 

; the canals furnish a tedious route during a little more than half the year, but 
that very circumstance tends to raise the cost of that inferior accommodation, 

, for the cost of maintaining them would be nearly the same were they open 

■throughout the year, and the income would be greater ; the same capital and 
annual expenditure would yield double the income. 

The advantages of the Erie canal in a military point of view have been 

'.painfully dwelt on. Yet it can never be more than a very humble auxiliary 
of the private railways from Albany to Buffalo during the summer months, 

; its opening being too late and its closing too early to render it of any value 
at the most important moments — the commencing and closing of a cam- 
paign. More than this, these very works have been built in spite of rfie 
canal interest which is still an incubus on the spirit of honest enterprize. 

.Again, the Rideau canal is a truly military work, yet a railway from 
Montreal to Kingston, at a cost of four millions of dollars, would, in the 
event of war, save more than this sum annually, and would render that por- 
tion of the province impregnable to any force likely to be brought against it 
It would also clear expenses, and three or four per cent, even now. So with 
regard to Buffalo, a force overwhelming from .its numbers could be collected 
there in a few days. During the late insurrections in Canada the £40,000 
sterling, invested by a few individuals in the Champiain and St. Lawrence 
railway, contributed materially to the defence of the province, while the mil- 
lions spent on the Imperial and Colonial canals were absolutely useless. In 
case of a protracted contest the canals would of course come into play to 
some extent. ^" 

The main " causes of the general failure of the canals" of this country 
may be ascribed to their being closed nearly half the year ; to the small 
amount of business their peculiar accommodation enables them to command 
in a thinly settled country ; to their low rate of speed, and to their — with 
few exceptions — great cost. Whether these objections are likely to be over- 
come to any extent worthy of notice, the reader must decide for himseLC 
For my own part, I doubt whether the canals, from the St. Lawrence to the 
Mississippi will, ten years hence, have yielded one per cent on the capital 
invested in their constrtiction ; and. omitting the Erie, Ohio and the two pri- 
vate canals referred to above, I do not believe the others will, during that 
time, clear repairs and renewals : in other words, that their fiiilure will be 
complete and will in some cases lead to their abandonment. j» 

Since the above was written, I have seen the report of the canal committee 
to the senate, doc. 98, 1844, which, with that devotion to principle, so pro- 
minent a trait in the American politician, according to de Tocqueville, is 



H6 ^v EdUoriaL 

▼ery severe on those projects which have become decidedly unpopular — the 
lateral canals and the enlargement — but says not a word of a vastly greatet 
evil, the canal monopoly. The arguments against any further expenditures 
are part of those used by others, myself among the rest, some years since, 
when twenty of the present debt of twenty-eight millions might have been 
saved. There is, however, a good illustration on page 15, where, speaking 
of the Chenango canal, it is said — " Thus it is seen, it would have been 
cheaper for the State to have made a road and hired teamsters at expensive 
rates to transport the produce of that country in ordinary wagons ; and the 
community would have had the free use of the road for common pur* 
poses." 

I made a similar calculation some years since. The expenses and interest 
on the cost of the Cornwall canal, twelve mil^s long, will be $8,000 per 
mile, and we will assume that it will clear $1,000 per mile per annum be- 
sides paying repairs and renewals— of which there is little probability. 
Then two years' interest or $16,000 per mile, will build and equip a good 
railway, and three months' interest, or $2,000 per mile will clear all the 
expenses of several times the total down as well as up-freight of the St. Law* 
rence, and of ten times the present number of passengers. In other words, 
the entire trade and travel in both directions would be free, and the province 
would save $5,000 per mile per annum, or $60,000 on twelve miles of canal. 
The interest on the actual cost of the Cornwall canal, and on the estimated 
cost of the short canals round the rapids above, would pay all the expenses 
of a continuous railway carrying more freight and passengers than will 
probably be found on that route twenty years hence : that is, the mere inter- 
est on the cost of the canals would pay for free travel and transportation on 
a railway. 

" Now it IB obvious, that such men aa Brunei, Stephenson, Walker, and a host of othen 
in England, and we are proud to say, not a few in this country, whom we do not fieel 
ourselves at liberty to name, are found utterly imprajcticable in such cases, and they are 



consequently avoided with as much care by the projectors of works to be built on the ere* 

jht for by those who pr 
be executed by the expenditure of their own actual capital. The evil of employing men 



dit of the government, as they are zealously sought for by those who project works to 



incompetent from want of education, practice and character eventually recoils on the State; 
hence the financial difficulties of all the States who have largely embarked in the con* 
■truction of public woriu." (Railroad Joomal, 1839, p. 354. C. EL & A. Journal, vd. 
iii, p. 122 — London.) 

New York, May, 1844." ,^ 



•* Two schooners arrived at Oswego on the 9th, from Toledo, via the "Welland canal, 
with 11,000 bushels of wheat, to Carrington and Pardee, millers there, who, we dare say, 
will have it made into flour, and ready tor this market before the canals are open." (]NL 
Y. Journal of Commerce.) 

Many of our readers will remember an article on the " Spring Trade," 
written by Mr. Casey for this Journal, April, 1842, in which he shows the 
great superiority of the route via the Welland canal for early freight ; and 
here we have cargoes landed at Oswego long before the opening of the Erie 
canal at Buflfalo. The Welland canal was opened on the 2nd April, and 
merchandize from New York and Boston would have been "afloat on 
lake Erie," and <'if the people were allowed to choose the mode of transpor- 



■■.■V?" 



' • Cost,<(jf,.TTansportation on Railroads. 149 

tatloD according to their own ideas of their own interest." — Journal, -^P^ 
1842, p. 246 — goods would have been landed at Detroit and Chicago a 
month earlier than they will be via the Erie canal. 

i In his article on the " Canals of Canada," — Journal, Nov., 1842, p. 158 — 
Mr. Casey expresses his belief that the Welland canal " will eventually cease 
to be a burden on the provuice." Without offering any opinion as to the 
time when this is to take place, which Mr, Casey considers tolerably dis- 
tant — very safely, too, according to our viev^ — we propose, after his exam- 
ple, and that of the canal commissioners, to make a calculation also. This 
canal is tslimaUd at above $100,000 per mile, and is about 40 miles long. 
Total cost $4,000,000 ! One million of dollars will construct and fumisii 
a first rate single track, and the interest of the remaining three millions will 
pay all the cost of carrying 300,000 tons of down freight, and 100,000 tons 
of up freight. We do not know the tonnage of that canal, but think it will 
scarcely exceed our estimate for some time to come. However useful this 
work may be to New York and some of the Avestern States, we see little 
probability of its becoming what Mr. C. calls a " successful work," a term 
which ought to be applied to no work which does not yield a fair revenue 
to its proprietors, as well as contribute to the accommodation of the public. 

1 COST OF TEANSPORTATION ON RAILEOADS, i 

The statement marked C, accompanying the "reply," of the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad company w^as intentionally omitted ; it being only designed 
to show how the increase in the coal trade may be provided for out of the pro- 
fits arising from that branch of business ; but the following estimate of the 
cost of transporting coal from the mines to Baltimore, a distance of 188 miles 
should have been given in its proper place following estimate B. It will 
not, however, we trust, be overlooked by our readers, even thus detached, as 
it gives a concise, yet clear statement of the cost at which heavy freights 
may be transported over railroads, with grades even greater tharf were, a 
few years ago, deemed passable by locomotive power. 

These replies ought to be extensively circulated by the friends of railroa^ 
and more especially in this city, at this time, when an appeal — not the lastj 
however, even if unsucctssftd — is about to be made in behalf of the New 
York and Erie Railroad — a work from the completion of which every 
property holder — every business man — every carman and every day laborer 
has a <ii»ectand deep pecuniary interest ; and, therefore, it is important that 
they should be able to appreciate the capacity, the facilities and the economy 
of railroads, when judiciously located between important points. And can 
a more favorable or judicious location be found than between the city of New 
York, on the one hand, and lake Erie, on the other? or between the Allan- 
tic ocean and the far and boundless west ? 

We have not a doubt but that the means to complete this road could be 
readily obtained in this city alone, and without delay, if our enterprizing 
Boston friends would favor us with the loan of their noble " Western rail- 
road" for a few weefiis, that our cautious citizens could see and feel its ope- 






IBO ' ■*■ iV«r YbrJfc and Em Railroad. ^ 

rations and its influences — or, indeed, if the facts, contained in this one num- 
ber of the Journal alone, could be generally read and duly appreciated by 
all, the entire amount required would be forthcoming, and the work would 
be completed in less than three years — as we confidently predict that it will 

be in less than five. * 

[ D ] 

Estimated cost of transportinscoal from the mines in the vicinity of Frost- 

. burg to Baltimore, distanctHS8 miles — supposing the use of locomotive 

':' engines of 20 tons weight, and of sufficient power to carry 25 cars con- 

*' taining 7 ions each, or 175 tons to the train — three locomotives being re- 

'■: quired to do the work of two, 300 working days during the year, and 

that equivalent to four days will be required to make the round trip. 

Interest on 6 locomotives and lenders at $10,000 each per round trip of 4 davs, $13 00 
Repairs and renewals of locomotives and tenders at 9 cents per Hide, run 376 

miles per round trip, - - - - - - - 3384 

Fuel per round trip, 15 tons at $2 per ton, averajjed Harper's Ferry, - 30 00 

Oil for enarine and tender per round trip, 6 gallons at 00 cents per gallon, - 5 40 

Wages of cnginemen and firemen, - - - - - 1400 

Wages of breakmen, - - - - - - - 900 

Interest per round trip on 200 cars at S380 each, ... 15 20 
Repairs and renewals of cars at 1-4 of a cent per ton per mile of load hauled, 

(32,900 tons per mile,) 82 85 

Grease for cars, .... - . 7. .. v^* " 600 

Add for use of auxiliary engine at Parr's Ridge, «*^.*.<;;•'"<ii•^ . 12 60 

And we have as the total amount of the round trip, ;:.is*'^j; ..<•.•; • •<, $220 29 

Being at the rate per ton per mile of - - - ' - • 0-670 cts. 

To which add for wear and tear of railway at 1-4 of a cent per ton per mile 
, west of Harper's Ferry, and 45-100 of a cent per ton per mile east of 

-*-> Harper's Ferry, averaging on the whole distance, ... 0337 " 

And for contingencies, ....--- 0100 " 

Making the total cost per ton per mile, ..... 1-107 " 

At 1 1-2 cent per ton per mile, and 10 cents extra charge for transportation 
through the streets of Baltimore, the charge for conveying a ton of coal 
from the mines to the city block in Baltimore would be - - S3 93 

And the annual nett revenue of the company on the amount of trade as- 
sumed in this estimate ...... $38,789 10 

At 1 1-3 cent per ton per mile and 10 cents extra, as in the former case for 
conveyance through the streets of Baltimore, the charge for transporting 
a ton oT coal from the mines near Frostburg to the city block in Balti- 
more, would be- - - - - - - - 3 61 

And the annual nett revenue of the company on the same amount of trade, $22,306 20 
•The amount of investment in machinery to accommodate the trade above 

assumed would be, •.-..-. $136,000 00 
..; Respectfully submitted, » 

'^ James Mcrhav, EIn«nneer of machinery and repairs. 

\ February I3th, 1844. 

I have carefully examined the preceding estimates and have confidence in their tut- 
fidency for the purposes intended Benj. H. Latrobc, Chief Engineer. 

"^ NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 

The time has arrived for every man, who desires the completion of thif 
great work, to put his shoulder to the wheel, or take a pick axe and shovel 
and go to work in earnest Annexed will be found the candid, manly, arvl 
earnest appeal of the company to the citizens of New York individually, 
for aid in its completion. In giving place to this appeal, we cannot with- 
)iold the expression of our surprise that a work of such vast importance to 
this city should be looked upon with so much apathy and distrust by its citi- 
zens ; and its friends be compelled to solicit, and urge those who are to b« 



■\r 



r, • * ■;}. New York arid Erie Railroad^ , .[ ' 

so largely and so permanently benefited by its completion, to contribute th« 
means for its construction ; nor refrain from earnestly urging those who cau 
possibly do so, to come forward and subscribe for stock, at least a few shares, 
if they cannot for many. Every owner of real estate — every merchantf 
t manufacturer, mechanic and carman,*and even many day laborers will pro* 
mote their own permanent interest by taking one or more shares, and thus 
aid its early completion, even if he neveir receives a penny in the way of 
dividends. Its completion will benefit Ne#i York as much or more than 
the construction of the Erie canal did. Its influences will be more univer-., 
sal, as every poor family, using only a quart of milk daily, will save ttoo 
cents at least each day — or 97 30 a year ; and at the same time obtain a 
better article. And so with butter, and many other articles of necessity and ' 
comfort — ^the prices will be materially reduced in consequence of the in-, 
creased facilities for bringing them to the city. The saving to the inhabv- 
tants of this city alone, upon the necessaries of life cannot be less, when the 
road shall be completed, than AaZ/ a mi/Zton of dollars a year. This, how- 
ever, is but one item in the list of benefits which will surely result from its 
early construction. Others, equally important, will follow, in. the increased 
value of property in the city, and along its line, to the amount certainly — 
by the time the first car shall pass from the Hudson to lake Erie — of itoiee 
the entire cost of the road. Is it not the duty, then, of those who are thus 
to be benefited, to respond promptly to the call of the company, by subscrilh 
ing for such an amount of stock as they may be able to pay for, without in- 
terfering with other business arrangements ? We think it is, and believing 
so, shall act accordingly, and charge the JouriuU with at least «me sharCi 
and more if we can do so. Let others go and do liketoise. 

▲DDKESS TO THE PUBLIC, OF THE NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD COMPANT..- 

Office of the New York and Erie Railroad Co. \ ' 
New York, Wth April, 1844. ', 

The common council have declared by resolution that it is not expedient 
that the city of New York should subscribe to the capital stock of the New 
York and Erie railroad company, and having declined to unite in the appli- 
cation to the legislature, the directors are under the necessity of opening the 
books for private subscription without the important aid which the corpora- 
tion of the city would have afiforded. 

With their convictions as to the importance of the road, the amount of 
capital required, and the principles on which alone the board were willing 
to undertake its completion, they coukl not consistently decline to bring for- 
ward the question of a city subscription. At the same time it was felt that 
the great responsibility involved in the decision of that question should not 
rest with them even indirectly, but belong either to the common council, the 
legislature, or the people. 

By the course pursued, the question could not reach the people without 
the sanction of the common council, and the authority of the legislature. 
That sanction having been refused, the application to the legislature will not 
be made ; and the completion of the New York and Erie railroad now de- 
pends entirely upon the amount that can be obtained by private subscription. 

Before determining the conditions,^ on which books of subscription to the 



1^ New York and Erie Railroad. 

capital stock are to he opened, the board have again had under consideration 
the position assumed in their report, that six millions of dollars are necessary 
before the work should be resumed. 

After much deliberation, the board continued of the opinion that the con- 
ditions of the subscription should require that the amount to be subscribed 
before the resumption of the work, sho&ld be such as would place the comple- 
tion of the road beyond ordinary contingencies ; and they cannot satisfy them- 
selves that a smaller sum than six millions will comply with this condition. 

The board have not overlook"d the important considerations which induce 
many to believe that a smaller sum in connection with the other resources 
of the company would be adequate ; but those considerations, in their opinion, 
are not sufficient to remove all reasonable doubt ; and no other basis would 
be consistent with the views of the board, the responsibilities of their position, 
and the principles on which they consented to undertake them. .^ 

In their anxiety to remove every circumstance which may have an unfa- 
vorable influence on new subscriptions, the board have been constrained to 
discriminate between old and new stock, and that this may be effected with- 
out permanent injury, if any, to the interests of old stockholders, it has bee» 
done in the manner stipulated in the conditions of subscription. *^ 

, The priority of dividend thus to be secured to the new stock is made de- 
pendent on the action of individual holders of stock already issued, in con- 
se<fuence of the legal opinion that neither th^ board of directors nor the 
stockholders legally convened, possess the power to make any distinction be- 
tween stocks issued at different periods. 

In accordance with these views, the following are the conditions under 
which the subscription books are to be opened. 

"We, the undi^rsicjned, respectively subs'ribe for the number of shares 
of the capital stock of the New York and Erie railroad company, of one 
hundred dollars each, set opposite our names, and hereby agree to pay ten 
dollars on each share within twenty days after the closing of the books, and 
the subsequent instalments as they shall be legally called for, provided, 

1st. " That bona fide subscriptions subsequent to 1st of March, and prior 
to 1st of August, 1844, shall amount to the sum of six millions of dollars. 

3d. " That the instalments shall not exceed thirty-three and one-third per 
cent per annum. 

'i'3d. " That by the individual acts of at least three-fourths of the amount 
of stock issued prior to the 1st of March, 1844, it shall be legally established, 
that dividends when made shall be declared on the following basis: 

1st. " That the right of dividends on at least seventy-five per cent, of the 
old stock shall be deferred until a dividend of six per cent, shall be declared 
on the new stock. 

8d. " That when the nett earnings shall exceed the amount necessary to 
pay such dividend to the new stock the excess shall be appropriated to divi- 
dends on the old stock. 

3d. " That when dividends so declared on old stock amount to six per cent 
per annum, the old and new stock shall be put on a par, and all distinction 
between them shall thereafter cease." 

The board have the satisfaction of believing that the great question of the 
completion of the New York and Erie railroad is now before the citizens 
of New York, and of the counties interested in its construction, freed of all 
extraneous considerations ; that public attention has been fully drawn to the 
sabject, and that there prevails tnroughout the community an appreciation 
of the importance of the road, and a confidence in its success when complet- 
ed to lake Erie, that are of the most encouraging character. 



■4h 



■nr 



Schuylkill Navigation. 



itBS 



The board will adopt all suitable measures to obtain the very general ac- 
don on this subject, which the large amount to be raised renders necessary, 
and trust that their efforts will be efficiently seconded by all who unite with, 
them in opinion that the completion of the New York and Erie railroad, 
while It affords every prospect of remunerating dividends to stockholders, 
will be of great and permanent benefit to the city and country. , 

Horatio Allen, President. 
• •%^^;-,v Oi^ James Brown, Vice President. 

C. lit. Leupp, Harvey Weed, 
A. G, Phelps, Theo. Dehon, 
John C. Green, Wm. Maxwell, 
Elijah Risley. 



D. A. Cushman, 
Silas Brown, 
P. Spoffbrd, 



F. W. Edmonds, 
Matthew Morgan. 
A. S. Diven, 



-,•,■?>. 



For the American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. , f: ■ 

I SCHUYLKILL NAVIGATION. v „ 

Failurs of Railways. — It is still maintained by a correspondent of the 
Journal, " X," that it is very impolitic to graduate the capacity of a railway 
or canal with any reference to the trade which it is intended to accommodate ; 
or, as he characteristically describes the principle, to measure the probable 
tonnage, for the purpose of determining the capacity of the railroad which 
is to convey it, as you would individuals for their clothes — varying the size 
with the circumstances of the case. He proposes, as the true principle of 
tailoring, to put a man's suit on a boy, and a woman's dress on a baby ; and 
calls up the Schuylkill navigation in illustration of the soundness of hit 
views. 

The example will be found to be very unfortunately selected, for the ob- 
ject at which this writer seems to be aiming. 

The Schuylkill navigation was constructed between the years 1815 and 
1825 ; and we believe has been prosecuted on those common sense principles 
which have been recommended by Mr. EUet for the construction of rail- 
ways. It was made at first on a small scale — because the trade was expected 
to be small at first — and with a view to its gradual enlargement — because 
the trade was expected to increase. 

In 1826 the depth of water was but three feet, and barely adequate to the 
passage of boats of 25 tons burden. The purpose of its projectors was fully 
answered. The canal soon created a trade, and that trade increased suffi- 
ciently to justify the anticipated enlargement of the channel. From year to 
year the capacity of the work has been augmented, until it oow permits the 
ready passage of boats of 60 tons burden, while occasionally more than 70 
tons have been carried upon it 

The Schuylkill navigation company have expended in the construction 
and enlargement of this canal the sum of $3,456,620. 
Their aggregate receipts from tolls on coal, and other articles, 

up to January 1st, 1844, have amounted to - . $5,641,256 

Their aggregate expenses have been - - 1,768,792 

Leaving a neU profit of - - - $3,872,463 

or $415,843 more than the whole cost of the toork and its enlargement. 



% 



154 Schuylkill ffavigatton. 

Now, these results are pretty fair, and certainly do not, of themselres, 
authorize a condemnatioa of the present course which the managers of thit 
work have adopted. 

But the Heading railroad company, it is contended by " X," have adopted 
a diflerent plan — that of making a very expensive road at the o«tset Let 
us see how their method works. 

The Reading railroad is now new, and, together with all its machhuery, 
ought to be in perfect order. It was in full operation last year, and carried 
about 230,000 tons of freight, and some 26,00<j passengers. 
The company expended during the year, - • $1,800,000 

And received for freight and passengers, • • - 385,000 ' 

And exhibited, at the close of the year, an excess of expenses 
beyond their receipts of - - - $1,415,000 

Of this sum just $212,000 was expended for new cars and engines, and 

about $90,000 for new work on the road. The balance of about $1,100,000 

— of the sum by which the expenses exceed the receipts — appears to have 

' been consumed in conveying these 230,000 tons of coal. At any rate, no 

other explanation of its disappearance has ever been offered. 

Our friend " X " speaks with some severity of certain slanders against 
the Reading railroad, which, he says, have appeared in the Philadelphia 
newspapers ; and charges us with wishing to give them greater circulation. 
We are sorry to learn that this company has been slandered by any body ; 
and we do assure him that if they have suffered in that way, we have had 
no part in it, and have never before heard of the circumstance. It is true, • 
V. we have read some very severe and scourging strictures on the conduct of 
the institution, in the columns of the " Pennsylvanian," " Ledger," and 
" North American" — but we always supposed that they were true. Cer- 
tainly, nobody in Philadelphia doubts their truth, nor has any person yet 
ventured to come forward and attempt to disprove them. 

But "X" is chivalric, aad we shall look to him to tell us, specifically, 
> what the Reading railroad company did with the $1,800,000 which they 
spent last year. 

For ourselves, we wish not to injure this company, but we wish to make 
the truth known ; and we supposed when we exhibited the strong compari* 
son drawn by "X" himself, in the strongest possible light, we were doing 
good service to his hobby. This, it will be recollected, is his language. 
'■'■ " Still another comparison may be made between the Schuylkill canal 
which cost $38,000 per mile, without boats, and the Philadelphia and Potts- 
ville railroad, which costs $50,000 per mile, with cars and motive power." 
•* Is it not," says X, triumphantly, " is it not this additional cost whicA 
makes it the superior and cheaper work of the two .'" 

Now, I say, the great merit of this road was, in the opinion of "X,** its 

- -great first cost ; and I was justified in supposing that I was giving most grar 

lifying information, when I informed him that it had, on the 18ih December 

last, increased this merit to $76,000 per mile. What its merits will amount 



'^ 



. ., ; ' Evlogium on Engineers. — Ohio Canal. 

to at the end of this year, it is not easy to say — ^but it is probable that it will 
exceed $100,000 per mile — and I congratulate "X" on the proof which 
••this fact furnishes of the great success which is in store for this great enter- 
prize. Y. . 

EUIiOGIUM ON ENGINEERS. ; ! i. 

The last number of " The Westminister Review" contains a fCTy able 
article on the " Progress of Art," in which the writer complains of the want 
of originality among the architects of the present day, though he at the same 
time does justice to their merits. He points out several radical defects in the 
new houses of parliament, but intimates a doubt whether any other architect 
would have done better, evidently considering the profession in too low a 
' ftate to undertake works of the first order. He says, 

" It hkB been lucky for us that the ancients have left us fewer examines of their engi- 
neering works than productions of their architects. Our mcdisval ancestors indulged but 
rarely m roads or bridges, and besides this, the exigencies of locality, and above all the ex- 
igencies of estimates, which are usually carefully looked at in the utilitarian works execo- 
\eA by our engineers, have allowed them less temptation to copy, and less means of doing 
■o than their brother builders, and the consequence is that they may challenge Rome, or 
the whole world to match either the magnificence or the taste of our public works. It is 
true we possess some ' truly Roman works,' the taste of which is very questionable ; and 
boUi Blackfriars and Waterloo bridges narrowly escaped being spoilt by the interference of 
the architects, who fortunately, however, have left nothing to niark their presence but the 
. absurd Ionic, and the Grecian Doric columns that stand on the piers — in the one case sup- 
porting an enormously heavy granite parapet, and in the other in company with a moat 
incongruous Roman balustrade. But since those days the engineering interest has ac- 
quired a predominance which enables it to walk alone ; and in London bridge they have 
produced a sjpecimen of bridge building, perfect in all its parts, and as yet unnvalled in the 
world, and this simply because there is not one detail copied from any other bridge, not one 
ornament ap{rfied that had not a meaning, nor one thing added that was not seen to be 
wanted by the sound sense and mechanicaJ knowledge of its builders ; yet there is a mag- 
nificence in this bridge amounting even to splendor, and could we pomt to one building 
in Great Britain built on the same principles of sound common sense, we should proba- 
blj have to apply it to the same e{Hthet. 

" The names of Watt, Brindley, Smcaton, Telford and Rennie, or of our Stevensons, 
■ Brunels, Lindleys and Cleggs, are names to which an Englishman refers with pride, 
and stand in strong contrast with those of their contemporary builders of the present day ; 
the former have contributed, as much as almost any class of men, to the advancement 
of civilization, and to the glory of the nation, and may almost be said to have created an 
art which is daily becoming of more and more importance. The latter, on the contrary, 
have done nothing to which we can refer with unmixed satisfiu:tion, and much that has 
made us a laughing stock to surrounding nations. 

" They have created nothing and advanced nothing ; yet so closely do these profesaiaiM 
i^iproach at some points, that it is difficult to draw a Une between them, and to sa^ what 
woiAs belong to itae, and what to the other ; but their mode of treating their subject diA 
fen as light does from darkness. The one admits of no rule but fitnets and propriety, 
and the dictates of reason and common sense ; the other, copying and disguising, never 
thinking of what is most fit or noost useful, and worshipping the shadow of exotic art. 

" Such an impulse has lately been given by our railways and canals to the scienec 
of engineering, that it now occu{Hes almost as much of the public attention as architee- 
jture, and there is more probability of this influence increasing than diminishing, we may 
hope that the sound principles which have enabled engineers to execute such satis&etorf 
works may extend to our architects, and that we may soon see sonte improvements in 
their designs ; but much ignorance and long nxrted prejudice must first be conquered, 
voA, above all, the patrons of art must learn to take more interest in the subject tluB 
they have hitherto done, and to think more for themselves." 



The Portsmouth (Ohio) Tribune says, that " Leander Ransom gives notice that the 
eanal will be open its entire length on the 15th inst We understand that double Mis 
of hands are engaged on the culvert about six miles firom Portsmouth, and the work ia pt^ 
Moited both night and day. It will probaUy be completed in 6 or 8 days at ftitheit.'* 



n ■■^: 



-466 *■ Nero York and Erie Railroad, 

"•' •'■IN-.*. ■ ^^ ■ \' \.\ '■ ^ 

■ NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 

A lar^ ineeting of highly respectable citizens was held last evening at the Tabenutde, 
to devise means for aiding and urging on the construction of this important work. Th* 
following gentlemen were chosen to preside : ^U* 

President, 
'■* " ■' ■ Geobqe Gribwolo. 

i Vice Presidents, 

J James Harper, *?.'£*•• \Vm. Tucker, John H. Hicks, 

.* John A. King, Jas, Boorman, J. DePeyster Ogden, 

Tho3. Surtern, Robt. Smith, P. S. Van Rensselaw, 

. C. W. Lawrence, G. G. Howland. Jacob Little, 

•J Jas. Donaldson, Saul Alley, R. J. Carman, 

Moses Taylor, Wm. Bums. 

Secretaries, 
Charles McVcan, James Kelley, Charles Dennison, 

Isaac Townscnd, Chas. P. Brown. 

Mr. Joseph Blunt addressed the mooting in an earnest manner — urging the speedj 
construction of the road, and illustrated its importance to this city with the following, 
- 4>nong other forcible arguments : 

" The annual consumption of pro\'ision8 by our city, amount in value to some $15,000,- 
000, and many of the articles are furnished by the region bordering on the line of the Ene 
railroad more advantageously than from any other quarter — for instance, beef, of which 
the annual consumption is Sl,500,000, and milk, of wliich the annual cost is about 
S'1,000,000, one-third of which will be saved by theErie railroad. The receipts of veal, 
poultry, game, butter, cheese, etc., by this road are already very large — of veal, 600 tons 
last year; of game, 1000 tons; of nulk, 5000 tons, etc. All these articles have been cheap- 
ened to our city by this road, and the aggregate saving can hardly fell below SI ,000,0w 
per annum, and, if the road were coaiplcted, would be nearer ^2,000,000. If, then, this 
work would not pay any dividend, it would still be incumbent on us, and our obvious in- 
terest, to complete it." 

Mr. Blunt closed his remarks by offering several resolutions for the appointment of & 
' committee in each election district, and among the various professions and trades in the citj 

with a view of presenting tlie subject in such a manner that every person may feel an in- 
,' . terest in, and contribute to its success. 

Mr. M. C. Patterson followed Mr. Blunt, and gave a glowing picture of the advan- 
tages to result from an early completion of the road. The following extracts from his re- 
marks ought to be read by all who feel an interest in the progressive prosperity of our citj. 
After referring in a proper manner to the present aWe board of directors, he says, 

** They had found, after careful scrutiny, that the property of the company is now wortll 
iJ4,OOO,0iX), and that ^6,000,000 more will complete the work. Shall it not be completed 1 
New York, lately so eminent, now labors under serious disadvantages in competing with 
her rivals for the trade of the mighty west. Boston, by means of her Western and 
other railroadt^, always in operation, presses her hard on the north. Philadelphia, by her 
▼ast net work of canals and railroads, enjoys decided advantages on the south. The 
milder climate of Pennsylvania secures to her three weeks' earlier opening and a week's 
later closing of her can ds, as compareJ with those of our State, l*^ year a boat from 
Ohio had rcachid Philadelphia three weeks before our canals opened. Baltimore is pres- 
' • «ing forward witli still greater advantages of climate. Charleston has also made a spirited 
■ attempt to pierce the great valley of the west. Can we afford to stand idle?" • ♦ 

" Tht! 53 miles of the road now complcjted, running in good part near the Hudson, and 
forced to maintain a sharp competition with that cheap route, gave last year an income 
• ' of iJ10l,000, netting 2>'16,000 o\er current expenses, from an area of 440,000 acres, having 

a |x>pulation of al^ut 40,000. Allowing the road when completed to yield in like ratio, 
and even reducing the nett product of last year one-third, or from S46,OO0 to $30,000, 
since it is found that some 1*2,000,000 acres (equal to the area of Connecticut, Roodd 
Island and Massachusetts) become directly tributary to this road on its completion, th9 
annual earnings of the whole road must amount to $1,373,000! or no less than 15 per 
cent, on the capital invested !" 

, ; -, Wm. B. Ogden, Esq., of Chicago, also addressed the meeting — giving an interesting 
description of the growth and resources of the west ; and of the interest felt by the peopU 
, • . " of that vast region in the success of this work — assuring the meeting that, if able, ihef 
wouM eoniitract it at their own expense rather than have it faiL ,. • ; 



New York and Erie Railroad, r ' 157 

The meeting was large, and appeared to be animated by the right feeling ; and it is to b« 
hoped that a similar spirit may be soon found to pervade this entire community. : 

The report of the directors published in February last ought to be in the bands of 
erery business man in the city. The following synopsis of it gives its prominent points, 
and it should be read with care — and then there port itself should be examined. *' 

STNOPSISt 

The length of the road is 451 1-2 miles— €4 miles of which are finished, and 53 oules 
in actual operation. T 

177 miles have been graded and bridged, and are ready for the superstructure. 

The exact location of 350 miles has been deterniined on, and the right of way for 3S& 
miles obtained. 

The whole amount of expenditure upon the road is i|4,7l6,872 66. * 

The whole amount of capital stock subject to dividends isSl,501,830 14. —A 

The total amount of the indebtedness of the company is about $i600,000. *^' 

The total cost of completing the road is estimated as follows : 
For completing the track for use, .... - $6,000,000 

The outlit for commencement .of business, viz: for depots, water stations, 

engines, cars, etc., ------- 1,000,000 

Making the whole sum required, ----- $7,000,000 

To which add amount of indebtedness, ----'- 600,000 

" " capital stock, - - - ■ - - 1,501,830 

Making the total amount of capital stock when the road is completed, - $9,101,830 

The board estimates that the property which this capital stock will own, could not 
have been acquired for less than 11,000,000 ddls. 

The report is accompanied by a map delineating an area of country which will be tri- 
butary to the road in its transportation of freight and passengers. That area embraces 
idi>out 12,000,000 acres and contains a population of 531,000 inhabitants. 

The population tributary to the Erie canal in 1820 was 521,311, and in 1825, when 
it was first opened, 681,725. 

The area of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut is 8,660,000 acres, and tb« 
amount expended for railroads in those States is 25,000,000 dolls. 

Of the indebtedness of the company the report states that the only sum which can 
embarrass its operations' within five years has been reduced to lets than 100,000 dollars, ,. 
and that the board has succeeded in obtaining a surrender of the assignments and in re- 
covering possession of the road and the other property of the company ; and although 
" some difficulty may still grow out of the indebtedness not settled, yet, trusting to the as- 
surances given by the parties alniost without exception to extend to the company all the 
time that the ultimate security of these debts will permit, the board believe that it will be 
possible to make arrangements that will prevent any embarrassing prosecution of the claims 
daring the period that measures for the resumption of the worn are under consideration 
and action. 

The company has also been relieved &om all connection with past contracts and ques- 
tions of damages. 

During the year ending the 1st April, 1844, the totjj nett earnings of the 53 miles in ' 
operation from Piermont, on the river, to Middletown, in Orange Co., 7 miles of which ^ 
was not completed until June, 1843, will be 46,800 dollars, making a reasonable estimate 
for the last two months. The^ extreme end of this portion of the road is only 20 miles 
from the river, and the whole 53 miles, therefore, subject to great competition, which di- > 
minishcs, and fii^ly ceases, as the road penetrates the interior. 

" The board agrees with those who have preceded them in similar investigations, in con- 
wdering that the population, products and area of the country, whose travel and transpor- 
tation can be commanded, form a basis of calculation of all others most to be relied on." 

They therefore present tables of articles transported during six months ending Scpteni»^ 
ber 30tn, 1843, over the 53 miles in use ; and the table, compiled from the last census of ^ 
the United Stales, of the population and products of the counties tributary to the road. 

From these tables it has been inferred that about one-fourth of the nett earnings at* 
of a local character, and that the surplus products in proportion to the population, fully 
eiqual those of Orange and Rockland. To enable a calculation of the probable produc- 
tiveness of the road to be made on the basis mentioned, the entire area of country through 
which the road passes, has been subdivided into districts, whose centres are succesavdj '. 
50 miks apart on the line of the road, and the area and population of each district have. . 
been ascertained, upon which principle a calculation is tnus illustrated : < ' 

1. The total amount of nett earnings from a population of 40,000 being 40,000 dol- 
lars ; 30,000 may be taken as the basis of the calculation. "_ 

2. Instead of taking the full amount that might be deducted irom the calculation of ' 
relative population ana distances, two-thirds of t^at amount is assured. 



158 .. .i.-c../'*;* Iron Ships. -•ife. • ' 1 

And the result is the sum of $1,343,500 as the total nett earnings of the whole road, 
which is equal to a revenue of 15 per cent, on the total amount of ci4]itaL 

The revenue that is expected to accrue from the transportation of the mails, and which 
will not probably be less tnan 100,000 dollars per annum, is not included in the above nett 
earnings. Neither is an allowance made for the increase of population ; the business that 
must inevitably be brought to the road from the lakes \ nor the diminished expense of trans- 
portation us the length of the road is increased. 

The exports and imports of Buffalo during the year 1843, were 23,700,000 dollars. 

It appears that passengers con be conveyeuby tnis road from lake Erie to the city of N. 
York, in from 24 to 26 hours at a charge of 10 dollars each, and will afford a profit of from 
3 to 5 dollars ; that light freight can he transported in the same space of time, and heavy 
freight in from 48 to 50 hours, yielding a profit at low rates of from 3 to 10 dollars per ton. 
Passengers are now conveyed from Buffalo to New York during the summer in from 35 
to 40 hours at a charge of SH 50, and during the winter by the Housatonic railroad in 40 
hours, at a charge of 16 dollars, both exclusive of expenses on the road ; and from Buffa- 
lo to Boston in 36 hours, for 15 dollars. 

During the six months ending Sept. 30th, 1843, 3,000,000 quarts of milk — equal to 
6,000,000 dollars per annum — were brought over the eastern division of the road, for which 
the consumers paid 4 cents a quart. Before a supply was obtained through this source, 
the average price was 6 cents a quart ; an annual saving is therefore effected to thccity on 
the amount brought, of 120,000 dollars ; estimating the whole consumption of the city at 
16,000,000 of quarts, the saving on the whole would be 320,000 dollars. 

A table is given, showing the amount of country produce annually consumed in the citj 
of New York, the value of which is put down at 15,500,000 dollars. 

The whole amount that will be required to complete the road is 7,600,000 dollars ; and 
with respect to the method of raising that sum the directors remark, that " the act of 1843 
authorizes the company to issue bonds to the amount of 3,000,000 dollars, which resource, 
however, will not be an available one until further expenditures on the road shall make 
the property of undoubted security to the bondholders ; nor until the means of paying the 
interest on these bonds is found within the resources of the company." They " are of 
opinion that subscriptions to the amount of 6,000,000 of dollars to the cajHtal stock of the 
company must be obtained before any steps can be taken for the resumption of the work, and 
that with such subscription the completion of the road is secured with all reasonable certainty." 

The road runs within 20 to 30 miles of the great anthracite and bitumiiu>us coal region 
in the northern counti^ of Pennsylvania. 

Access will be had from it to the immense beds of g3rp6um or plaster, so valuable to the 
agriculturist, and also to the salt region of Onondaga by the interior lakes of the State, 
the Chemung canal and the Ithaca and Owcgo railroad. 

At 375 miles from New York the road will connect with the Allegheny river, which u 
navigable for descending freight during the months of April and May, and by which rout* 
merchandize can be delivered in Pittsburgh in about 7 days. 

Tables are given showing the immense increase of late years in the tonnage on the ni> 
per lakes, and in the amount of property coming from other States and shipped at BufiioM 
and Block Rock. The number of tons of property that came from other States and waN 
received at these two places increased from 36,273 tons in 1836, to 224,166 tons ya 1843. 

The board, in expressing its opinion that the New York and Erie railroad will afford 
advantages not po^ssed by other avenues, and that its construction is of great importance 
to our city, enters into an enumeration of those advantages ; but as they are too volui)uii> 
oas for a synopsis, the reader is referred to the report itselfl 

IRON SHIPS. ^ 

We had the pleasure of witnessing the launch of an iron steam ship^ 
built for the revenue service by Messrs. H. R. Dunham & Co., Archimedes 
works, under the superintendence of Capt Howard, U. S. N. The engines 
are by another firm. She has a single propeller, and is to be full ship rig* 
ged. Her model struck us as being remarkably fine, and so just are her 
proportions, that it was difficult to believe her capacity to be above three hun- 
dred tons. We had flattered ourselves with the hope of presenting out 
readers with a minute account of both hull and engines, but are only enabled 
to give the former at present, though we hope in our next to give full ac- 
counts of several other iron ships, and small craft, now constructing in this 
port The following are the dimensions of hull and material: 






Length on deck, 140 feet Breadth, 24 feet Depth of hold, 11 feet. 
Tonnage, 340 tons. 

The size of the ribs, 4^x1 ; 20 inches apart from centre to centre ; con- 
nect«Hl to the skin with 3 inch x | knees, on each side of rib, on every lon- 
gitudinal seam. The skin of the vessel on the floor and each end including 
upper streak, is of | inch plates'; other parts j\ inch full 

There are two water tight bulkheads, which include the engine, boiler 
and coal, making three water tight compartments in the hull These com- 
municate with each other by means of slide valves, which, in case of leak- 
age, can be instantly closed. Connected with the forward of these are the 
coal bunkers, which are riveted to the bottom of the vessel and extend up- 
ward to the deck, where they are secured to the beams. 

The deck beams are of angle iron, 5 inches on one side by l|xf thick, 
to which the deck is secured by means of bolts and nuts — in a very solid 
and superior manner. 

TO THB SUBSCRIBERS OF THE AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL. 

The undersigned, during his connection with this Journal, having en- 
gaged in other pursuits, necessarily occupying much of his time, has been 
frequently prevented from giving that attention to the work which its interests 
demand. He now finds it expedient to devote himself entirely to his other 
avocations, and accordingly, having disposed of his interest in the proprietor- 
ship, his duties, as editor and proprietor,- cease with the present number. 

Having for more than eight years used the editorial we, he begs permis- 
fion, on relinquishing it, to say a few words in propria persona. When the 
undersigned first became connected with this work, the railroad cause was 
rapidly advancing under the united forces of its own merits, and the common 
stimulus then operating upon every species of enterprize. That the tide 
soon turned, we all know — its efiects upon the community generally, and upon 
the railroad cause, will not be soon forgotten. The trials experienced insustain> 
ing the Journal, and the loss to its owners, are fully known only to those most 
interested — they need not be repeated for the edification of others. Mean- 
while the good cause has passed through such an ordeal as seldom tries un- 
dertakings of like character ; it is now unaided by any undue stimulus, but 
its own merits are acknowledged fully and universally, and by their help 
alone it is rapidly entering upon a healthy prosperity. The untiring labors 
of zealous friends of the cause have sucessiutly contended with the host oi ad- 
verse circumstances belonging to this disastrous period. To these friends the 
Railroad Journal has mainly owed its continued existence — ^not only have they 
enhanced the value of its pages by their contributions — but encouraged and 
sustained its publishers by the substantial aid of promptly paid subscriptions. 

The undersigned would leave undischarged an imperative but welcome 
daty, were he to pa.ss by this opportunity of gratefully acknowleding these 
various acts of kindness, shown to him as connected with the Journal. But 
more than this he feels bound to say. In his personal intercourse with the 
members of the profession, and others interested in railroads, he has uniform- 
ly received the most courteous treatment, and has, in many instances, been 
led into association with those whose friendship he flatters himself will out- 
last his formal connection with the Railroad Journal. 

By a transfer of his share of these kindly ofiices to Mr. Minor, the friends 
of the undersigned will not only confer a personal obligation, but likewise 
aid in the just and proper roitoralkta of diese £|voj:|i(giii$iy[.oziglB»l recipients 



160 ' ' ' Editoriml. " 

In no way can the well wishers of the Journal render it more important 
aid than by frequent contributions to its pages, while from the number of 
those already enlisted among its regular contributers, its increasing in- 
terest and value may be found guarantt^ed. 

Although released from all charge over the Journal, the undersigned will 
remain as much attached to its interests as ever, and also proposes, as far aa 
other engagements will allow, to continue to write for its pages. • 

In conclusion, the subscriber offers his best wishes for the health and proS' 
perity of the friends, subscribers and worthy conductor of the American 
Railroad Journal. Long may it flourish. Success to the railroad cause. 
^^.,^, George C. Schaefper, '. 

Prom the preceding valedictory, the readers of the Railroad Journal will learn that Mr. 
George C. Schaeffer, who has, for the past eight years, been the principal editor, with- 
draws from his post. In parting thus with an associate and friend, who so long stood bj 
my side, while I was able to sustain my position ; and who, manfully and alone for years, 
in behalf of the Journal, breasted the storm which prostrated me, with many of its early 
iiiends, until I could again come to its aid, with renewed energies, I feel called upon 
to bear testimony, as well to his uniform kindness and courtesy, in our business relations 
as to his ability and discretion in the discharge of his editorial duties. When Mr. 
Schaeffer first entered upon his duties as editor, the condition and prospects of the railroad 
system, and hence of the Railroad Journal, seemed to warrant the opinion that his eflbrts 
in the cause would meet with a liberal reward ; but I regret to say that such has not been 
the result, and therefore I cannot complain, however much I may regret, that he re- 
linquishes his station to seek another which may yield him a better return ; and in taking 
leave of him as an associate, after so long a period of constant and harmonious intercourse, 
amid the trying scenes of the past seven years, I cannot refrain from expressing my ardent 
hope that he may be successful in his present pursuits, even in proportion to his steriing 
merits — a measure of reward, which, if realized, will yield him all that is desirable in life. 

One word, now, in relation to the future course of the Journal. As heretofore, it will 
be mainly devoted to the cause of internal improvements, and especially of railroads. Its 
columns will, however, be open to a free and full discussion of the merits of the different sy». 
tems, and of different works. Truth, being mighty, is sure ultimately to triumph, as I 
believe railroads are destined to, over every ol»tacle ; and to become, in this country ,the bonds 
of union and the roads to wealth, the increased intelligence and happiness of Uie peojde. 

Entertaining these views, and believing that we have had, in this country, ample exp^ 
rience, without referring to Europe, to establish their superiority over every other mode of 
intercommunication, I hope, wth the continued aid of those friends, and my late associate, 
who have -labored so ardently for the cause, together with others who have promised their 
co-operation, to make the Railroad Journal the appropriate medium for disseminating the 
results of the experience of our numerous able and scientific engineers, and machinists; 
and thus to command the liberal patronage of those whose interests are so largely identi- 
fied with the system. A few copies of this number will be sent to friends of the cauae, 
in different parts of the country, with the hope of securing their aid in its more general cii^ 
culation ; and should it meet with a cordial reception and prompt return, I shall be en- 
couraged to renewed, and, I trust, successful efforts to make it still more useful than it has 
hitherto been. D. K. Minor. 

^' We have only space to acknowledge the receipt of the report of the Baltimtve and Sus- 
quehannah railroad company for 1843 — the " report of the engineer on the route surveyed 
for the northern railroad, from Concord to Lebanon, N. H." — the " proceedings of the 
stockholders of the Louisville, Cincinnati and Charleston railroad company — and gf the 
sooth western railroad bank" — and also of the pamphlet of " Examiner, in relation to the 
Reading railroad — all c^ which we shall look into and perhaps refer to again. 

CONTENTS: 

' Sufft ■ Pace. 

Wear and tnar and destnictinn of iron rails, 129 Editorial, 148, 168, 1G9, W 

Cost of trsnspoitation on railmads, 130, 149 New York and Eria railroad, ICQ, 106 

Annoal return of the MastachiiKettt railroad*, 130 Schuylkill navigation, IB 

CaoM of tht iitilare of c mn e U ia Ameticm, 14S Balogiiun on engiaeen,, IBt 



-■<t:'^:->''^'--' ■ tr^^; ,.^<-M.,'' 



^; ^ AMERICAN 



-i***! 



RAILROAD JOURNAL, 



^.■■J:''^ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. J 

No. 6, Vol. 2. ) ,.. _ TTTTVT;' ISLU. - 5 Whole No. 437. 

Third Series. \ ,.^», ; " ' •■ JUiNfci, lCS44. ,j ^ Vol. XVU. 

For the American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND INVESTIGATION OF F0RMI7L.a:. 

In making excavations through earth, it is customary to give some incli- 
nation or slope to the sides of the cuts to prevent the banks from sliding in 
and filling the roadway. The degree of inclination is always indicated by 
the distance the slope recedes from a perpendicular in a height one. 

Thus, if the deviation from the peroendicular is equal to the depth of the 
cut, (or the inclination is 45°,) the side banks are said to have a slope of 1. 
or, as it is frequently expressed, of 1 to 1. If the deviation is J the depth, 
the slope is ^ to 1. v '^ !* v i '"^ ' 

In excavations through rock, or very hard clay, a slope of ^ to 1 is gene- 
rally used ; common earth stands at a slope of 1 to 1, but very sandy soil 
requires a slope of 1^ to 1. The section of an embankment is precisely 
similar to that of an excavation inverted, and therefore all the rules, formulas 
and tables are alike applicable to both descriptions of work. 

In embankments it is not considered prudent ever to adopt a less slope thaqi 
1^ to 1, unless the earth is supported by side walls. '' '; 

» In explaining the methods we use for the calculation of the solid contents 
of earth work, we shall first consider those cases where there is no slope in 
the ground transversely, or at right angles to the direction of the centre line 
of the road. 

; Let D be the depth of an excavation at any point, :'^-"'.^..''-^''/'- Jy---' 
'">' B the width of the base, 

'^" V- m the slope of the side banks or distance they recede from the 
perpendicular in a height one. .... ^., 

Then B -f 2 m D = width of excavation on top, f 

B + m D = average width, I 

and (B -f- m D) D = area of the cross section. i, / 

Hence if the depth were uniform throughout a length L the content would be 

(B + m D) D L (A^v 

From this expression the tables of average depths are calculated. 

We will now suppose D and i to be the depths at the two extremities of 
an excavation, the sur&ce being understood to vary uniformly between these 



General Principles and Investigation of Formula. 

points. Then the content of the included solid will be found by multiplying 
the sum of the end areas and four times the area of a middle section by one- 
sixth of the length. (See page 141 Bonnycastle Mensuration.) 

The end areas are (B + m D) D, ♦ I > . 

and {B -{-m d) d, 

fcur times the area of middle section 2 B (D -\- d) -{- m {D -\- dy . - « 

Hence the content is 

\3B{D-j-d)-\-mD^ +md^ +w(D + rf)» I ^ ' 'tST 

£ % T I 

= )6B (D-f <i) + 4mD» -}-4ot D<i + 4»trf'M-| - -(B) 

Now the content of a cut of an uniform depth throughout of ^ (D + d), 
found by substituting ^ {D -\- d) for D in equation (A) will be 



B + im(D + ^) j 



D-{-d 



-XL 



4-- 



2 

= j 6 B (D + <i) + 3 »i EF + 6 OT D <i + 3 m (? ^ — . 

The difference between this content for the average depth of ^ (D-f d), 
and the content of a cut the depth of which is D at one end, and d at the 
other, as given in formula (B,) is 

(mD^ — 2»n Dd + wtd^)— , 

or (O-df--. .... . ^^ 

It appears from this, that the correction to be added to the content obtained 
from the average depth, varies as the square ot the difference of the depths 
at the two extremities of the excavation ; and that, therefore, if a table is cal- 
culated expressing the values of equation (C) for different values of (D — d) 
we can readily ascertain the content of any excavation, by addition of the 
numbers taken from this table to the content found in the table of average 
depths and corresponding to a depth of ^ (D + «i). 

The tables numbered VII, XIV and XXI, and headed " Corrections for 
Differences,^^ are computed from formula (C), and adapted to this purpose. 

It is customary with many engineers to multiply the half sum of the end 
areas by the length for the content. The half sum of the end areas multi- 
plied by the length is . , y. .: z:^ >.^.v, v.f; ^u::h. . 
{BD-\-Bd + mTy-\-md')- ' t^';.- '^ ^; 

= \ 6B {D -\- d) -{- 6 miy-\- 6 md'l^ '*• 

from which deduct the true content as in equation (B), and there remains : 

^ -;- (2miy — 4mD/i + 2OT^) ^ = P — <i)i^ " |' ' 

It will be perceived that the amount of error is exactly double the whole 






Vl > i linti 



General Principles and Investigation of Formula. 



les 



" correction for differences." In a cut 100 feet long, 30 feet deep at one end, 
snd 3 feet at the other, having a slope of 1^ to 1, there would be an excess 
in the return of work thus estimated on this short distance, of 675 cubic 
yards. 

We will now consider those cases where there is an inclination in the 

.natural surface of the ground in a direction at right angles to the centre line 

of the road. 




\ 



^4 



/ 



Let ABODE (fig. I) be a transverse vertical section of an excavation, 
where B C is the base, A B and C D the sloping sides, E F the centre cut- 
ting, and A E D the natural surface. Draw L E M parallel to B C (cut- 
ting the side slopes at L and M), and A G and D H perpendicular to it 
Since the area ABCD = LBCM + AEL— DEM,the content of a 
prism Avhose base is A B C D, and length L, may be found by adding to 
the content of the prism having the bBfee L B C M, (which will be taken 
from the table of averages,) the difference of the prisms whose bases are the 
triangles A E L and DEM respectively. But area AEL = iELxA G 



andareaEDM = iEMxDH. Hence 



AG — DH 



X E L X L is the 



correction for the transverse slope, which must be added to the average content 

I to give the true content of the solid whose section is the figure A C. "When 

. the depth of cutting at the points A and D has been ascertained, A G and 

" D H are known, being the difference of elevation of the points A and D 

and the centre E. We may also remark that E L or E M is equal to B F 

-f- )» X E F. Where the inclination of the ground is not very great, it will 

be found sufficiently accurate for all purposes, and much more expeditious, 

after having run the centre line to take the transverse slope in degrees right 

and left of the centre. Wm. J. Young, of Philadelphia, has made a very 

neat little slope instrument expressly for this purpose. ■-_. 



164 



General Principles and Investigation of Formula. 



When the transverse slopes have been ascertained in degrees, the correc- 
tions will be found by means of a table which will now be explained. 

Produce A B, E F and D C until they meet in I. On E I lay off E i 
= 1 and draw a i, i m parallel to A I and D I cutting A E, E L, E D and 
E M in a, /, d, and m ; and draw a g and d h perpendicular to G M. 
Then the areas a i E, E rf m are equal respectively to ^ a ^ x E i and \ d 
A X E ?«, and are to be found under the head of greater and lesser areas in 
tables XXIII, XXIV, XXV and XXVI, for every degree of slope from 
1° upwards. In the same tables under the heads of greater and lesser 
distances, will be found the values of a E, and E d also for every de- 
gree. ■ "• -^i- 'v./ •■-;--.•/.•; ^ ^■,:^ ^-...i^r'^i'r-:;^ ,' >, : 

Now, E i(=l): EI: : Ea: E A = EaxE I I 

Ei :EI::Erf:ED = E<ixEI. 

Hence the side distances E A and E D are found by multiplying E I by 
the numbers in the table opposite the given slope and under the greater and 
lesser distances. 

Again, (E if (= 1) : (E If : : (E If : (E Lf : : area Z a E : area L A E' 
= area/aE x(E 1)1 / -\ 

(E if : (E I)^ : : (E mf : (E M)'' : : area B d m : area E D M = area 
Ed«x(EI)^ 

2. ■■■:■■.. 




■.(.;;»jni'q,«i^^r xiil'^hy*-: 









General Principles and Investigation of Formula. 165 

^^ Hence the true correction for a length L is (Z a E — E <i m) X E P X L; 

Now, E F X L is the content of a square prism, whose base is E I, and 

length L; and table XXII shows the content in cubic yards of prisms 100 

feet long for square bases from 1 to 200 feet. Hence the value of E P X L 

^ reduced to cubic yards may be taken from this table. 

. - It will generally be found sufficiently accurate to consider the average 
slope in degrees as the uniform slope, and the average depth as the uniform 
depth throughout the cut. But as this is not always the case, it is desirable 
to have a true expression for the correction where the depths of cutting (and 
consequently the width on top) arid the transverse slopes are variable. We 
will then see how far a mean depth and slope may be used without introduc- 
ing material errors into the results of our calculation. 

Let ALE (Fig. 2) represent a vertical section of that part of an excava- 
tion which rises above the centre E, A L being the sloping side of the cut, 
and A E a section of the natural surface. Let A' L' E' be a similar and 
parallel section situated at a distance E E' from the plane ALE. On E L 
and E' L' produced, let fall the perpendiculars A G and A' G' ; produce E 
E' and A A' to meet L L' produced in S and N and draw K N parallel to 
E L or E' L'. 

Put EL = T,E'L' = T', AG = P, A'G' = F 
E E' = a;, E S = M and E K = M'. 
.(I Then E S : E' S : : E L : E' L', " . - 

^M^ or M:M — z::T:T' = T— ^. 

M 

and EK:E'K(:: LN: L'N): : AG: A'G', 

: ':■; that is M' : M' — 2 : : P : P = P — ^* . 

. I* M '■' 

T P « T P T TP-r^v 
Now.he,reaALE=^rP' = i(TP-l^--5j-+^) 

But if S = content of the solid E A' the differential of 2 S = 2 area A' L' 

E'xdx = TPd x — '^- dx- '^-^ d X -{-"^J^ d X. 1 . ^ 

Hence by integrating this equation we have ^ 

■^'l oo mo TPi^ TParTPx' 

2M' 2M ^3MM ■ . ; ■ 

T z P z 

* Subetituting for M and M' in this equation their values = and — — 

T — T P — r 

and putting L for z we have . * \ <-< ,.v 

^^; S = (2 T P + 2 T' P -f T' P + T P) — * v . (D) 

fi , ^^ 

This IS a general expression for the content of a solid bounded on two 

/: sides by planes, and on the third by a warped surface, 
r Jf B C (fig 2) represents the base B, IF = — ,EI=D + — - = H 



166 General Principles and Investigation of Formula. 

and E' I''=H', then T = EL = mxH and T' = E' L' = m X H'. These 
Talues of T and T' substituted in the last equation give us for the content 

<2 H P + ^ H' F + H' P + H P) — , .;! 

which is the excess in cutting caused by the slope of the ground rising above 
the centre line of the excavation ; and if H D and H' D' (fig. 2) be put =p 
and p'j the deficiency caused by the slope falling below the centre will be 

• (2 H p + 2 H>' + H> + H p') ^, ■ 1 'v - 

and the true correction is evidently equal to the difference of these expres- 
sions, or 

I (2 H + H>(P -;.) + (H + 3 H') (P -p) | ~ - (E). 

Had we taken — - — in place of P and P', and ^~^ for p and p', or 
^ 2 

the mean of the perpendiculars P, p, P' and p', the correction would hare 
been 

(H + H')(P-;> + P'-2)')^ - . . . F, 

which if substracted from equation (E) leaves a second correction 

(H-H')(P-;)-P'+;>')^ - - -(G). 

These are in a more convenient form than equation (E), as (G) may, when 
of little importance, be omitted. 

When P — j» = P' — p' equation (E) becomes '' '*' 1 

(H + H')(P-;,)~ - - . . - (H). 

When the depth is uniform but not the slope we have ■ , ^. ^ ^ 

H(P-2> + P'-p')^ . ,:^,,,.., . . (I). 

And finally, when slope and depth are both uniform. 



L.r •>■ v"-- -.■'.*-«V 



e: 



H(P-p)-^ . - - - . (ft). 

These expressions for " corrections for transverse slopes" are in the moat 

convenient form, if the heights of the points A and D (figures 1 and 2) are 

found without the use of the slope instrument, and they do not require the 

use of the tables. 

, „ 2 AH 2aH_, 2A'H' . , 2 a' H' ^ /* 

Let p = -_— ,p = — — ,P = — — — andp = , (where A, a, 

fn in n tn 

A' and a' are the areas A L E, E D M, A' L' E' and E' D' M' (fig. 2) whea 

H and H' are each = 1) then expression (E) becomes 

j 2 H» (A — a) + 2 H'« (A' — a') + H H' (A — a -|- A' - a) | li , 

which, if we assume the slope uniform throughout the excavation, becomes 



General Principles and Investigation of Formula. 167 

-^>^ , I W + H'« 4- (H + Uy I (A -a + A' - a') ^, - (L) 

and this subtracted from the above equation leaves us a second correction 

V 3t^ (H2_ H'2) (A — a — A' + a) ^- " • ' (M) r 

When the slope is uniform throughout, our expression becomes 

; I W + H'^ + (H + H'f I (A - a)^. . ,^ . (N) ;■ 

H 4- H' 
But if we had taken the mean depth — as the uniform depth we should 

have had for the correction , • ■- -■ .. 

which subtracted from equation (N) leaves a remainder 

(H-HT(A-a)^. - . : . (0| 

When the depth is uniform, but not the slope, we have 

W{A — a-{-A' — a')^. • : * * (1^ 

And when the slope and depth are both uniform ■' ;,i 

H^(A — a)L. - - . • .. <a) 

These expressions for " corrections for transverse slopes" are useful when 
the slopes are taken in degrees, and their values can readily be found by 
means of the tables of areas and table XXII. -t-i:;;, i > ^:t7::r:;-V, ;,.^ ./; 

There is another method of calculating the contents of excavation and em- 
bankment, which is more convenient when the slopes are very great and the 
depths variable, which will now be explained. 

In fig. 1, draw A O and D P parallel to B C, meeting I^'and I E pro- 
duced in O and P. Put E I = H, A O = W, and D P = w, and let the 
corresponding dimensions of a parallel section situated at a distance L from 
A D I be represented by H' W' and w' respectively. 

By substituting H and W for T and P, and H' and W' for T' and P in 
equation (D), we have for the content of the solid included between A E I 
and its corresponding section 

(2 H W + 2 H' W -f H' W + H W) ^, , 

and the content of the solid formed on D E I is ' ;' >'*'•;; 

\;:^:v;^:.:.:a^^ (2 H to + 2 H' w' + H' w + H w') :^. > . . = '^ 

12 

From the sum of these contents subtract the content of the prism having for 
a base the triangle B C I and we have for the content of the solid formed 
on A B C a 

h2H + H')(W + i^) + (H+2H;i(W -|-«'')^-?^. - (R) 



t- 



168 General Principles and Investigation of Formula. 

...1 ■- 
Let Y, y and Y' y represent the ratio of W. w, and W, w to it and H' 
respectively on the values of W, w and W, w when H and H' are each = 
1. Then by substitution the above equation for the content becomes 

|2H^(Y + y) + 2H'^(Y'+y') + HH'(Y + y+Y'+y')|^-^~. 

If we assume the slope as uniform we have for the content *r" -« 

[H'+H- + (H + H'r|(Y + y + Y' + y')^-^, - (S) 
which subtracted from the above equation leaves a remainder 

(H«_H-)(Y+y_Y'-y)^. - - (T) 

When the transverse slope is constant the content is 1 . . 

[ H^ + H'^ + (H + Uy I (Y + y) ^ - ^. -^ - (V) 

If the depth is uniform but not the slope thd content is 

W{Y^y + Y'+y')\-^. - - (W) 

When the slope and depth are both uniform 1 

' «''Y + *)'^-f^- ■ ■ - ■ w 

The values of Y y Y' and y for every d,egree of slope from 1° upwards 
are given in tables XXIII, XXIV, XXV and XXVI under the head of 
greater and lesser horizontal distances and by means of these and table XXII 
the values of these equations can easily be ascertained. 

If there is no transverse slope we will have ■' ' T 

\ — 2"— +— 13— r^-4^- • \ " /^^ 

Here it may be observed that the value of -— — - m L is given in 

the table of " corrections for differences No. XIV • and that the other terms 

of the equation are found in table XXII. 1 *^ 

Finally, if there is no slope and no variation in depth the equation becomes 

Wmh — ^^. - ^ -. - - - (Z) 

Note. If H* or H"* is substituted for (H — H^, this remark will apply- 
to all the formulae in which L is divided by 12. The numbers in table XIV 

are -jV of those in table XXII. If « = | or = 1^ the expression ^ — -- — - 

m L will be found in table VII or XXI, but if m is any other number, the 
expreasion must be found in table XIV and multiplied by m. 



■■'r^^^--'\ 'n- • f<-':.'Vf; .^"V;/; i'V^^'fi 



,■. .V 



.i 



,' 0» the Cakulation oftke Tables. IW 

ON THE CALCULATION OF THE TABLES. ' 

The labor of forming tables for calculating earth work may be very mach 
abridged, by obtaining the first and second differences. ■''" 
^ In any expression of the form a x -\- b a? = iij let a: be increased by a 
constant quantity y and become x-\-y, x-\-2y, x-\-Zy, x-\-4y, etc. ; 
then the successive values of n will be , . /^ 

a X -{- b a^ 

ax-\-ay-{-b3?-\-2bxy-\-by^ 
> a X + 2 a y + 4 z* + 4 A z y + 4 6 y* : 

ax-j-3ay-^b3^-{-6bxy-\-9bi^ 

ax-\-4^ay-{'b2?-\-8bxy + 16 bf, etc. 

Take the difference between each of these expressions and the following 
one, and we have . ...-^ 

ay -{-'Hb x y -\- b -f 
\ ay -\-2b xy + Zbf v; > 

;■ ay-\-2bxy-\-bbf - : 

>;ir>'iK.i>v::.-rv.: ;;.''; ay + 'Ubxy-^lbf ^\^:^ i}-^-'.' ^ . >^ 
These are called the first.diflerences and the difference of theee differences 

26»y — ^v.;,;-. 
is called the second difference. 

Hence commencing with the first of the first differences, the continued ad- 
dition of the second difl^enence produces the several first difl!erences, and these 
added in order to the first value of n will give the successive values of n. If 
the equation is of the form b 3? = n,ox a becomes o, then the first difference 
\% 'Z b x y -[- b ■f, and the second difference is 2 ft y^, as before found. 

Ijet us apply this method to the calculation of the tables of contents for 
average depths. The expression for the content is (equation A) 

(B + m D) D L = B L D + m L D'*. -V : - 

Hence if we suppose D to be increased constantly by a quantity d, the 
1st first- difference, found by substituting D and d for x and y, and B L and 
wi L for a and 6 will be ... 

(B i + 2 »i D (i + m i^) L, 
and by a similaf substitution we shall find for the second difference 

Let it be required to calculate the contents answering to every foot in depth 
for a length of 100 feet, base of 25 feet, and slope of ^ to 1. 

Here B = 25, L = 100, «» = i, D = 1, and d= \^ and since these quan- 
tities are given in feet, our several results must be divided by 27 to reduce 
them to cubic yards. i. . ^ 

255 X 100 

Now (B + f» D) D L = — — = 94 444 = content for one foot 

(Bi + 2»D(i-|-m^)L = ^ — = 98148 = 1st first difference 



170 



On the Calculation of th« Tables. 



100 



And 3 m <P L = = 3-7037 = second difference. 

27 i •••■-■■■-.? j'-L-.^fM' 

Hence the table will be calculated as exhibited below ; the first differences 
being severally formed by addition of the second difference to the preceding 
one, and the table of contents by the addition of the corresponding first dif- 
ference to the preceding content. 





Depth 


First Dif. 


Content. 






feet. 

1 


cub. yds. 


cub. yds. 


' 


/• , 


• 




94 444 


■ .1 




2 


98148 


192 592 






3 


101852 


294 444 








4 


105 556 


400 000 


■ - .■ - 




5 


109 529 


509259 


*■ 






6 


112963 


622222 


■^ 






7 


116667 


738889 




■ V .<<-. 




8 


120 731 


859260 








9 


124074 


983333 


1 . 




10 


l*-:7 778 


1111111 





Let us apply this method to the calculation of a table of corrections for 

m 1 
differences and in the equation (C) (D — df x -^n P'^* ^ for D — d and 

12 

let it be constantly increased by a given quantity d'. Then 
(2 D' d' 4- d'*) -— = 1st first diflTerence, 



■y- 



12 



and 



d'^ m L 



= second diflference. 



If L = 100, D' = 1, d' = 1, and m = 1, the 1st first difference reduced to 
cubic yards is -92593, and the second difference reduced also to cubic yards 
is -61728. Hence the table will be calculated as follows : 



.-. 


Dif. of depth 


First dif. 


Correction 


5. .- ■ 


■'■ /r, ■ - ■ "* 


in feet. 


cub. yds. 


cub. yds. 


r ■■-'•'. 




1 




30864 


.,.;..,. ..A. v,x,. /,../ 




2 


92593 


123457 


■ • i''' ■'•■' ■ "■ -: 


• 


3 


154321 


2-77778 


• :■'■ :. ". . ■ 




. 


4 


216049 


493827 


-' '■"- : "... ■• ■■ -'• : .. 




■ - ' -'■ ■' 


5 


2-77778 


771605 


>''•_ ■ ..'':' ' 


"■^^.'-j,. 




6 


339506 


lllllll 






7 


401234 


1512345 


.1 


■ 'f.. 


-'1^•'■;* ■ , .- * * 


8 


462963 


19 75308 


VV , ■. 


... 


9 


524692 


2500000 


■1: ■■■; :_''^'M'\ 


yxf/. 


■ -■ 


10 


586420 


30-86420' r^^- .vv> ,.!?-< . 



>*ii5yV ■^-^-^-' 



*-r^** ft .v?*» ■' 



-j.^1.*-. -J*-* -/- » , 



. ~ Bear Mountain Railroad. 

For the Ameiican Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. /.;.>.. 

BEAR MOUNTAIN RAILROAD. * ^ ' ■ - '. 

Having completed the location of the Bear Mountain railroad, and the 
work being now under contract, and in progress of construction, I have 
thought that a statement of our operations thus far, and a brief descriptioa 
of the general features of the road, might be interesting to the readers of the 
J.ournal. 

This road is intended for the transportation of the Bear valley coal from 
the mines to the canal, and. as originally chartered, was to extend from 
Rausch Gap, in Schuylkill county, through Lykens valley, to the head of 
the Wiscinisco canal, (unfinished) nineteen miles above Dauphin. Previous 
to my taking charge of the survey, some instrumental examinations had 
been made to ascertain the feasibility and probable cost of the road through ; 
Lykens valley, and trom these examinations, it was ascertained that a route ; 
could be obtained through this valley, with grades either level or descending , 
from the mines to the canal, and with a maximum grade of 36 feet per 
mile,. 

The principal business which this road would probably transact, consists 
in the transportation of coal and iron in one direction, and the great rivalry 
now existing between the parties interested in the several coal regions, ren- 
ders it necessary that the cost of this transportation should be as low as pos- 
sible. In order to ascertain the practicability of obtaining a less objection- 
able route for the road than the one originally contemplated through Lykens 
valley, I was induced to give a most rigid and thorough examination to 
the several valleys which head near the western extremity of this coal field ; 
and as the result of these examinations, we have adopted a route wholly dif- 
ferent from the one originally contemplated, by which a saving of 14 miles 
of transportation is effected, with a termination at Dauphin, 19 miles lower 
down on the canal, and but 8 miles above Harrisburgh. In addition to this 
the road, as now located, has for its entire length (upwards of 30 miles) a 
continuous descending grade of not less than 16J, TU)r more than 17| feet 
per mile, with but two points on the line where the grade changes, and the 
minimum radius of curvature is 19W feet. -'::"'■ 

I am not aware that there is any railroad in the United States, or in the 
world, which, either for the whole, or any considerable portion of its length, 
is so admirably adapted for the cheap transportation of freight in one direc- 
tion, and in fact, as far as the grades of a railroad affect the cost of trans- 
portation, I consider that our road is so located as to reduce this sum to a 
rainimim:!. v. -a;: 

It is difficult to say what is the greatest load that a locomotive could take 
down our road, but the average loads of an engine will of course be limited 
by the number or weight of empty cars with which it could return to the 
mines, ascending a grade of 17^ feet per mile. 

It will readily be seen that our facilities for transacting a heavy freight 
business are greater than upon any railroad yet constructed, and that for the 



Coal Trade.- '' 

..• - ' i 

peculiar kind of transportation, this road is over 40 per cent better than a 
perfectly level road. 

Our road has several other distinctive features ; and is, in many other re- 
spects, of a most extraordinary character. 

My business engagements at present, however, will not permit me to en- 
ter more into detail ; but as soon as I have leisure, I shall be happy to fur- 
nish the Journal with sketches and drawings of several of our works of art, 
together with a more full description of the road and machinery. ^ 

J. Spaulding, 

Dauphin, April 18, 1844. Chief Engineer B. M. Railroad. 



COAL TRADE. '■_■■.;-■ ■' "<T,-'^"'' '; 

We have received a pamphlet of some 70 pages on the " Reading rail- 
road company," by " Examiner ;" being " a series of articles published in . 
the Pennsylvanian in January, February and March, 1844." The object is 
to counteract the " incendiary publications" issued in 1839 and 1840, by the 
Reading railroad company. The speedy downfall of this company is pre- 
dicted with great confidence, and an elaborate demonstration is gone into— • 
one of the main arguments being the rapid wear of the iron rails, a subject 
on which much has been written for this Journal. The pamphlet reiterates 
the old story about the " refuse rails" of the South Carolina railway, which 
has been positively contradicted by our correispondent " Q,," in whose ^ate- 
ments every confidence may be placed. 

There is quite enough of the " incendiary" spirit in both of these rivals 
for the coal trade. If the capital of the railway be eight millions of dollars, 
then will it require 1,380,000 tons, netting 50 cents per ton, to pay the mo- 
derate interest of 8 per cent. The Schuylkill and other works will of course 
continue their contributions, and thus in order to make the Reading railway 
a successful work the consumption must be doubled at once. •.•|vj.'o'>i» 

The tolls on the Schuylkill canal are now 36 cents per ton, or 3 mills 
per ton per mile ; the capital is about 3^ millions of dollars. To pay 8 per 
cent on this sum, will require about 700,000 tons of coal p'er annum, exclu- 
sive of other sources of income. The Schuylkill canal carried last year 
447,058 tons of coal, and " Examiiier" estimates " the coal business of the - 
Schuylkill field in 1844" at 800,000 tons. (p. 60). This is little more than 
enough for the canal, and only two-thirds of the quantity required by the 
railroad. 

The pamphlet of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad company, published in 
this Journal, gives detailed estimates of the cost of transporting coal ; the 
aggregate of all expenses being very nearly 9^ mills per ton per mile, tsx- 
clusive of interest. They show that IJ cent per ton per mile will yield a 
fair profit. '^ 

On the other hand, " Examiner," (p. 51) makes the following estimate for 
the Reading railway, per ton per mile, descending, including taking back 
the empty cars. 



■>-*■• -^' I'liiilljii ilifiliVh ■'•! ft'r'-" '- '^■'^ -' 



Coal Trade. 



.j-;-*;-^! 



173 



cst^ 



■-•t v:,«:^ 



'•J> '" '' 



•439 
•662 

•448 
•200 



Locomotive power, - f ^.^ . V'f'j- ^r^ V " :* 

Maintenance of way, ^_ .. : - • ^/V^i-f^- ,;- 

Maintenance of cars, - " ; >' * tt ir"^ /; ^ • - ■ ?: 

Miscellaneous charges, - - - v^:V/ •> 

Ji , Total in cents, - • . *- . 1-739 

This is i^ry nearly twice the estimate of the Baltimore and Ohio com- 
pany, endorsed by Mr. Latrobe. As time will shortly demonstrate which 
is the more reasonable view, further speculation is at this time useless, and 
we shall dismiss the subject after drawing attention to the following circum- 
stance. In 1841 the Schuylkill canal brought down 584,000 tons, in 1843 
only 447,058 tons which with the 229,015 tons per railroad, gives 676,073 
tons from the " Schuylkill field" for that year. The railway was not doing 
enough to have any influence on the trade till last fall, yet the receipts of the 
canal fell from $575,000 in 1841 to $315,000 in 1842. The full price 
might have been maintained till late in 1843, and it looks very much as if 
the canal company to prevent the completion of the railway had literally 
thrown away nearly half a million of dollars, which would have paid divi- 
dends for 1842 and 1843, and left the company in a better state to compete 
with the railway. Had those entrusted with the direction of these works 
been actuated by the proper spirit, there could have been no difficulty in 
making an arrangement which would have yielded a fair profit to both. 
However much the public may appear to gain from the sacrifices made to 
injure each other, it entertains no other feeling than contempt for those who 
thus squander large sums confided to them by others for the purpose of se- 
curing fair dividends from undertakings calculated to advance the prosperity 
of the country. r ■■''■ . 

In a late number, the statement of the Delaware and Hudson canal com- 
pany for 1842 was given, and we now give the statement of this flourishing 
work for 1843. 
Statement of the business of the Dslaware and Hudson Canal Co. for 1843. " 



To coal on hand. March I, 1843, «1!M,691 50 

« Mining coal, 107,64.J 93 

" Railroad transportation and repair*, 103,808 02 
" Freight of coal to Rondout, 233,837 68 

" Canal repairs and superintendance, 77,700 23 
" Labor and expanses at Rondout, 21,219 50 

" InUrest on SUte stork, 38i325 00 

" Interest on company loan, 2^9 00 

" Rent*, salaries, current expense*, etc, 23,927 33 
Balance, 196,701 74 



By sales of coal, 
" Canal and railroad tolls, 
" Interest received, 
" Coal on hand. 



New Yorh, March 1, 1844. 



•930,202 93 



By balance. 



•804,900 74 
30,996 53 
23,251 41 
71,054 2& 



' f-.V: 



•93 0^302 88 
•196,7D1 74 



Hence it will be seen that the cost of transportation on the 108 miles of 
canal was $233,837, or 9^ mills per ton per mile, and the total cost from 
the mines, 126 miles, was 14^ mills per ton per mile. Deducting mining, 
interest, rents, etc., and the total charge may be taken at $2 80 per ton, or 
$0222, or nearly 2| cents per ton per mile. The dividend amounts to 87^ 
cents per ton, about 7 mills per ton per mile, or more than twice the grow 
charges of the Schuylkill canal ! ,» , . 

Lastly, it must be remembered that the railway, though only 16 miles ^ 



1T4 Duty on Railroad Iron. 

long, does one fourth of the work. The coal is mined on the west side of 
the mountains, and carried over the summit to the canal on the eastern slope, 
so that though only one-eighth of the entire line, it has to bear the brunt 
of the fight. In fact this work could scarcely exist without the railway, 
though we believe that the Schuylkill canal is not equally dependent on that 
mode of transportation. .,?,/.v' -..tj^;,;* 7; ?• ;-.»;. 

The high rates of. transportation — as compared with Philadelphia esti- 
mates — which coal affords on the works of the Delaware and Hudson canal 
<;ompany, show that that canal has peculiar advantages. The grand, the 
vital advantage is, that the work is complete in itself The company owns 
from the mines to the Hudson, and can now deliver coal at tide water on 
that river as cheaply as it can be delivered in Philadelphia, if the Miner^ 
Journal is correct in statin? that the average cost of coal delivered in the '. 
cars or boats at Pottsville is, on an average, $2 25 per ton. We believe 
that no red-ash coal can be reached by any cheaper route than via the Dela- 
ware and Raritan canal, though the white-ash of the Wyoming field deli- 
vered on the Hudson at S3 50 per ton, yields 10 per cent, to the Delaware 
and Hudson canal company. Hence we conclude that no inconsiderable 
part of the coal trade will be from the mines to the Hudson, though we ' 
have no idea that the present trade of Philadelphia, or of the Delaware and , 
Hudson canal company, is to be diminished by new avenues skillfully pro- 
jected, and destined to accommodate \he increasing demand, and not merely 
for the purpose of supplanting a useful flourishing work. 

DUTY ON RAILROAD IRON. 

The Pottsville Miners' Journal has a long article on the iron trade, in 
which the policy of keeping up the present duty of $25 per ton on railroad 
iron is warmly advocated. It is said that this article can be produced here 
for $55 per ton — but where ? Can it be delivered in New York or Boston 
for that price? It is too generally overlooked that railways are, in many 
instances, more important to the manufacturer than any tariff". The cost of 
transportation of the materials, ore, coal, lime and manufactured article, is 
one of the grand items, and many works now abandoned would be in flour- 
ishing operation if they had a cheap communication, open throughout the 
year with the .sea board. The immense capital required for the manufacture 
of railway iron, the uncertainty of the demand, and the very low profit it 
can afford under this branch of the iron trade the least desirable of all to the' 
American iron master, as well as the very last in which he should engage. 
By means of railways establish the iron trade in all its most profitable 
branches, and then, when no other iron is imported, impose any duty on rail- - 
road iron which may appear at that time judicious ; but do not now cripple ' 
the rising energies of this best friend of the farmer and manufacturer for the * 
purpose of inducing enterprizing men to embark in the least profitable and '. 
most uncertain branch of the trade, while such enormous quantities of iron '^ 
are imported for the common purposes of life. 



-iHiittitMTi^j 



The Screw Propeller — Steam Navigation. 175 

/;? THE SCREW PROPELLER STEAM NAVIGATION. 

At the last meeting of the Liverpool Polytechnic society, the president, 
John Grantham, Esq., E. C, in the course of his annual address, said, that 
finding he had but few observations to make on the slate and prospects of 
the society — so even had been the tenor of its way through all the changing 
scenes of the times — he should introduce to their notice a topic of public in- 
terest, suited to the character of their meetings ; the subject he alluded to was 
the present state of steam navigation. After some introductory observations, 
as to the failure of the science as a profitable mechanical speculation, he 
called their attention to the screw propeller, as a substitute for paddle wheels 
— an improvement which he had great hopes would do much to place steam 
navigation on a firmer foundation. Several short notices of the screw pro- 
peller had appeared in scientific publications, [See Mining Journal of the 
38th October, for a detailed description, with diagram,] but they were very 
imperfect, and little could be gleaned from them. It had, however, been re- 
ferred to more satisfactorily, in a paper written by Mr. Elijah Galloway, the 
patentee of paddle wheels, in an appendix to Tredgold's work W the steam 
engine. But the author had not formed a decided opinion on the question, 
and did not establish its superiority. The French claimed to be the original 
inventors of the screw propeller, and few would dispute with therm the honor 
on this point — though they also claimed the steam engine, which was due to 
the English. The lecturer here referred to a French paper detailing the 
performances of the French war steamer Napoleon, which were certainly 
satisfactory ; and next noticed a number of instances in which the screw had 
been employed, even from the year 1699. It was also tried by different 
parties in 1743 and 1763. In 1802, the Doncaster transport, which had 
been becalmed, was worked into harbor at Malta, at the rate of one and a 
half mile per hour, by eight men at a spell. She went seven leagues with 
a screw, and the parties seemed to have contemplated every kind of propeller 
since patented by others. In 1825, the screw was applied to a vessel in the 
Thames. In 1828, a patent was taken out for a screw by Mr. Chas. Cum- 
merow. In 1832, M. Sauvage also applied it. In the same year, Mr. 
Woodcroft, of Manchester, took out his patent ; in 1836, Mr. Smith his ; 
and in 1838, Mr. Ericsson also obtained one. Cummerow's and Smith's 
were much alike. Mr. Grantham then explained the principle of the screw, 
or inclined plane, and its advantages over tne paddle wheel, assuming for 
argument sake, that simply as a propeller, there was no preference to be 
given to either. He referred to cross sections of two vessels of the same 
dimensions, one with the paddles, and the other with the screw ; also to lon- 
gitudinal sections of the same. By pointing to this, he clearly showed the 
several advantages of screw vessels. There were several kinds of screw 
propellers, but the principle was the same in all — an inclined plane turned 
round a spindle, or cylinder. This he showed by wrapping a piece of paper 
in the form of a right angled triangle round a roller ; and the hypothenuse, 
or slanting edge, of the paper, described the worm of the screw, which 
might be made of any pitch. And if a screw were made to revolve in a 
solid, by giving it one revolution, it would move forward or backward, a 
distance equal to the pitch. There might be several threads in the same 
screw, but although this constituted a difference in form, the principle re- 
main^ unaltered. Mr. Smith's first experiments were made with a single 
.' thread, or incline, wound round an axis, making an entire revolution, and 
' presenting to the eye, when looking in the direction of the axis, the form of 
a complete disk. Ericsson's and others consisted of a short portion of the 
screw, with many threads, or inclines, in some cases appearing to the eye, 



176 The Screw Propeller — Steam Navigation 

when placed in the direction of the axis, as a complete disk. [He here de- 
scribed the number of blades o|j the screw, and how they were formed.] 
Woodcroft, who obtained his patent in 1832, adopted a slightly different sys- 
tem. Instead of the thread being uniform, and the incline the same at all 
points, he proposes an increasing pitch at ihe after end. His object would 
be understood by considering a fish's tail, more particularly that of the eel. 
In the evolutions made by its body and tail, they each continued to increase ; 
and, consequently, the rapidity with which it struck the water increased also, 
and compensated for the loss of effect occasioned to the tail by the motion 
given to the water \)y the body. In like manner, by giving this constantly 
increasing angle to the screw, the same result would follow. This he, Mr. 
Grantham, conceived to be a very beautiful modification of the original screw 
propeller. The principle did not escape the attention of others ; and it was 
to be regretted that it had not been tried earlier and made known. He had 
alluded to the plans of Messrs. Smith, Ericsson and Woodcroft, to the first 
two as being best known, and because he believed the award of superiority, 
was, by almost common consent, given to it. Mr. Smith was the originator 
of a company that built the Archimedes — a vessel that circumnavigated Eng- 
land, and performed other long voyages. She first drew public attention to 
the subject. Great credit was due to that spirited company, and to Mr. Smith, 
for these experiments, which were conducted on a liberal scale; but this was 
not the first vessel that had been propelled by a screw. Ericsson had pre- 
viously done much, and displayed great originality of thought. The form 
of his propeller, aUhough not the subject of this patent, had never yet been 
surpassed, and it required only the elongated pitch to make it the most effi- 
cient yet constructed. He, the lecturer, was influenced by this opinion, when 
recently called upon to construct the small vessel called the Liverpool Screw, 
which had been at work on the Mersey. He had taken care net to infringe 
any patent on the screw he adopted, and was surprised to find, on looking 
over the list, thflt these valuable plans have been overlooked. Several ex- 
periments had been made by Messrs. Brunei, Claxton and (xuppy at Bristol, 
under the superintendance of the latter, upon various forms of screw in the 
Archimedes. In these some curious facts were observed, and it was then 
suggested that it was possible to propel a vessel faster by the screw, than the 
screw itself would have gone, had it worked in a solid medium. He at first 
conceived that there was an error in the calculations, but subsequent obser- 
vation induced him to believe it possible to obtain such a result, and ihat all 
vessels having the screw in the dead wood, or run, ha*e a tendency to go 
faster than the theoretical calculation would lead us to expect — though if this 
tendency were increased, it would be at a loss of power. He accounted for it 
by the manner in which water fell into the vacancy left as the vessel passed 
onward. A similar operation might be observed in watching the eddy form- 
ed by the pier of a bridge, in which case the body was stationary, and the 
water moved, but their relative positions were the same in both. The con- 
clusion, therefore, was, that though the relative eflfect between the screw and 
the vessel appeared to be favorable, yet that being obtained at a great sacri- 
fice of power, such a result might arise from defects in the form of the ves- 
sel, and was, therefore, no good indication, and that the utmost efficiency 
would be obtained, when the speed of the screw was from one-fifteenth to 
one-twentieth part greater than that of the vessel. The lecturer then noticed 
some of the most remarkable screw vessels that had yet appeared, and the 
forms of the propellers employed, and considered the difficulties that opposed 
the general introduction of the screw, and showed that some of the objections 
to it were groundless. He showed, by diagrams of two vessels of equal size, 



.N>f»iiyi k; Xkisi of TransportaHon on ttailroads. '>■_ ''■■.'-' 

that where paddle wheel vessels could not easily have any beams over the ; •' 
engine room, on the plane of the lower deck, as the engine, etc., rose to the 
deck above, beams might be introduced in screw vessels at that point, not ' 
;" only greatly strengthening the vessel where she most wanted it, but admit- 
■ ing of a clear range of saloons, or cabins, fore and aft, with, little or no in- 
terruption. 

A short, interesting discussion took place, in the course of which the chair- 
man ably and convincingly replied to ihe questions propounded, on the sup- . , 
posed lateral pressure of the screw. — Mining Journal. ., 



' ''''■'■ ""■"' COST OF TRANSFORTATION ON RAILROADS. 

The cost of transportation on railways is the most important engineering 
topic at this time before the public. Hence every circumstance in any way 
elucidating the subject, even in a very small degree, is worthy of attention. 
In 1843, the freight on the Western railroad was equal to 60,350 tons carried 
156 miles, or 9,414,621 tons carried one mile, the average load being 47|- 
tons per train, nett. The passenger trains ran 216,139 miles, the merchan- 
dize trains 197,603 miles, miscellaneous trains 27,866, in all 441,608 miles. 
The total cost was§283,826 43, or 64^ cents per mile run. If we assume 
ti^ cost of all the trains to be equal, this would give 1-34 cents per ton per 
mile with trains averaging about half the power of the engines, and overcom- 
ing grades of 84 feet ner mile, at an average velocity of 15 miles per hour. 
With a speed of 8 miles per hour, and grades of from 35 to 40 feet per mile, 
twice the load would be taken without any additional expense than the load- 
ing, unloading and wear of cars, say 3 mills per ton per mile, making the 
total cost 96 mills per ton per mile, exclusive of renewal of track. If the ett- 
gine can take 150 tons, all expenses including repairs and renewals would 
not exceed one cent per ton per mile, which is about the estimate of the Bal- 
timore and Ohio railroad companj^ as given in our last number. As the 
cost of the freight trains is not given separately, we have assumed the cost to 
be equal. /;; : 

The receipts for merchandize were $275,606 19, or %^ 57 per ton, or 
$-0299, say 3 cents per ton per mile, and this " exceeded the entire expense 
of conducting the business of the road." The total amount paid for trans- 
portation on the Erie canal is estimated at from 4^ to 5 millions of dollars 
for carrying nearly 400,000 tons a distance of 363 miles. This gives very 
nearly 3 cents per ton (of 2000 pounds) per mile. Again, the statement of 
the Delaware and Hudson canal company gave 2^ cents per ton per mile 
as the amount received in 1843. Could the Western railroad run with full 
trains at a low rate of speed, and be sure of 200,000 tons of freight per an- 
num, it does appear to us that it could carry quite as cheaply as any canal 
in the State of New York, supposing both to yield not less than 8 per cent 
on their capital. Where dividends are passed by, as on the public, and, we 
are sorry to say, on some of the private works of Pennsylvania, they can 
of course carry more cheaply than those who do not choose " to work f<ff 
nothing and find themselves." ■;Tiif 



178 Spark Arrester. — Railway Communication through France. 









SPARK ARRESTER. ^;, 

M We have in our office a very neat model of Messrs. French and Baird's 
Fiff. 1. patent " Spark Arrester." In the accompa-^ 

nying wood cut, (fig. 1,) is a vertical section 
through the axis, in which P is the smoke- 
pipe, from which the steam and the sparks 
pass through the " volutes" v, (figs. 1 and 2) 
into the chamber C, in the manner represented 
by the arrows. The centrifugal force gene- 
rated by the "volutes," forces the sparks 
against the outer side of the chamber C, in 
which are numerous openings o, through 
which they fall down between the smoke- 
pipe and the outer casing. The steam escapes 
through the perforated plates d, which, from 
their arrangement present a very large sur- 
face for that object. The peculiarities of this 
arrangement are the application of the cen^i- 

fugal force as above described, and the mode of increasing the surface of the 

wire-cloth, or perforated sheets of metal, without increasing the diameter of 

Fig. 2. the pipe, by means of joining the rings at 

their upper and lower edges alternately, as 

seen in fig. 1, d. 

It has been in use for some time on the 
Georgia, Philadelphia, Germantown and 
Norristown, Wilmington and Baltimore, Lex- 
ington and Ohio railways, and we have seen 
flattering testimonials from the superinten- 
dants of all these works. The very best 
workmanship is indispensable ; and experi- 
ence has shown that certain parts require the 
material to be of peculiar strength and quality. When in perfect order, it 
has been stated to us, that, in running in the night, there is scarcely ever a 
spark to be seen. 

The cut gives only a general idea of the " modus operandi," and nume- 
rous views and sections would be necessary to give a working plan. Messrs. 
French and Baird are established in Philadelphia. 

RAILWAY COMMUNICATION THROUGH FRANCE. 

*- We find in the April number of the " London Polytecnic Magazine and 
Journal of Science," the following article in relation to railways in France, 
by William Bridges. 

On the 27th of December, 1841, afler two years of legislative talk in the 
French chambers, in the course of which, sometimes the principle of leaving 
everything to private enterprise, sometimes the necessity of government con- 




c 'ji ■.,- ~*-;^ii"r'". -■-■•. '^ -' . ■ ^, ■ - ■ .™^^*<\- 



Railway Com munieaiion through France, 179 

trol and supervision, sometimes the advantages of both methods was insisted 
on, discussed and negatived, the speech of the French king led France to 
expect that something would finally be done to put France, as respects rail- 
way communication, on a level with the rest of Europe. And it was full 
time ; Belgium had already completed 80 leagues ; Germany 180 ; England 
1400 miles ; France nothing. And even in April, 1842, it is stated in part 
IV of the commercial tariffs and regulations, presented to the British par- 
liament, that French railroad communication embraced a very bad line from 
St. Etienne to Lyons, one from Paris to St. Germain, and two from Paris to 
Versailles. In the royal speech referred to, several important lines were 
announced as under consideration ; among others, a line connecting Paris 
with Lille and Calais. It was fairly anticipated that such a line, forming a 
connecting link not only between Paris and London, but also between Eng- 
land and Belgium by way of Lille, and by means of the Belgian railways, 
with the Rhine, would be most valuable to English interests ; while another 
proposed to Lyons would facilitate the overland passage to the east, as this 
one to Berlin and the north of Europe. 

A few months after the announcement by the king of the intention on the 
part of government to bring in a measure for the encouragement of railway 
undertakings, a bill was submitted, and after some discussion became law on 
the 11th of June, 1842. By this law it was resolved to establish a national 
system of railways, to unite France with Belgium, England, Germany, the 
Mediterranean and Spain ; and to give a stimulus to internal traffic. The 
mode proposed to give effect to these objects was one unsuitable, perhaps, to 
the English commercial spirit, but rendered absolutely necessary in France, 
from the difficulties which had been experienced, and the fearful jobbing 
which had taken place in the prosecution of the few private railway specu- 
lations which had been already entered into. The French government, see- 
ing that hitherto a few great millionaires had engrossed every undertaking 
of this character, undertook now to provide the land, and execute all the 
earth works, tunnels, bridges, etc. ; the portion left to private enterprize be- 
ing less precarious, extending only to the laying on of the ballast, the for- 
mation of the permanent way, with the supply of locomotive power, car- 
riages and material for working. The valuation of all lands for which 
compensation was required was to be left to a jury ; a most wise regulation, 
and one which this country would do well to imitate. One-third of this com- 
pensation was to be borne by the State, the remainder by the departments 
and parishes whose interests were affected by the line. 

Under this law a very important line has been completed to Rouen, and 
is now in further progress towards Havre ; so that we may speedily expect 
to be put within a twelve hours' journey to Paris. We perceive now that 
an extension of the line eastward is in contemplation, to the very banks of 
the Rhine, to connect London, Havre, Paris and Strasburg ; and as the last 
of these cities forming the terminus of a direct line across the richest and 
most industrious districts of France, is also the intended point of convergence 
for all the national railroads of Germany, the national and international 
benefits of such a line can hardly be over estimated. The distance from 
Havre to Paris is 144 miles, from Paris to Strasburg 286 miles, almost ex- 
• actly double ; the aggregate length of the journey is therefore 430 miles, 
one railway hour further than from London to Edinburgh. To traverse 
this route under present means of intercommunication, to transport the wines 
and grain and innumerable herds of La Brie and the Moselle, or the pro- 
duce of the growing factories of Alsace, the continental Lancashire, between 
and among the various towns and cities of Paris and Strasburg, Chateau 



180 Ship Canal 



•4* i.-i- ' 



Thierry, Nancy and the valleys of the Maine and the Saverne, is a work, 
which, to the Englishman, accustomed to the comfort and expedition of his 
Great Westerns and Midland Counties, and other railway facilities, would be 
appalling enough, considering that the actual traffic extends to upwards of 
100,000 French tons per annum, and an aggregate of 200,000 passengers 
via Strasburg to and from the Germanic provinces. 

The country, commencing at the Strasburg end of this great " thoroug- 
fare," is the continental United States — the provinces of ZoUverein, contain- 
ing nearly 30,000,000 of inhabitants, and nearly 200,000 square miles of 
fertile territory. The high duties of that league — or rather its vexatious and 
unequal duties — ^that on cotton alone varying from 3 to 120 per cent, on the 
value, being levied on the same principle as that upon tea in England, favor- 
ing the rich at the expense of the poorer classes, taken in conjunction with 
our restrictive commercial policy, have had the effect of unduly diverting 
capital in an agricultural country to commercial and manufacturing enter- 
prize ; the factories of Baden, now 300 in number, more than doubled in 
the course of seven or eight years, while the Saxon spinning establishments 
and stocking frames advanced more rapidly in three years towards 1840, 
than in thirty years previous. Seeing that England now sends 100,000 
cwts. of cotton wool to this wool growing country, we may be convinced 
that there is something " rotten in the State of Denmark," which, perhaps, 
is to be corrected more by such facilitation of social intercourse as we here 
discuss, than by a modification of our tariflls. At the Leipsic fair, at least, 
we know that the market is inundated with smuggled English manufactures. 
A new facility to smuggling will lead to such measures of policy as will 
substitute honest and open national traffic for contraband dealing. It is in 
this manner that the healthy interchange of the agricultural products of 
France and Germany and the manufactures of England will alone be re- 
stored ; or if it is now too late to look to the German States for a market for 
our cottons and calicos, let us even, if we can transport nothing else, be glad 
to find a ready and ever open conveyance for our machinery to supply the 
looms of Alsace, and the spinning establishments of Prussia. ^ 



SHIP CANAL. 

Through the politeness of Col. Abert, of the bureau of topographical en- 
gineers, Washington, who will please accept our thanks, we have received ' 
several reports ; and, among others, one in relation to the construction of a 
ship canal around the falls of St. Mary, in Michigan, which we give entire, 
except the map. 

Report of the secretary of war, vommunicating an estimate of the cost of 
constructing a ship canal round the falls of St. Mary. 

War Department, Jan. 4, 1844. * 
Sib. : In pursuance of the resolution of the Senate passed on the 27th ult, 
I transmit, herewith, a report from the bureau of topographical engineers, 
with an estimate of the cost of connecting lakes Huron and Superior by 
means of a canal round the falls of St. Mary, adapted to navigation by steam. 
vessels. 

As the resolution calls for any estimates of the cost of this work in the 
possession of the department, the colonel of the corps of topographical en- 
gineers has given the plan and estimate of Mr. Almy, made in 1837, for the 
description of canal therein contemplated. But, deeming the resolution to 
look to a canal of larger dimensions, he has added his own plan and estioiatA 



•/r"'j:^ 'f«^*3*" "\.T» V i^p^jf^«r^ '^ 



Ship CaneU. ^^ ; 181 

for a canal " adapted to navigation by steam vessels," based on the best in- 
formation which he could obtain in relation to the subject •'-.•,.-: 
J.. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

i- J. M. POETER. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, President of the Senate. -':*£? ''" j 

Bureau of Topographical Engineers. 

Washington. Jan. 3, 1844. 

Sib. : In obedience to your direction, I have the honor to submit an esti- 
mate for a canal, "connecting lake Huron and lake Superior, adapted to na- 
vigation by steam vessels," called for by a resolution of the Senate of the 
27th instant. 

As there has never been a survey of that locality for such a purpose by 
this office, I am without those elements for an estimate upon which the office 
usually relies. 

In the absence of such information, resort has been had to a survey made 
by Mr. J. Almy, in 1837. Mr. Almy was an engineer in the employ of the 
State of Michigan. Also, in anticipation that information of the kind now 
called, for would probably be required during the present session, a letter was 
addressed to Capt. Johnston, at Fort Brady, in July last, proposing certain 
queries having reference to this canal, which he was desired to have inves- 
tigated and answered. His answer of last September is hereto annexed, to- 
gether with the information asked for, which was collected with much care 
by LieuL Handy, of the 5th infantry. 

This information, together with the survey of Mr. Almy, will enable me 
to submit an estimate upon which reliance may be placed. 

Mr. Almy's survey, report and estimate are hereto annexed. His estimate 
amounts to $112,544, which would probably be sufficient for the construc- 
tion of a canal of the kind and dimensions contemplated in his report. 

But the resolution of the Senate contemplates a canal " adapted to naviga- 
tion by steam vessels." A canal for such a purpose involves considerations 
that will much enhance the cost beyond the estimate of Mr. Almy. The 
government steamer, Michigan is 167 feet long, 47 feet wide, draws 8 feet 
water, and is of 600 tons burden. Freight vessels of these dimensions would 
draw more water, as they are generally more heavily laden ; and, from the 
beet information I have been able to collect, a draught of ten feet is the least 
which can with safety be adopted for the largest class of lake steamers. Nor 
can less than two feet of water below the bottom of the boat be adopted for 
the canal. These dimensions give data for the size of the canal and of the 
locks, viz : for the canal, 100 feet wide and 12 feet deep ; for the locks, 200 
feet long and 50 feet wide. 

The difference of level (according to the survey) between lake Superior 
and lake Huron is about 21 feet, which is supposed to divide into three lifts. 
The locks should be collected together at the lower end, in steps, without in- 
tervening basins, as exhibited in red lines upon the plan, and should be in 
double sets ; one set for the ascending and one for the descending trade. The 
towing path to be three feet above the water line, and where this path is 
upon the embankment it should be twelve feet wide ; the berm upon the op- 
posite side to be six feet wide ; the canal to be without lateral slope, but to 
have the same width, except as to batter of side walls, at bottom as at the 
water surface ; the sides of the canal to be maintained or reveted with dry 
stone walls. The dry masonry of these walls to be three feet wide at top, 
and five feet wide at bottom ; but where the excavation exhibits a sufficiently 
firm rock facing, these dimensions may be reduced. The extension of the 



188 ' ' ' Ship Canal, 

work into lake Superior will have to be about 800 feet, before a sufficient 
depth is obtained, and there will probably have to be some excavation under 
water at the lower end of the canal, although the profile of Mr. Almy does 
not exhibit its necessity. 

The total length of the canal line from water to water, exclusive of the 
extension of work into the lake, is about 4,400 feet, throughout a part of 
which an embankment will have to be raised, as exhibited in the profile. A 
pier to protect the entrance, of the canal, supplied with belaying posts, wijl 
have to be extended for about 800 feet into lake Superior, upon the southern 
side of the canal. ^,- 

As lake Superior has, from various causes, a difl^erence in its level of about 
four feet, it will be necessary to construct a guard lock at the junction of the 
canal with that Jake ; and, also, in order that the water may be occasionally 
shut off for purposes of cleaning and repairing the canal. And in conse- 
quence of variations of level in the water below the falls, the last st t of locks 
in the series at the~ lower end of the canal may have in their construction to 
embrace the considerations due to lift and guard locks. 

The prices for the excavation are taken from Mr. Almy's estimate ; those 
for the embankment and dry walling from data in this office ; tliose for the 
a report of Capt. Williams for a canal to overcome the falls at 
Niagara^ as it is not supposed that works of this kind can be-done for less at 
St. Mary's than at Niagara. 

The difTerence between the estimates (that of Mr. Almy and that now sub- 
mitted) arises principally from differences of dimensions in the two plans, 
and from those considerations which belong to a canal adapted to steam na- 
vigation, and to the active trade which the canal will have to accommodate. 

In works of this kind we should avoid the mistake committed at Louis- 
-~ — jrille,. which already, in the judgment of so many, renders the construction 
^of a second canal at that locality necessary. 

The cost of constructing this canal would be very much reduced if the U. 
States troops were employed upon it. A detachment of about five hundred 
men would accomplish the object by the usual roster details, and the diffe- 
rence of cost would be in the difference between the usual piicfe of labor, 
and the allowance of 15 cents per day to the soldier when so employed. 
The employment of the army upon such works, in times of peaco, is cus- 
tomary with all other nations, and I can see no sound objection to the adop- 
tion of the practice in our service. Such occupation is no injury to the dis- 
cipline, while it preserves the bodily health and mental vigor of the men, 
and increases their efficiency and usefulness for their ordinary duties. These 
considerations are, however, not involved in the estimate. 

ESTIMATE. 

Guard lock at lake Superior, - - - $27,897 00 

For cutting 18,500 cubic yards of rock under water, at $1 50 per yard, 27,750 00 

For cutting 89,920 cubic yards of rock, at SI per yard, - 89,920 00 
For excavating 8,647 cubic yards of sandy loam and vegetable mould on top 

of the rock, at 20 cents per yard, ... 1,729 40 

Do. do. 1 13,607 c. yds. loam, gravel, vegetable mould, etc., hi 25 cts. per yd., 28,401 75 

For embanking 15,600 cubic yanls, at 12 cents per yard, - 1,872 00 

For 11,555 cubic yards of dry masonry wall, at S2 per yard, - 23,110 00 

For three double locks, at $66,715 each, - - - 200,145 00 

JFor a pier 800 feet long and 12 feet wide, - - f t-J > 12.000 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent., - - • - 41,282 51 

ToUl, . . » - . 454,107 66 

Respectfully submitted by, sir, your ob'L serv't, J. J. Abert, 

Col. Corps Topographical Engineers. 
Hon. J. M. Porter, Secretary of War. 



"-;■/:- . ■":■■■-■-■ ' - -I 



-S%ip CanoZ. 183 

,^*ti*:*<4?:: >■ ,K ■ ;;. :>"/•- ^^^^ Brady, Michigan, Sept. 29, 184a 

Sir : I have the honor to enclose, herewith, answers to your queries of 
July 25th. 

The necessary examinations have been made by Lieutenant Handy, 6th 
infantry. 

As far as I can judg-e, having been over part of the ground, and from re- 
ports of others, I think he is as correct as he assumes to be ; wanting, as he 
mentions, instruments necessary to exactness. 

Permit me to add, that Lieut. Handy, besides willingly undertaking this 
duty, has, I think, shown both diligence and skill in the performance of it. 

I am, sir, with respect, your obedient servant, A. Johnston, 

Capt. 6th Infantry, commanding Fort Brady." 

Col. Abert, Chief Topographical Engineer, Washington. 

Fort Brady, Michigan, Sept. 8, 1843. 
Sir : In conformity with instructions contiined in your letter of July 25th, 
requesting information in reference to the practicability of a canal route in 
the vicinity of the Saift de Ste. Marie, Michigan, I have the honor to lay 
before you the result of my observations, having been detailed for this duty 
by Capt. Johnston, commanding Fort Brady. You desire to know, 

1st. " What kind of soil does the projected canal pass over ?" 

From the upper or western extremity of the canal line to the mill race, 
(a distance equal to about half of its length,) the soil consists of vegetable 
mould, underlaid by a bed of red sandstone rock, of a very soft nature, and 
very thinly stratified — the strata, in many instances, not exceeding an inch 
in thickness. The adhesion between the strata, in many places along the 
canal line, is so slight that they can be easily removed with the hand. From 
the mill race to the lower or eastern extremity of the line, the soil consists 
generally of sand and loam, interspersed with boulders of granite, gneiss, etc., 
varying in size from two to four feet diameter. Most of these boulders are 
of a very good material for building, and would be serviceable in the con- 
struction of locks, etc. In many places along the line, the soil is of a very- 
permeable nature, so much so, that upon breaking ground, the water makes 
rapidly. ' ^ 

2d. " Is the rock near the surface, or what distance from the surfiice, ge- 
nerally, in the extent of the line ?" 

The average depth of the rock below the surface, for the distance above 
mentioned, is about one foot. In some places, it is only six inches ; in others, 
more than five feet below it — the strata dipping in a direction parallel to the 
tine of the canal 

3d. " What is the depth of the water near the shore, at each end of the 
canal line, and what distance from the shore before a depth of fifteen feet is 
attained?" 

The average depth of water at the lower end of the line, for a distance of 
about 60 feet from the shore, is 2^ feet, when it suddenly deepens to 6 or 8 
feet The shortest distance from the shore at which a depth of 15 feet is at- 
tained, is 52 yards. At the upper end of the line,.the average depth of water 
is from 2^ to 4 feet. To attain a depth of 15 feet, it is necessary to go about 
226 yards from the shore, in a line forming an angle of about forty degrees 
with the canal line. Following the. direct line of the canal, it would be ne- 
cessary to proceed up the river several miles before a depth of 15 feet could 
be attained, for the water continues at a uniform depth of about one fathom 
for a very considerable distance along the American side of the river, so that 
it is necessary to proceed out some' distance in a direction at right angles with 



184 Ship Canal. - 

the line of the shore to strike the channel. Upon reaching the channel, the 
water suddenly deepens to several fathoms ; the bed of the river, at this point, 
sloping off very abruptly, at an angle of about 30 degrees. ,, 

5th. " Is the bottom at both ends mud or rock?" 

The bottom at the lower end of the line consists generally of sand, under- 
laid by a stratum of hard clay, with here and there a bed of sandstone rock 
of trifling extent. ' 

At the upper end the bottom consists of an extended bed of sandstone rock ; 
being a continuation of the bed before described as underlaying the canal line 
for about half of its extent. This rock extends to a distance of several hun- 
dred feet from the shore, and is overlaid by a stratum of sand, averaging 
about one foot and a half in thickness. 

6th. " Are there any shoal places below Fort Brady sufficient to obstruct 
first class lake steamers, in a passage up to near the lower end of the canal ?" 

About 20 miles below Fort Brady, at a widening of the river known as 
lake George, there is a bar of very hard clay, underlaid by a substance re- 
sembling quicksand in its properties. As this bar extends completely across 
the lake, all vessels navigating the river ar^ompelled to pass over it. The 
depth of water upon it is very variable ; sometimes exceeding nine feet, and 
sometimes, though rarely, not exceeding six. The average depth may be 
laid down at seven feet. It has frequently been crossed by the largest class 
of steamers at present navigating the lakes. This is the only obstruction of 
importance between Fort Brady and the mouth of the river, though the 
channel is very winding, rendermg the navigation rather intricate. 

It would perhaps be as well to state that the Mater in the St. Mary's river 
is much higher at some seasons than at others ; and it is at pres( nt higher, 
by upwards of two feet, than it has been for some years past. In ascertain- 
ing the distance to which it is necessary to go from each end of the canal 
for a depth of fifteen feet, I have therefore made some allowance for this un- 
usual, rise of the water. • 

I would also remark, that owing to a want of proper instruments, my ol>- 
servations, respecting distances, etc., are not made with that accuracy with 
which I should otherwise have been enabled to make them ; but I trust they 
will prove sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes. 

I have the honor to be, very respct.'y, your ob't serv't, J. O. Handy, 

Brevet 2d Lieut, bth Infantry. • 

Col. J. J. Abert, Chief of the Topographical Bureau. 

Sepitmber, 1837. 

Sir: In pursuance of my appointment from you as engineer, and in pur- 
suance of an act of the legislature, I have the honor to transmit, herewith, 
the survey and estimate of the expense of constructing a ship canal around 
the falls of St. Mary ; also, maps and profiles showing the location of the 
proposed line of canal, together with the depth, quantity and quality of the 
excavation. 

Having had the honor of being one of a special committee to whom was 
submitted for consideration, at the last session of the legislature, the project 
of uniting the water of lake Superior with lake Huron by a ship canal, and 
having been also identified with all the subsequent proceedings as the friend 
and advocate of the proposed work, yet I hope that neither of these circum- 
stances has had any influence with me in making up and presenting a more 
favorable report than is warranted from a careful survey and examination of 
the proposed line of communication. 

I do not deem it necessary, before entering into a topographical descrinUon 






Ship Canal. 186 

of ihe country in the immediate vicinity of the proposed improvement, al- 
though il might not be out of place, neither is there required at the hands 
of the engineer, any speculations or statements in regard to what would be 
the effect on commc«-cial operations by removing the barrier to navigation 
between lakes Huron and Superior. ';. 

If, however, any information on this subject should be deemed indispensa- 
ble, there are sources from which, I apprehend, the most convincing and sa- 
tisfactory evidence can be obtained of the importance and utility of the work 
in question. .4 jn ^ • ^^^f'"?/ 

By reference to the map and profile of the canal proposed, it will be per- 
ceived that no difficulties of a serious nature interpose or are to be appre- 
hended in the event of its construction. Even that portion of the line where 
rock is indicated will not, owing to its peculiar quality and position, require 
blasting. 

The total length of the proposed canal, from the deep water at the head 
of the falls to its termination at the foot, is 4,560 feet ; and the portion which 
may be estimated the most difficult and expensive to excavate, embraces a 
distance of about 700 feet, from the head of the canal to the deep water in 
the river ; yet, in the excavation of this part of the work, no very extraordi- 
nary expense will be involved. , ■ .■ • i 

As the project under contemplation comprehends a ship canal, it becomes 
necessary to define the capacity and dimensions and proportions of both ca- 
nal and locks, as I believe will accommodate the larger class of sail vessels 
now used on any of our lakes, and for whose accommodation and use I make 
no doubt this work was originally designed and projected. I would, how- 
ever, remark that the only part of the work where the expense would be in- 
creased by constructing the same to accommodate the largest class of steam- 
boats, will consist in the increased magnitude of the locks, which, on inves- 
tigation, will be found no small item. 

The dimensions of the canal and locks, and upon which the dimensions 
have been based, are as follows : all that portion of the line where the pro- 
file indicates rock, I propose to execute by a cut affording a width of 75 fert 
on the surface of the water, with 10 feet depth, giving the side a slope corres- 
ponding to a bottom of 50 feet. The residue of the canal, not occupied by 
the locks, will have a width on the surface of the water of 100 feet. 

To the locks I propose to give the following dimensions and proportions, 
riz: 100 feet in the clear for length, and 32 feet for width ; and as the whole 
amount of fall to be overcome by lockage is 18 feet, I have deemed it pru- 
dent, on t-he ground of avoiding great hydraulic pressure on the side walls 
and gates, to divide the same into three lifts of six feet each. 

In regard to the facilities afforded for the construction of such parts of the 
works as may require the use of stone, I would remark that nature seems 
to have left no room for complaint The surface of the ground immediately 
on a line with the proposed work, and where it becomes necessary to locate 
the locks, is covered with large detached masses of granite, of sufficient 
magnitude for lock stone. And we shall duly appreciate the advantages 
and conveniences of having this material so near at hand, when we take into 
coosideratign the great expense of fitting and transporting this indispensable 
article, so necessary for the permanent and durable construction of such 
works, from quarries remote from the place where the same is required to 
be used. 

With these remarks, I submit the foliowing estimate of expense of ooBf 
ttnreliDg the said canal: ' /^ ^ "^ • 



<.*: 



186 



Ship CanetL 



ESTIMATE. 



Excavating: 8,750 cubic, yards of rock under water, between '■> t^»>' 
station No. 1, and deep water in river, (see profile) being 
a distance of about 700 feet, at $1 50 per yard, -• - $13,126 00 

(This rock is red sand&tone, lying in strata from two to four 

inches thick, easily senarated.) ■•'^ •■ 

Excavating 23,709 cubic yards of rock of the same quality 
as above, embracing a distance of J, 300 feet, from station 
No. 1 to 13. (see profile) at $1 per yard, - - - 23,709 00 

Excavating 8,589 cubic yards of earth, consisting of sandy 
lime and muck on the top of the rocks, between stations . 
No. 1 and 13, at 20 cents, .... 1,717 80 

Excavating 28,802 cubic yards, consisting of loam, gravel 

and muck, from station No. 13 to 29, at 25 cents, - - 7,200 50 

Excavating 21,442 cubic yards of excavation for locks, (qual- 
ity of earth, as above,) at 25 cents, - ;.•< >. .-'. :r 5,360 50 

-,. -. ;-. ^-.'--V ;.^...;;.;:.,.:o.ClI""^^^^ $5J,112 80 

ESTIMATE FOR LOCKS. (See map and profile for its location.) 



1,200 00 



Lock No. 1. 
1,322 yards of stone masonry, in 

water cement, at ifr'S 50, 
68 feet of quarry stone at $8, 
Gates and iron. 

Foundation for locks, sills, etc., 
3000 yds. embankment, at 25 cts.. 
Coping stone and incidental work. 
Contingencies, 

,,««,: 5.. $13,265 00 

Lock No. 2. 
1,322 c. yds. of stone masonry, in 

water cement, at $5 50, S7,27l 00 

68 feet of quarry stone, at ^, 544 00 

Gates and iron, 1,500 00 

Foundation for locks, mitres, etc., 1,200 00 
3000 c. yds. embankment, at 25 cU., 750 00 
Coping stone, etc., 800 00 

Pumping and keeping lock pit 

free from water, 1,500 00 

Contingencies, 1,350 00 

y«>«l-/J ;>H .u;:.v^ 14,915 00 



Lock No. 3. 
1,322 c. yds. of stone masonry in 
$7,271 00 water cement, at S5 50, 

544 00 76 ft. quarry stone, at $8 per ft., 
1,500 00 Gates and iron, 
1,200 00 Foundation for locks, sills, etc., 
750 00 Coping stone, etc., 
800 00 1 200 yds. of stone masoniy, wing 



walls, etc., at $5 50, 
ELstimated expense of coffer dam 

and pumping out pit, 
Contingencies, 



RBCAPrrULATION. 

Cost of rock and earth excava- 
tion. 
Cost of lock No. 1, 
Cost of lock No. 2, <■ -: I ." '■ . 
Cost of lock No. 3, 
Contingencies, 



$7,271 00 

608 00 

1,500 00 

1,200 00 

800 00 

1,100 00 

1,500 00 
1,397 00 

15,376 00 



51,112 80 
13,265 QO 
14,915 00 
15,376 00 
9,376 00 

104,044 80 

'' In order to include every possible item of expense, I have thought proper 
to add a further estimate for a pier and guard gate at the head of the canal 
although I do not deem them absolutely necessary, and which are estimated 
as follows : 



Laying down and filling 700 feet of pier. 
Guard gates, - ,tKv-.; ?7 ,?■> 









.^.■\: 



6,500 00 
2,000 00 
8,500 00 

' • This amount, added to the above, will make the sum total of $1 12,544 80- 
as the cost of constructing the proposed canal. 

', The above is respectfully submitted by your obedient servant, 

y: J. Almy, Civil Engineer. 

His Excellency Stevens T. Mason, 

Goveriwr of ike State of Michigan.' :- 



True copy : 



A. Canfield, Ca^U Top, Engvuers. 



Railroad Receipts.— Miscellaneous Notices. 187 

RAILROAD RECEIPTS. 

We find in the Journal of Commerce the following comparative statement 
of the receipts for four months on the Utica and Schenectady, Syracuse and 
Utica, and New York and Erie railroads. The result is highly satisfactory 
— showing, as it does, the regular and certain increase of business, and. of 
course, the extension of the railroad system. 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 

The earnings on this road duiing the month 
of April, 184?, were 

Prom freight, $6,6l2 77 

From milk, 2,166 87 

From passengers and mail, 5,0 75 41 

Sl3,855 05 
The earnings for the same period 

last year, since when the road 

has been ext^ded seven miles, 

were, 8,946 62 



SYRACUSE AND OTICA RAILROAD. 

Comparative receipts for four months. 
1843. 1844. 

January, S4,9I0 43 S5,l69 39 

February, . 4.093 05 5,259 50 

March, '; 4,203 64 7,384 83 

April, 10,166 7 7 19,372 99 

$23,373 87 S37,186 71 

DTICA AND SCHENECTADY. 

January to May, 1843, - ~ .. $46,108 47 

do. do. 1844* • ; 59,763 83 

Gain of • v : v : - $13,655 36 



i 



; ; :. 4,908 43 

■.^(!> i«?-.v- :;A:i-.,>Kv;/\«^:, miscellaneous notices.'-'"^- '<"■•-•■■''•::" 

Large quantities of up-freight remained at Albany early in May waiting 
for boats, though by the end of the month they will scarcely be half em- 
ployed. The late opening of t,he Erie canal is becoming every year more 
injurious to the State and city, and the branches of Philadelphia forwarding 
houses are consequently very numerous here. It is scarcely necessary to 
say that this difficulty cannot be in any way affected by the enlargement- 
it is the want of boats, not of capacity of canal, which keeps these goods 
back, and if larger boats were used, there would of course be fewer of them. 
The spring trade — if free — would commence early in March ; now it is de- 
layed to the end of April, via the Erie canal, all the early freight going via 
Philadelphia, when its destination can be reached by that route, the addition- 
al cost of transportation being a small item on merchandize. 

The legislature of N. York has at last granted permission to the people 

to transport freight on the railways between Albany and Buffalo during 

the suspension of navigation on the Erie canal, but paying canal tolls. By 

this ingenious arrangement the public will receive the smallest accommoda- 

ti(m with the highest charges, and the railway companies can expect but a 

trifling return from the large additional capital invested, and the greatly in* 

creased incidental expenses. If the companies will only unite to give the 

farmers the greatest facilities, and be well prepared to get hold of as much 
merchandize as possible before the opening of the canal, the result can be 
neither distant nor doubtful. 

The Tonawanda railroad company are about Rebuilding their road. In 
1837 one of our correspondents undertook to demonstrate that the construc- 
tion of this road was such as to give the least possible strength with a given 
quantity of material. The projector, in answer, attempted to show that the 
effect was a maximum, and the communication was accompanied by draw* 
ings which placed the new mode— the " block!' system — faixly before the 
readera of the JowrndL 



188 Miscellaneous Notices. 

DR. FRANKLIN ON ENGINEERING. AugUSt, 1772b >>• -J.-lA 

" I am glad my canal papers were agreeable to you. If any work of that 
kind is set on foot in America, I think it would be saving money to engage, 
by a handsome salary, an engineer from here, who has been accustomed to 
such business. The many canals on foot here, under different great masters, 
are daily raising a number of pupils in the art, some of whom may want 
employment hereafter ; and a single mistake through inexperience, in such 
important works, may cost much more than the expense of salary to an in- 
genious young man already well acquainted with both principles and prac- 
tice. This the Irish have learnt at a dear rate, in the first attempt of their 
great canal, and now are ehdeavoring to get Smeaton to come and rectify 
their errors. With regard to your question, whether it is best to rhake the 
Schuylkill a part of the navigation to the back country, or whether the diffi- 
culty of that river, subject to all the inconveniences of floods, ice, etc., will 
not be grea'.er than the expense of digging, locks, etc., I can only say, that 
here they look on the constant practicability of a navigation,. allowing boats 
to pass and repass at all times and season , without hindrance, to be a point 
of the greatest importance ; and, therefore, they seldom, or never, use a river 
where it can be avoided. Locks in rivers are subject to many more acci- 
dents than those in still water canals ; and the carrying away a few locks 
by freshets, or ice, not only creates a great expense, but interrupts business 
for a long time, till repairs are made, which may soon be destroyed again ; 
and thus the carrying on a course of business, by such a navigation, be dis- 
couraged, as subject to frequent interruptions ; the toll, too, must be higher 
to pay for such repairs. Rivers are ungovernable things, especially in hilly 
countries ; canals are quiet, and very manageable : therefore they are often 
carried on here by the sides of rivers, only on ground above the reach of 
floods, no other use being made of the rivers than to supply, occasionally, 
the waste of water in the canals." 

Very serious riots occurred in Montreal, owing to the canal laborers ta- 
king possession of the polls. We regret these occurrences, as they in some 
degree throw odium on public works in general. At the same time, how- 
ever, it is proper to state that they were engaged on government works, that 
they turned o;U to support the projectors of these works, and succeeded. All 
have been since " discharged," and — re-engaged, with few exceptions. They 
are of course ready for the next election. It is difficult to speak of such 
atrocious occurences in a Journal devoted to the advancement of civil engi- 
neering, though nothing can be more hostile to the cause to which our la- 
bors are devoted. 

The Louisville, Cincinnati and Charleston railroad company siaiej in 
their report of 29th November, 1843, that in consequence of a diminution in 
charges, " the quantity transported within the same period has been quadru- 
pled, and, in some instances, tenfold.," 

" Under the new reduced rates, bricks, lumber, wood, aad even coal and ice, with moet 
of the articles of domestic produce, hitherto prohibited under the higher rates charged, are 
becoming important items on the freight lists ; and promise, in the future, to greaUy aug- 
ment the profits on the road." 

They have added to their stock " three of Baldwin and Whitney's new improved eii 
vrheel connected engines. These locomotives, thus far, have fulfilled their promise, not 
only in the greater power exerted, but in the facility with which they pass the curves ; and 
the little injury, compared with engines of the smallest class, they inflict .on the road. 
Those in possession oi our company though of a weight not exceeding 11 1-2 tons, have 



^v 



■ ' "^^ Miscellaneous Notices. '- " > ■. I9Q 

been found ftiny eqtial to the transiwrtation of 1000 bales of cotton ; and on an emoeen- 
cy, with the eight wheel platform cars composing their train, each might be made to haul 
from 12 to 1500 bales of cotton." 

They point ouf also the vast advantages which would result from a con- 
nection with the Georgia railroad, realizing all that was anticipated, and fiir 
more than could have resulted from the route to Cincinnati, and that, too, 
with a comparatively small expenditure. They state one — to a friend of 
railways — distressing fact. 

" The most imposing obstructions are still at our own door, in the interval between our 
depot on the neck, and the wharves in Charleston, and in the expense of the dray charges 
from one to the other, amounting, in many instances, to 40 per cent, on the railroaid frei^t, 
on the entire distance from Charleston to Hamburg, and to Columbia !" 

The Baltimore and Susquehanna railroad company, in their report of 

December, 1843, refer to new cars invented and patented by their machinist, 

Mr. J. Millholland. 

" Each of these cars has six wheels, weighs in all about 8500 lbs., and will carry 12000 
to 14000 lbs. of most descriptions of produce, the full load of an ordinary eight wheeled 
car. Their cost, averaging less than $450 each, is considerably below that of cars of equal 
quality with eight wheels. 

" During the year, a purchase was made from the patentees, of the right to use what ap- 
pears to be the most effectual invention which has yet been mside, for preventing fires from 
the esca^ of sparks from the locomotives." ♦ • "It has now been used for two years 
and a half, and since its adoption no instance has occurred of fire being communicated by 
sparks from the locomotives of the company. The cost of this purchase was S2000." 

The name of the inventor is not given. Wood is the fuel used on this 
road. They complain of the late period at which the canals of Pennsyl- 
vania open : what would they say of the Erie canal ? 

" It is to be remarked that the Pittsburg trade over this route was not so great as it 
would otherwise have been, in consequence of the unusual length of time durmg which 
the Pennsylvania canals were closed last winter by the ice. In the year 1841, they were 
not closed until the 20th of December, and were "opened on the 7th of March following, 
while in the ensuing fall they were closed on the 25th of November, 1842, and were not 
opened until the 7th of AprU last. There is good reason for believing that a considerable 
amount of produce and merchandize was in consequence diverted from this to other routes." 

A route has been surveyed for a " Northern Railroad!^ from Concord to 
Lebanon, N.H., and a report made by Mr. T. J. Carter, engineer, whd es- 
timates the cost for a single track at $20,000 per mile, with heavy, rail, cars, 
engines, etc. The distance is 70 miles ; 2545 miles are level ; 15 75 miles 
are on gradients of 52 80 feet per mile ; the remaining distance consists of 
short planes of from 4 to 47 feet per mile. A good map and profile acconi- 
pany and illustrate the report. :^ 

Hunt's Merchant's Magazine, for May, contains a paper, by W. Beach 
Lawrence, Esq., of this city, on the Croton Aqueduct. He regrets the de- 
parture from the plan of Major Douglass " in crossing the Harlem river and 
Manhattan valley, both of which alterations detract greatly from the mag- 
nificence, if not from the utility of the work," (p. 437.) Mr. Lawrence ap- 
pears to have overlooked the late " dam," which a frequent contributor to 
our pages has denounced in no measured terms. The dam has been rebuilt, 
and has four times the capacity of the old dam. To the great cost of con- 
struction must be added the damages caused by its giving way, to the amount 
of about $100,000. , 



190 Foreign Periodicals for Majf. 1 

The following remarks of Mr. Lawrence apply with force to only too 
many of our great public works : 

" Unfortunately, owing to collisions between the chief engineer and the coramissionera 
to whom, according to the system prevalent in this country, the superintendence of the 
work was confided^ and who, as is ordinarily the case, whether the enterprize is of a pub- 
lic or a private nature, were selected without reference to scientific qualifications, Major 
Douglass was, at an early day, obliged to discontinue his connection with the aqueduct, and 
his successor, educated in a wholly different school, however competent lo the mechanical 
execution of the work, had none of the enlarged views which influenced the engineer with 
whom the plan originated." 

The Outlet at Black^s Eddy has at length been authorized. This work 
will ultimately be of importance to the coal trade of Pennsylvania with this 
city and the north and east generally. It has been strenuously opposed by 
those interested in the Schuylkill region, and with success till now. 

An additional tax has been imposed to meet the liabilities of the canals 
of New York, to the amount of the interest of the loan authorized, 1,200,000 
dollars. 

Railway Extension. — The central railway, Michigan, has been extended 
ten miles to Gridley's station ; to which place the cars now run. 
^- Patents — Annual Report of the Commissioner. — We are indebted to C. 
M. Keller, Esq., of the patent office, for a copy of the report of the com- 
missioner, to which we shall refer more particularly in our next number. 

•\ >;.:;,;. , FOREIGN PERIODICALS FOR MAY. ^ . 

By the Brittania, we have received the Civil Engineer and Architecti 
Journal, and the London Polytecnic Magazine, for May ; but the number 
for June is so nearly in type that we have only room for a few extracts from 
the former. 

There is, in this number of the Polytecnic Magazine, Part II of" railway 

communication through France," which treats of the "metallization of 

wood," and also a description of the " inclined railway into Liege," which 

will be given in our next . t 

Institute of Civil Engineers. — The discussion on the subject' of slips in 
cuttings and embankments of railways was renewed, and extended to such a length as to 
prevent any papers from being read. Some observations were made by Sir H. T. De la 
Beche, the Rev. Mr. Clutterbuck, and several members, on the geological features of the 
slips, whether occurring naturally in clifTs, as at the t>ack of the Isle of Wight, or in the 
artificial cuttings of railways. It was contended, that in both ca^es, the reduction of the 
lower and softer beds to the state of mud, by percolated water, rendered them incapable of 
bearing the weight of the superincumbent strata, and that the mass, when saturated, slid 
down by its own gravity ; but that shps in railway work, were accelerated by the vibration 
caused by the passage of the trains. The vibration of the air from the discharge of a gun 
had been known to cause an avalanche ; and the cases were almost analogous. More at- 
tention both to surface and bottom drainage of the slopes was much insisted upon ; and it 
was urged, that the back drains, so close to the top of the cuttings, were prejudicial ; that 
in the dry season the bottoms cracked, the rain found its way through, and it had been fre- 
quently noticed that the slips commenced at a few feet below the level of these drains. 
The dry shafls which had been sunk in the slopes of the Eastern Counties railway, by Mr. 
Bndthwaite, with the concurrence of Sir H. T. De la Beche, were instanced as successful 
in rendering wet and treacherous strata comparatively dry and secure. A section was ex- 
hibited of the embankment at Hanwell, on tne Great Western railway ; this embankment 
which was of gravel, was 54 feet high ; it was laid in a marshy valley traversed by the 
river Brent ; the London clay, upon which it was laid, inclined towards the river, and at 
one of the numerous fissures with which the stratum abounds, a subsidence occured squeei- 
ing up at the same time on the lower side to as great an extent as the embankment sank, 



^y^XjEnglisk Patents. 191 

which was stated to be nearly as much in one year as the entire mass of the embankment 
This subsidence was stopped by loading the foot of the slope, and thus restoring equilibrium, 
and it was stated to be at present quite secure. It was urge<l that in the earthwork of 
canals, where there was no vibration, the slips generally occurred in the first few months 
after the formation of the embankments ; but that, on railways, they occurred quite as £(«- 
quently after the lapse of several years. It appeared, therefore, that much was due to vi- 
' bration."— [C. R &. A. Journal.] 

-;--.i!>'> '- -.■■■ ..-^ 

V . , ENGLISH PATENTS. 

/ Railway Wheels. — This invention relates to a mode of so combining iron 
' Uid steel in the manufacture of tyres for railway and other wheels, that the steel may be 
* at those parts of the surface of the iron most Uable to wear, after the steel and iron has 
been rolled into bars for the purposes above described. In order to carrj- out this invention 
the steel and iron are piled together, and then heated to a welding heat, after which they 
are passed under the hammer and formed into a bloom, and then passed between suitable 
rollers for forming it into bars adapted for tyres for railway and other wheels ; by this means 
the steel is intimately combined, and is said will possess many advantages over the present 
mode of applying steel to the face of tyres for railway Wheels ; the patentee in some cases 
makes the pile so as to present a surface of iron, with steel underneath, the former being 
removed wnen turning up the wheel in the lathe in the construction thereof The claim 
is for the mode of manufacturing tyres for railway and other wheels, by rolling them from 
piles of iron and steel, in such manner that the steel is at the wearing sur&ce. 

Axles for Wheels. — This invention consists of forming the axles of two 
parts or shafts, one solid and the other hollow, whereby greater strength, and less hability 
to breakage is obtained. In order to carry out this invention the patentee provides a tabu- 
lar or hollow axle sufficiently long to pass through the bosses of each of the wheels when 
at the required distance from each other, the calibre or bore of this tube being suHicient 
to admit the solid axle passing through it, which axle consists of a solid shaft having bear- 
ings turned at each end, to fit the steps or journals in the frame side of the carriage. 
The wheels are firmly fixed upon the ends of the hollow axle by means of keys ; the 
solid axle is then passed through the tabulaur or hollow one, and fixed therein in like man- 
ner, by means of keys. When the bearings are within the wheels it will be found ne- 
cessary in forming the journals to weld two collars upon the hollow axle, so as to ob- 
tain greater strength. The claim is for the construction of axles, by combining together 
aoiid and hollow shafts one within the other, as described. — [C. E. &. A. Jour.J 

■ ^ Separation of Metals. — The inventor takes copper, in which silver is in 
combination, and melts it in the usual mamner; he then pours into an iron vessel con- 
taining lead melted to a red heat, or nearly so, and thereby mixes the argentiferous cop- 
per with the lead in proportion to the quantity of silver in combination. After the mix- 
ture it will be found that the copper with a portion of silver and lead will, as the mix- 
ture cools, rise to the surface, which may afterwards be taken off with a pair of tongs, 
or other mechanical contrivance ; for instance, a perforated plate somewhat less in dia- 
meter than the size of the iron vessel in which the compounds are, is placed in the ves- 
sel, and near the bottom thereof, so that as the metals are melted it will be found that 
the copper, with a portion of silver, will rise through the perforations in the plate, and 
may be lifted out of the vessel together with the plate, which plate is provided with 
one or more handles for that purpose. The copper with such portion of silver as it may 
f yet contain is then broken into small jrieces, and separated by the process of " elequation, ' 
which is as follows : the pieces of copper thus obtained, together with a quantity of char- 
coal, are then put into a retort, or retorts, constructed vnth an opening at one end, through 
which the metals (" videlicet" the silver and lead contained in such pieces of copper) 
flow when in a state of fusion. The retorts, which are fixed in the furnace in a slo- 
jring position and closed, so as to exclude all air, are then heated to such a d«vree as to 
melt the silver and lead, but not the copper, which former are allowed to pass oft through 
the opening at the lower end of the retort into a suitable vessel, leaving the co{^r al- 
most free from the silver and lead, which two metals are to be afterwards separated by 
the ordinary process of cupellation. — [Ibid.] 

Elli^ Improved Turn Table. — The objection to placing turn tables of 
the ordinary construction on the main line of a railway, is, that by the nature of their 
construction, they are rapidly destroyed, by the frequent passage of heavy tndns over 
them, besides the injury done to tne carriages, and the upleasant motion and noise. 
Mr. EUlis has constructed a turn table, which, when not in use, rests firmly on the 
curb, and thus allows the train to pass rapidly over it without injury. The iron {sntle 
of the table on which it tarns being kept wdl oiled, works with a loose collar round 
it in a vertical iron case ; which case is supported and kept in its central position by two 



192 Tubes of Locomotive Engines. 

cross arms of cast iron, at right angles to each other, and attached to the curb. The 
lower end of the pintle passes through the bottom of the case, below which u a stirrup 
attached to a cross lever passing at one end through a chase in the circular masonry, 
or brickwork, supporting the table ; attached to the external end of the lonw lever, ia a 
second lever, working m a vertical direction, and connected with a third, or handle 
lever, by whidh the table is put in motion or fixed, as required. — [C. E. & A. Jour.] 



The " Civil Engineers' Journal," April 1st, gives a rather discouraging 
account of the " Great Britain," nicknamed, with some shov^r of reason, the 
" Great Postponed." It appears that the admiralty has engaged the services 
of Mr. Brunei, to report on screws, and we hope another year will not elapse 
without enabling us to form a tolerably correct idea of the comparative merits 
of the different screws, propellers, etc., now in use. We make the follow- 
ing extracts : 

TUBES OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. " '" -'^ . ' i 

Investigation to determine the diameter of the tubes of a locomotive engine 

boiler to produce a maximum effect. 

In treating this subject it appears rational to suppose that the effect of the 
hot air in passing through the tubes is directly in proportion to the extent of 
surface in contact therewith, and as the time of contact conjointly : that is, 
denoting the number of tubes by n, their diameter by d, their aggiegate sur- 
face by s, their united area by a, and the time of contact by t, supposing the 
length of the tubes constant, we shall have the following postulates : 

a:ncP A. ! 

: j^^:^:-. -':'-'■"::": ,. t.n s? B.. 

••. is: n^ d^ a. maximum D. 

Table of the comparative evaporating power of three diffferent methods 
of tubing: 
Number of tubes, 
Internal diameter of tubes, 
Distance between centres, 
Interval in tube plate, 
Total circumference of tubes 
Total sectional area of tubes 
Product of circumference and ai 

„ ■ :^ . .• .. Comparison. 

V : v. A: C:: 100: 120 

'^-^'^ B:C::100:112 

It appears from the above, that the boiler which is tubed in the theoretic 
proportioB is from 12 to 20 per cent, superior to the others. 

Mr, Buck concludes that with " the preceding theoretic ratio," " the area 
of the tubes will rather exceed the half of the space." 

CONTENTS: 

Page. 
6«nan{ principlea and inTaatigation of for- 

male, 161 

On the calculation of the table*, 169 

Baw Mountain railrosd, 171 

Coal tradn, 172 

Dnty on railroad iron, 174 Foreifrn periodicab for llayv 

Ttha screw propeller — (teAm narif^tlon, 175|Enclub patent*. 

Cm* «0tsu«porution on railroad*, 177|Tabe» ot Locomotiire —glaw, 



103 


18 


46 


inches If 
" 2f 


8 


:■ •■ |.;.^n^ 


4 


f 


f 


«' 625-82 


490^ 


424-06 


« 21361 


24604 


31806 


area, 112,320 


120,091 


134,881 



Spark arreater, 

Railway commanicstion through FraaM, 

Ship canal, 
Railroad receipta, 
Mi*rellaneou* notice*^ 




v;^;:■■■>^'t^AS■K>■iiw««r^■■ - ■ -i-M 



5 



. «df:p«i--^ v-^^^ v.i.^''. '^ AMERICAN -'^ *^^^'>^"='^-^:*^^-J'^ 






RAILROAD JOURNAL,;' 



X***' • AND ^ ; 

^iJi'*- MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. '^^'''- 

Published Monthly at 23 Chanibers-st New Vork, / S rw ir Xirx'nij rj-. . 

at »2 a-year, iri advance, or 3 copies for »o. \ i " '^ MINOR, Editor. 

No. 7, Vol. 2. ; TTTT V- IC/I/I " 5 Whole No. 433. 

Third Scries. ^ J U Li I , i»44. ^ Vol. XVn. 



,. REMARKS ON THE PROFESSION -•, ..r,-.. v,v.,„..v 

la this number we devote a little space to some remarks on the present 
state and prospects of the profession. Some years since we entered into this 
question at length, and ascribed the failure of many works to the fact that 
they were mere political jobs, projected by persons whose education, habits 
and pursuits rendered them incapable of forming any idea of the grand out- 
line of the most efficient work to accomplish the objects aimed at, and who 
very naturally selected kindred spirits to execute their crudedesigns. Whether 
we then ascribed too much to this cause, and whether all the canals and rail- 
ways of this country would have been as much better executed by private 
enterprize, as we then argued, is left to the judgment of the intelligent and 
candid reader. -f'*^;^ ftv^ 

The importance of extending the sphere of usefuhiess of the profession, 
has been repeatedly alluded to by ourselves, and correspondents, and unless 
this be done, a large portion of those who still cling to the hope of employ- 
ment cannot too soon give up all idea of engineering as a means of support. 
The works we more especially allude to are roads, bridges, docks, dams and 
the general arrangement of the buildings and power of large manufacturing 
establishments. Still with every exertion, time will be required, and some 
years must elapse before the community will discover that the advice and 
assistance of an experienced engineer may be useful to them in other works 
than canals and railways. Indeed some of our railways even are entrusted 
to persons suddenly taken from other pursuits, and the impairs of superstruc- 
ture, bridges, engines, etc., are left to the discretion of the subordinate hands. 
Such persons are unable to enter into the details which form the amount of 
annual expenses, and, though quite competent to strike the balance of profit 
and loss, are unable to show where the main difficulties lie, far less to sug- 
gest any mode of remedying the evil. Without going so far as to attribute 
the fiulure of some works to this cause, we feel confident that we may safely 
ascribe to it the smallness of some dividends, in part at least. 

We believe also that the higher walks of the profession have been neg- 
leetti. The engineer has only too often to execute the designs of some 



. .IV^^ir/MTf^ri&J^^^^cA 



\ 



ld4 Remarks on the Profession. 

board, without a voice in the general plan ; and it is hard to say whether the 
interests of the stockholders or of the profession sufier most from this cause. 
It must have struck all familiar with the general mode of proceeding in Eng- 
land, that the opinion of the engineer of the work is either closely adhered 
to, or at least forms the basis of discression among the directors ; in many 
instances the opinions of numerous other engineers are taken also, not merely 
l; , with reference to some mechanical detail, but as to location and general plan 
of the work. Now it is very easy to make preliminary surveys and reports 
in which all appears very smooth until submitted to the stern tests of con- 
struction and active operation. Then is seen by all with what degree of 
judgment the work has been adapted to its objects, both as regards the gene- 
ral plan and mechanical details. Then the cost, capabilities and income ne- 
cessarily indicate the degree of judgment evinced in projection and execution, 
and that which, when the first line was traced, was a mystery to all or nearly 
all, becomes notorious 'o the casual observer. But the highest aim of the 
engineer is to determine, a priori, within reasonable limits, what the effect 
of any projected undertaking will be, and to take measures accordingly. 
This, however, requires something more than the use of the level and goni- 
ometer. It requires a thorough acquaintance with the wants of the commu- 
nity, as far as they are likely to be affected by the contemplated undertaking, 
as well as a knpwledge of the various engineering means by which these 
wants may be best satisfied. Such information is obtained with no little la- 
bor, and to sift the mass of evidence in all such investigations, and to lay 
down the " projet'' of the^work by which these new facilities can be afforded 
with the least outlay, and in the best manner, is a problem to be mastered 
only by the union of character and liberal acquirements with the mechanical 
skill which forms the basis of the profession, and which is regarded by only 
too many as the sole requisite. 

For example, suppose the enlargement of the Erie canal, the construction 
of the Chenango, Black river and Genessee valley canals had been sub- 
mitted to such men as Brunei, Rennie, Stephenson, etc., does any one doubt 
that they would have condemned them ? We name foreign engineers for 
obvious reasons, and not because we are without men whose verdict would 
have been equally jusc and decided. Indeed it is not long since the failure 
of the Reading railway and of the canals of Canada were predicted by two 
of our contributors, who went into elaborate investigations in support of their 
views, with what reason time will very soon show. But what we desire is 
to see these thorough examinations gone into before the work is commenced 
— nay, more, before the general plan of operations has been decided on. If 
this be done, we shall meet with no failures, though all that was anticipated 
may not be realized. 

But, as already remarked, this can only be done by men of enlarged views 
who can take in at once the nature and extent of the engineering acconuno- 
dation required, and the probability of these accommodations yielding an in- 
come sufficient to warrant their being carried into execution. And this is 



.-^■^. 



Remarks on the Profession. •_ 196 

not all: when the result is not favorable in the opinion of the engineer, he 
must report decidedly against it. Unless this be done, the profession must 
.suffer ; for, in that case, the highest engineering considerations are thrown, 
on the directors and stockholders, who, though the proper judges of the va- 
rious plans submitted, are by no means the most suitable persons to project 
orig-inal designs. Yet the leading features of the State works of New York 
were left to commissioners, men appointed with reference to their politics, 
and the taxes levied to meet the debts of the canals attest their capacity, in 
one way at least, that of running up a large debt in a very short time. 

It is, however, of little consequence that the engineers have an influence 
in these questions, if they know nothing beyond the field work, and we have 
•heard experienced and educated engineers complain that the younger mem- 
bers of the profession, who were well versed in the practice, did so little to 
acquire that information which is indispensable to every one who aspires to 
succeed in the execution of great works — we do not mean the mere expendi- 
ture of large sums. In looking over the pages of this Journal and that of : 
the Franklin Institute, for the last ten years, we find a large portion of the 
contributions from the same writers ; and although we are far from intimat- 
ing that all who can contribute have done so, it must still be allowed that 
these Journals give some tolerable idea of the practical, scientific and evea 
literary attainments of the profession in the United States. The objects at- 
tained by the meetings of the Institute of Civil Engineers in London must 
be reached here by other means, which have been well pointed out by Mr. 
Latrobe in the Journal. We are even inclined to think that the plan there 
proposed, that of each and every member contributing his mite to some Jour- 
nal taken by all, promises more important results than could be expected 
from any society in so extensive a country as this. 

Impressed with these views, we beg leave to remind our readers of Mr. 
Latrobe's suggestion, more especially that part in which he alludes to those 
who, seldom writing, are averse to appearing in print because they fear their 
style may be inferior to the matter of their productions. Now the style — 
provided it be tolerably clear — is of exceedingly little importance, and we 
will venture to say that any striking improvement or original suggestion in 
any of the mechanical arts connected with engineering, will be immediately 
seized on and appreciated by the educated engineer, be the language ever so 
crude. More than this, it will be found that the most accomplished mem- 
bers of the profession will be the very last to regard the mere style of a con- 
tribution of a practical man on a practical subject 

In this number we conclude the explanation of the very extensive tables 
of excavation and embankment already published, and remain as ever desir* 
ous of making our columns the medium of conveying as much practical 
and definite engineering information as possible. Now it appears to us that 
this might be easily accomplished if engineers in diflerent parts of the coon- 
try would contribute their views on various points, not in elaborate essays, 
but in " Notes," as leisure or inclination may permit This mode of com* 



196 , . Canadian Works. .'''■ 

municating is attended with this advantage,' that many minor but still impor> 
tant subjects which are not considered sufficient for a formal paper, may be 
easily treated in the familiar form of " Notes." We know that the gentle- 
man to whom we are indebted for the " NotM on Practical Engineering," 
is not without hopes that others will also give their views on those points to 
which they have devoted particular attention, or in treating which they differ 
from the ordinary course. 

There appears to be at this time a probability that public works will soon 
be extensively undertaken, and their steady continuance would be certain 
if engineers generally would decidedly report against all extravagant and 
injudicious projects which sink the money of the stockholder, ruin his con- 
fidence in the profession, and, of course, destroy the prospects of the engineer : 
in one word — character, united with skill, are required to give the profession 
anything like the standing and influence it has in England, the results of 
which the world is familiar with. 

We should have remarked above that Smeaton and Telford, both self-made 
men, as well as all the first engineers in England at the present day, have 
written much and well. Brindlej^ is an exception, and a most dangerous 
precedent for any man not gifted with his extraordinary natural abilities. The 
habit of writing leads to very close investigations, and necessarily induces 
habits of exactness and accuracy, than which nothing is more important to 
the engineer ; and we close these remarks, which have grown upon our 
hands, with observing that, in our widely extended country, a general habit 
on the part of engineers of contributing papers, notes or memoranda on va- 
rious appropriate topics, oflJers the best — certainly the surest mode of raising 
the standard of the profession, as well as of rendering it more useful and 
honorable to the country and to its members. ^ 

CANADIAN WORKS. 

It appears that £300,000 of the Canadian loan, the interest of which—, 
4 per cent. — is guaranteed by the British government, has been taken at 
112. We regret exceedingly that no portion of the loan has been devoted 
to railways, cheaply constructed and adapted to the immediate wants of the 
community, instead of being nearly all laid out on canals, which may be re- 
quired some century hence at soonest. The following extract is from a late 
Montreal paper. It appears that these — as we believe — most unfortunate un- 
dertakings are as fruitful of immediate suffering and disgrace as of perma- 
nent injury to the country ; for the tide of emigration is not more rapidly 
turned by the cholera itself than by taxation. The land was taken about two 
years since ! 

" By letter in the Melanges Religieux, we see that the farmers along the 
line of the Beauharnois canal are all complaining of delay in receiving pay- 
ment of the indemnity due to them for land taken up by the canal, as well 
as for damage done to their property, and even for labor performed as fax 
back as last seasoa This is not right" *^ ,- -.^. , , ,^. ^^ -.: 



-' Examples, Showing the Manner of Using the Tables. IVt ^ 

EXPLANATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE TABLES. 

Tables I to XXI, with exception of tables VII, XIV and XXI, are con- 
tents for average depths,^ bases 15, 18, 25, 28, 30 and 34 feet for each of the 
side slopes ^ to 1, 1 to 1 and 1^ to 1. v ?>».;:><. i^iv,^^^ v j > 

Tables VII, XIV and XXI, are corrections for difierences of depths for 
the same slopes. 

Table XXII, contents of prisms with square bases/ ^^^. ...... - 

These tables are all calculated for a length of 100 feet, the depths being 
supposed given in feet, and the contents are expressed in cubic yards. S&^:'- 

The remainder of the tables, XXIII, XXIV, XXV and XXVI, are 
greater and lesser areas, horizontal and side distances for the side slopes ^ to 
1, I to 1, 1^ to 1 and 2 to 1. Column first contains the inclination of the 
surface of the ground in degrees. The second and fourth columns, marked 
A and a, contain the greater and lesser areas A L £, £ DM, (fig. 1) when 
E I or H is one. The sixth column, marked (A — a), contains the diffe- 
rence between the second and fourth, to be used when the degree of inclina- 
tion is the same on both sides of the centre line of the road. When the in- 
clination is not the same on both sides, the areas must be taken out separately 
for each side, and afterwards subtracted. The third, fifth and seventh columns 
are half the difference of the numbers in the preceding columns. The other' 
column^ in these tables are the greater and lesser horizontal and side dis- 
tances, arranged in a similar manner to the columns of areas. ; 

The greater areas, horizontal and side distances, are used when these di- 
mensions rise above the centre line of an excavation, and the lesser areas, 
horizontal and side distances, when below the centre. In embankment the 
reverse obtains. The prism, of which the greater area is the base, must al- 
ways be added to the content in excavation or embankment, and the prism, 
of which the lesser area is the base, must always be subtracted. "; 



' EXAMPLES, SHOWING THE MANNER OF USING THE TABLES. ; -* t^-^ 

First. Caseswhere the natural surface is level transversely. '^V.^-V' 

Example 1. A cut, the base of which is 25 feet, side slope 1^ to 1, depth 
105 feet throughout, is 100 feet in length, required the content 

Turn to table XVII, and opposite 10 feet, and under -5, will be found the 
required content : 158^ cubic yards. 

Example 2. An excavation, having the saxae base and side slope, is 19 
feet deep at one end, 2 feet at the other, and 100 feet in length, the content is 
required. 

The average depth (or | sum of the depths at the ends) is 10*5 feet, and 
the difference of the depths is 17. 



ju^'irJit.^.'. ^^^v-^lL^k 



' '1'. 



198 • Examples, Showing the Manner ef Using the Tables. 

The content for a depth of 10 5 feet is - - 1585 cub. yds. 

', And the correction for a difference of 17 feet is found in 

table XXI, - - - >;,,A'4-^r- v?»-^^''^ J34 « _'• ' 

;)' Hence the true content is >*,^ .•-»r.f^ . t?<. .- ,?. -■; - 1719 " «->» 

When the length is not 100 feet, multiply the result obtained from the 
tables by the given length, and divide by 100 for the true content. 

Example 3. A cut, the base of which is 15 feet, side slope ^ to 1, and 
length 300 feet, is 10 feet deep throughout, required the content. 

The content for a depth of 10 feet and length 100 feet is found by table I 
to be 741 cubic yards. ^; . ,. ^ - . : :■• ■ -r :■ ; .. ;;. 

:/ „ 741x300 _„_ ,. . :- 
Hence, --— — = 2223 cubic yards. 

100 '' .;{' V * 

It will be observed that when the excavation or embanlcment rims to no- 
thing at one end, the same method is applicable ; ^ the depth at the other 
end being the average, and the depth itself being the difference of depths. 

Example 4. An embankment is 25 feet wide on top, has a side slope of 
1^ to 1, is 6 feet deep at one end, and runs otu in a length of 30 feet, required 
the content. - *- -.• r*^-, ■ 

The content for the average depth, 3 feet, is, by table XVII, 328 c. yds. 
The correction for difference of 6 feet, is, by table XXI, 17 " 

The content for a length of 100 feet is, . 345 ~ 

^,345x30 ^^r,^\-\---'cx- 
Hence, — — — — = 103 5 cubic yards. ■ ^i^ vvl*^ - r. -<Ae<, 

When there is excavation at one station and embankment at the succeed- 
ing one, the length of excavation will be found by multiplying the depth of 
excavation by the whole distance between the stations, and dividing by the 
sum of the depths of excavation and embankment 

Example 5. Let there be 7 feet depth of excavation at one station, and 3 
feet embankment at another, 100 feet distant from the former. 

Then, -- — -^- = 70 feet length of excavation, 
7 X oo 

and 100 — 70 = 30 feet length of embankment. ; 

Hence the content of each can be found as in 4th example. When the 
base is different from that for which any of the tables are calculated, the con- 
tent can be found by equation (Y), in which it will be observed that H and 

H' are the sums of the depths and - — th the base. Find the number in table 

2 M 

XXII, for prisms 100 feet in length, corresponding to square bases whose 

H -I- H' R 

sides are — ^r — , H — H' and - — respectively. Then from the sum of 
3 2 f» 

the first and -^ the second subtract the third, and multiply the remainder 

by the slope (m) for the content of a length of 100 feet. 

As we have already explained the mode of proceeding when the length 

is DOt 100 feet, it is unnecessacy to introduce instances of uneven distaaceSj; 



..sdiMJS^. 



Examples^ Showing the Manner of Using the Tables. • 199 



and in the following examples, the length of excavation and embankment 
must be considered always 100 feet, unless some other distance is specified. 
Example 6. In an excavation the base is 14 feet, slope 1 to 1, and depths 
at the ends 10 and 2 feet. 

Here H = 17, H' = 9, ^^^—^ = 13, H — H =8, m = 1 and^- = 7. 



H + H' 



= 13 corresponding number for table XXII, 



H — H' = 8 



B 

2m 



= 7, 



u 



u 



table XIV, 



2m 
626 cub. yds. 



646 cub. yds. 
181 cub. yds. 

465 cub. vds. 



: - Content,. - •%. *■- .- 

"When it is only required to ascertam the whole content of an e.xcavation 
or embankment, and the stations have been taken at uniform distances from 
each other, the labor of the calculation may be somewhat abridged by the 
adoption of the mode pursued in the next example. 

Example 7. Let the base of an excavation be 40 feet in width, the side 
slopes 2 to 1, and the depths of cut at intervals of 100 feet, as stated in the 
left hand column of the following table ; required the content of the excava- 
tion. ;':■•;, ■". ■...;:■■.;-■ -;vVv,-. ■■ .:'__, 





Depth 


H + H* 


Cor. No. from 


H H 


Cor. number 




■ ■■• i 


in feet. 


in feet. 


table xxii c. y. 


in feet. 


table xivc. y. 


•• ■ >;'• ■ ■' 




00 










,'.. 




20 


420 


6533 


20 


1 


■■ " >'■ 




36 


456 


7701 


16 







-- , 


89 


525 


10208 


53 


9 




. --.i. i. 


124 


613 


13917 


35 


4 




;■ " ' 1 


140 


664 


16329 


16 


1 




_ ■' '. i 


90 


63 


14700 


50 


8 


■>'::Mi't\ 




.60 


550 


11204 


30 


3 






42 


502 


9333 


1-8 


1 


' -i ' ' ■'- ' 


■ •••:>;: 4 ■ 


1- 21 


463 


7940 


21 


1 


y-'r '''''\- 


'■-. ..'-?;.n 


00 


421 


6564 


21 


1 


•' - 1- • _ r» ■ it ' 


^.a-:^\!^Y/ 


4)104,429 


29 


-■ '•■'(.,?** 


^ 


26,107 


\ * * ' •■.' 








29 




': ."■ 


-■-*"■- 


. ; 


„.-■■'*■ -"l' -' ' iv'-.*.' 




B 






■!;<J',.i5 -'i-"- "■— -.."/-■•"'v.^'^'->'':.="- 







rjSiS i. 






hence, ?!^L_(= 
' 100 



1000) 



26,136 ; now -— = 10 cor. No. tab. 370 r 

' 2 «i 'i 



=3700 



22426 






h¥Y:^' 



■-■^ --■ 



.s-t. 



Hence 6725 x m (= 2) = 44,872 cubic yards is the total content of the 
excavation. ; n 'r:- 



Nois. Double the depth gives four times the content 



200 



ExampleSj Shawing the Manner of Using the Tables. 



Second. Cases where the natural surface of the ground has an inclinfitio^ 
at right angles to the line of the road. " f ■< :., 

Example 8. An excavation, the base of which is 28 feet, side slope 1 to 1, 
and depth throughout 10 feet, has a transverse slope right and left of 12° ; 
required the content. 

First Method. Here (area a IE — area K d m) for 12° in table XXIV 

is 0473, and ( 10 + — V L = (24)^ ^ = H« L in table XXII is 2133 
\ 2 m/ tit 

cubic yards. • 

Consequently - - . - 



multiplied by 0473 



2133 c. yds. 
3740 " 
853 " 
149 '< 
6 " 
100 8 c. yds. 
1407O " 
i507¥crydi] 



gives the correction - - - ' ' 

which added to average content from table XI 
makes the total content - - - 

Second Method, (by equation X). Here, " 

L B' L 

. H'* (Y + ^) o — 1 — equal the content 

100 

H« X L = (24)« X 2=- is found in table XXII opposite 24, 2133 c. yds. 

37401 « 

2-0946 
i (Y + y) in table XXIV is — -- = 10473 

ti 



■'.■■'• - 


21330 


u 




85 3 


« 


,••'; 


14 9 

6 


(( 
(( 




22338 
7260 


u 
(( 


£-^ ' 


16078 


(( 



Subtract ^ (table XXII) • 

and we have for the true content as before 

Example 9. An embankment, 25 feet wide on top, having a side slope 
of 1^ to 1, is 12 feet deep at one end attd 4 at the other, and has a transverse 
slope right and left of the centre at both ends of 12° ; required the content. 

First Method, (by formula N) 

i ) L ■■'■I *"' 

j W -f H'« + (H + Hy W A — tt) g = correction for transverse slope. 

100 

H* X L = (20 3)' -^ = No. cor. to 20-3 in tab. XXII is 1626 c. yds. 



27 



H* X L = (12 3)» 



100 
27 



123 



100 



(H + Uy X L = (90-3 + 12 3)« ~ No. cor. to 32 7 « 



660 
3960 



(( 



-i^ 



6046 «, 



"• '- '' -r"ikii>'^l-li 



Examples, Shomng the Manner of Using the Tables. 



201 



1698 



i area (A ~ a) for 12° io table XXV col. 6 is ^ 

f 6 



Therefore the correction for transverse slope is 
Content for average depth 8 feet in table XVII, 
Correction for difference " " XXI, 

Total content, 



= 0283, 3820 c. yds. 



^X';^^-:-^ 



1209 « 

484 « 

18 " 

171 I c. yds. 

1096- « 

30 " 

1297- " 



We might have found the above correction for transverse slope by adding 

H -I- H' 
the value of equation (O) to the correction for a uniform depth — — — = 

163. 

"- ' L W 100 *■—■■' 

(H — H')= (A — fl) — = — X 2y X 1698 = 3 cubic yards, v 

We see that in this case it would have been sufficiently ' accurate for all 
practical purposes in obtaining the correction for transverse slopes to have 
supposed the depth uniform throughout. i, > - - • ?; :^; t 

The following table shows the diflference of depths answering to given 
values of A — a when the value of equation (O) becomes 10 cubic yards. 



■.Vl i,- • 


A — a 


H — H' 


A — a 


H H' 


|A — a 


H H 


-, r ■ - 




1 


180 


•6 


.74 


11 


54 






2 


126 


•7 


68 


12 


5^ 






3 


104 


•8 


64 


13 


50 






4 


90 


9 


60 


14 


4-8 


^v--^^: -}i 




5 


81 


10 


57 


15 


40 


- ■ ■ - 



By comparing the values of A — a above given with the difference of 
areas as exhibited in tables XXIII, XXIV, XXV and XXVI, it will be seen 
that there will but few cases occur where equation (O) need be considered. 

Sccon«i Jlfc^Aoii, by equation (V), ;,r V : -j '; '.:>:■ 

I H^ + H'2 + (H + H'f j (Y -f y) J^-^ = c©ntent, 



H + H'' + (H + 



m 



H )^ I 



L as before, 



-fV (Y + y), (table XXV, column 12), -^ = -2783 



:tf^,i^. 



12 



C -: 



^-.■T<i 






B«L 

Deduct -s — , 



m 



:*.J**^-V1 



And there remains the content of embankment^ 
the same as before. 



6046 c. yds. 

3872 " 

12092 

4232 -^^ 

484 -^^ 
18 

1683- " 

386- « 

1297- ~^ 



•^l- . .-.L^ *ifi A^rtin''W>Si£S^&n».irt''i 1^1 :^Ai^Ui^ai£i^ 



'.■•'.' ,: ' -^.. /^^a 



ao2 



Examples, Shawing the Manner of Using the Tables. 



Example 10. The transverse slopes and depths at the two extremities of 
an excavation, the base of which is 28 feet, and the side slope 1 to 1, are as 
represented in the following statement ; required the content | 
Depth at centre. Slope to right. Slope to left. 

14 feet -f 12° —6° i. ; ' ' 

6 " 4- 4" — 9° 

The sign + prefixed to the right slope indicates that the ground is higher 
on the right of the centre, and the sign — before the left slope, shows that 
the natural surface falls from the centre on the left. j 

Examples of this kind will be solved most conveniently by equations (S) 
and (T). Here we have 

; I H» + H"^ + (H -H H')' I (Y + y + Y' -f, y) ^-^ = conten^ 
and (H^ — H'») ( Y + y — Y' — y) -^ = correction.- 



From table XXIV we have 
Y for 12° 1 2699 

y for 6° -9049 



Y^+y 



21748 

19385 

24)41133 



iV(Y + y + Y'+y')= 1714 

H' X L = (28)' X ~, (table XXII), 

100 

H'«xL = (20)'x 



and Y' for 4-^ 
y for 9 ° 

Y'+y' 



x\{Y-\-y-.Y' 



« 



27 
(H + H')' X L = (48)^ X 



100 
~21 



.{■ 



10752 
8633 

19385 
21748 
12 ) 2363 
-y) = -0197 

2904 c. yds. 

- 1481 « 
8633 « 



Multiplied by ^\ (Y +y + Y' + y') = -1714, 



12918 
- 4171 



And we have for content, 
(H« — H'«) L 



X:* 



• 1423 c. yds. 
7910 



12918 

9043 

129 

62 

- 2214 c. yds. 



Multiplied by iJj ( Y + y — Y' — y') = 0197, 142 

.;. 10 



SuUract 



B'L 
4 m 



28 - c. yds. 
2242^ 



u 



\2m) 



L m 



726 



And we have for the true 'content, - 



1516 



Examples, Showing the Manner of Using the TabliS. 203 



V- 



= 1st correction. 



* Another Method, by equations (L) and (M) 
I W + H'2 + (H + HJ I (A — a -tr A' — a) ~ - 1st « 

V (H* — H') j(A — a) — (A' — a)? - = 2d correction. ' 

• From table XXIV we get, '" ' ■ -^ ^ • '' ■■V.f ; : ■■ ' ' ■■■■,'. '^ ' 
under A and opposite 12° 1350 and under A' and opposite 4° 0376 

« a « 6^ 0476 " a «j 9° 0684 

... A — a - + 0874 A' — a' • . — "0308 

'^...^:^..,,i --0308 -.;.,. ..^ . r-^ - ■ +0874 

W^>UU.,:^.>: 12 )Hr0566 ' '' \-'' ^^+ "^ 

J-, (A— -« + A' -a) 0047 i j (A — a) — (A'— a) | 0197 

j H^ + H'2 4- (H + H )^ ^ L as before, - 12918 c. yds. j 

• ;-., "-''■. -■■ ■ J7400 ^:- ■-- i'^ 

multiplied by j^^ (A — a + A' — a) = 0047 ~517 .'l-r' 

gives us for the 1st correction, , -^ • 61 c. yds. 

and(H*— H'^)L . - ;i^ • - • 1423 c. yds. ^ 

.^i-"S>::.y 7910 o ■ :'. .-t: . 

multiplied by f j (A — a) — (X^— a') ^ = 0197 142 . ; . 

128 • ■-■^::- V." / 

■■'■"'■■■■ _j[0 , /^ ;"■ 

gives us the 2d correction, - - 'I 28 c, yds. 

Content for average depth 10 feet (table XI), - - 1407 •' 

Correction for difference of depths 8 feet (table XIV), - 20 " 

Total content, .... 1516 « 

Example 11. The base of an excavation is 18 feet wide, side slopes 1 to 1, 
<ind depth at centre 8- feet, depth at right slope 13" ft., depth at left slope 4- ft., 

a a (( 21* " " ^' " 30' " '' "^ 14' A * 

required the content. f- ■ • . ' 

First Method, by equation (E). f 

- ; Here, H = 17, H' = 30, P = 5, ;> = 4 P' = 9 and p '*= 7. : 

Hence, | (2 H + H) (P -p) + (H + 2 H ) (P - p) | --^= 67 c. yds. 

Content for average depth 14 5 feet (table IX) = - 1745 " ^ 

Correction for difference of depths 13- feet (table XIV) = | 52 . " 

; Total content, - W' / v- . w-^- ;;-?^^^W 1864 ''^ 

Or by equations (F) and (G), ' \ J 

(H 4- H') (P — p + P' — p) -^ = 1st cor. transverse slope = 65 c. yd&. 



(H-H')|(P-;,)-(P'-.;,')|^ = 3d « « i^ 2 « 



^•■i?*-- 



Total correction |br transverse slope same as before, *?, r/'k " 67 



904 



Examples, Shotoing the Manner of Using the Tables. 



Here we might have omitted the 3cl correction for transverse slope, as it 
only amounted to two cubic yards. . ■ : | \^^:^-. - 

Second Method, by equation (R). 
Here, H = 17, H' = 30, W = 22, w = 13, W = 39 and w' = 23. 

Hence, j (2 H + H) (W -f w) + (H + 2 H) (W -\-w')l^ = 2164 c. y. 

Deduct^ — = - - :- ^: 300 c. y. 

And we have as before, .... 1354 c. y. 

When the work changes from excavation to embankment in sloping 
ground, the content will be found by the method which will now be ex- 
plained. 

■■.-■\ - ■ ■■ : "j rig.3. 

In 



h 




Let R S (fig 3) represent the centre line of the road, C P the line in which 
the plane A C P of the natural surface of the ground intersects the base of 
the excavation, A B C a perpendicular plane at right angles to R S passing 
trough C, A B P will be the side slope of the excavation, B C the base 
and E F the depth at the centre. The content for the distance R F is found 
by fonnula ( ) as in example 10, and the content of figure A B C P is 



-•ij*jL^2_!^j 



/ :w#.^.^:u.>>.v. 



Examples, Showing the Manner of Using the Tables. 906 

found by formula (L). When the pyramid A B C P is of importance, the 
depth and transverse slope at F and the length B P must be measured on 
the ground, but as this may not always be convenient it will be proper to in- 
dicate a method of finding them approximately by calculation. 

The transverse slope may be assumed as varying imiformly from R to S ; 
the distance from R to O is found as in example 5 ; then as depth at station 
R is to that at F, so is length R O to F O, and B P is equal to 2 F O. 

Example 12. There is 12 feet excavation at one station and 8 feet em- 
bankment at the next, transverse slopes 12° and 14°, side slope 1 to 1, base 
30 feet and length 100, Required the quantity of excavation and embank- 
ment, the base df embankment being 25 feet and side slope 1^ to 1 ? 

Here, 12 + 8 : 100 : : 12 : 60 = R O, ;^ 

B 

and taking 13° as the transverse slope at O we have - x tan. 13° = depth. 

2 

at F = 35, then, 12 : 60 . : 35 : 175 = F0andBP = 2xF0= 350, 

formula (L), for a pyramid reduces to H' X A X o- i ^ 

^ H', A', a and a being each = 0- which is the common rule for the solid 
content of a pyramid. -""^ ''.-•': . ; : i-: ■-- 

Here, W = ^- ^ = (30)«, L = 35 and A from table XXIV = 1501. 
ff X ^ = (30)« ^ from table XXII, i" "^ ^^ * 3333 c. yds. 



.1 ^ 
L 1501 X 35 ' 



6710 s* 



^ 3 = -33060- = 05 X -35 = 0176, v.J'v 2| . ^^PR 



^^ > ■■ •. '^tJ^-^.Sf?l 



Content of pyramid, 1. ' ', >; i -J-^^ r~^/^' 583" 

Content for length R F calculated as in example 10, i 4 - j: 512- " 
Total excavation,* - - - * «| 570* 

The transverse slope for the pyramid of embankment will be nearly 13^° 
and the content calculated in the same way as for the pyramid of excava- 
tion is . - . . . 44- c. yds. 
And the embankment for the remainder of the distance, - 215- « 
Total embankment, .... 259' ""^ 

When the transverse slopes at R and S (fig. 4) cut the base, so as to make 
one side of the roadbed in excavation and the other in embankment, the dis- 
tances of these points from the centre line Q R and S T can always easily 
be measured on the ground, or they may readily be obtained by multiplying 
the natural cotangent of the transverse slope by the depth at the centre ; 
whence the widths in excavation and in embankment are found, and the con- 
t^^ caksi^ by equations (L and M) as in example la 



.806 Examples, Showing the Manner of Using the Tables 






-' :s!^<i 



Fig. 4. r.Ai7 ■v^J:i^■^:^■^- 






•'I ''it'' ■ 



• '.V-f.?' 



. • ,*'»«^i 




Example 13. Given at one station 2 feet cutting and transverse slope 12°, 
at the next 1 foot filling and transverse slope 14°, length 100 feet, in exca- 
vation base 30 feet, and side slope 1 to 1, and in embankment base 25 feet 
and side slope 1 ^ to 1 ; required the contents ? 

Here a and a being nothing, equations (L and M) become "' 

: j H' + H'8 + (H + H')'' ^ (A + A') ^ = content. 



iv 



> (H« — H'^O (A — A') ^ = correction. ^-: 

' H = - ^^ + 2 X cot. 12o\ = 15 + 9-4 = 24-4 

\i ; wi \ 2 / 



^: U'h^:' 



' : ■ H' = - ^^ — Ixcot. 14°\ = 15 — 40 = 
j H* + W + (H + H')' I ^ from table XIV, 

A + A' = -1360 4- 1661 from table XXIV, 



110 



608 c. ydsi 

t 
1103 



// 



1824 
6 



Content, 



183- c. yds. 



^L 



(H* — H'=) (A — A') ^ = correction, 
Total excavation, *. ,- . . 



- —9 



174 c. yds. 



!...■*•*. iJ.*;-A '-%»*^.t.-..*J.-.:J***.. '""^ r,.- ^'\lK.'^.^'-''.L.x.t,- fc' '■^* -TVii **»«,.V*Jij-.";-_> ...ill'V ^\.« i^ «.*■'' r- ._ 



Memorandum, Cubical Quantities. — New Rotary Engine 907 

For the embankment, v^ ■';> <'t .v^*; ; '■ 

TT 1 /B „ ,„^\ 125 — 9 4 „, ^ :? 

:::;;: H'=i (|+,xco..i4o)= 1^+12= no. C 

m \2 / 1-5 . 

Then, I H« + H'^ + (H + Rf | (A + A')^ /i r ?2-7 cryds. 

(H« — H'2)(A — A')^ .-.* : 0-; J:^^ 2-5 " 



Total embankment, - - - - - 76-3 " 

When the ground is so uneven that the transverse slope cannot be accu- 
rately taken in degrees, and it becomes necessary to take the depths at several 
points in the cross section, the following method will sofinetimes be found a 
convenient approximation. . •. -^ ^ t^x ,V•^^; .^r; 

To the area of the cross section of the excavation add - — and divide by 

4 m 

VI, then, from a table of square roots, take the square root of this quantity for 

the depth on H, and calculate the content from table XXII as in example 6. 

Or the content may be calculated by the following general rule which is 
to be found in any treatise on mensuration. J.--^'.-f'''lir'lrl ^ vuC^^r- 

Multiply the sum of the end areas and four times the middle area by one- 
sixth of the length for the content. r 

;V^^:,;ViA MEMORANDUM CUBICAL QUANTITIES. ]»:. ^ 

At the time the " Notes" on this subject were written, I had not seen the 
paper of Mr. E. Morris, C. E., in the Franklin Journal, in which he shows 
the application of the " prismoidal formula', to all cases ; mare especially to 
determining the quantities for final estimates where the ground is very diffi- 
cult. This able paper well deserves the attention of the engineer ; and, to- 
gether with the published tables, will give all desirable assistance in the rough 
estimates from preliminary surveys, as well as in the careful and often 
tedious calculations for putting the work under contract. 

In the paper on " Bridges," there is a typographical error, (p. 9,) I wish 
to correct. For " screwed in" rdhd covered in. Also at the close of Notes 
on " Wharves," for " filling" read piling, 

New York, May, 1844. W. R. C. ; 

I),. - NEW ROTARY ENGINE. i|. -,.•;; ;':VtH^-*f^?'v' 

^ The inventor, Mr. Peter Borrie, says: 

" I am aware that many patents have been taken out for revolving engines, and have 
successive!^ failed, owing chiefly to defects in their construction ; these fiiilures have pre- 
judiced the public mind against all engines on that princii^e, but from the long experience 
I have had (both practically and theoretically) with steam engines of every description, I 
flatter myself that I have entirely remedied the defects common to revolving engines ; and 
from the lightn^s, compactness, snuill amount of wear and tear, and greater economy of 
fuel in my engine, I have no doubt that it will surpass all others hitherto in use." * * 

" Among the advantages which render this improved steam engine so peculiarly well 
adapted for locomotive and marine purposes, may be mentioned the following, viz : "hiaII 
cost of construction, great economy of fuel, the space occupied by it is very tittle in pro^ 



\fl06 ^'vr/i. <;> V i^J Railway Administration. *V*ftTi. rv 

portion to its power, and also its comparative lightness, the weight of the engine heing only 
about 2 cwt., per horse power, and that of the boilers only about 2 3-4 cwt., per horse 
power, so that the whole weight will only be about one-half of the lightest engine hith- 
erto constructed." 

He then goes into an elaborate calculation of the power of this as com- 
pared with the ordinary engine, and concludes with the following startling 
announcement : 

" Consequently only about one-third of the fuel would be required for the revolving en- 
gine as would be required for a conunon reciprocating condensing engine of the same 
power." 

The general plan of the engine appears to us exceedingly ingenious, and 

likely to be effective. The patentee truly observes, "that the principle 

of expansion is carried out to its fullest extent, without the aid of expansion 

valves and gear.'' But the best reciprocating engines give us two-thirds of 

the total power of the steam at the " working point ;" and we do riot very 

clearly see how any engine can give three times as much power as those 

which only lose one-third of the whole. An efficient and simple rotary en- 

. gine would, however, be- of such vast importance to railways, by simplify- 
ing the machinery, as well as by enabling us to obtain the adhesiou of any 

'" number of wheels, that we regard with interest every attempt to effect so de- 
sirable an object. We hope to hear soon something more of this revolving 
engine, and shall be happy to lay before our readers a full description and 
illustrations as soon as we learn that it has stood the test of experiment. 



We copy from the " Civil Engineer," for May, the following admirable 
review of a letter on " Railway Administration." We should be pleased to 
see the letter itself, but this is more than doubtful, and indeed we regret it 
the less as the subject has been so well handled by the editor of that leading 
Journal of the profession. It was our intention to have omitted some pas- 
sages uninteresting to the American reader, but we find them so few that we 
give the article entire. It furnishes matter for deep and serious reflection, 
and incidentally though very ably illustrates some points we endeavored to 
establish in our " Remarks on the Profession." We allude to our views 
with regard to general information, and the necessity of a high moral tone 
in all engineers entrusted in any way with the projection of works. The 
railway cause generally is well sustained, and last though not least to us, the 
creation of a railway press, and its powerful effects on the extension of pub- 
lic works are forcibly dwelt on. We trust we shall be pardoned for observ- 
ing that we were the first to take the field under the railway banner, and 
though occasionally hard pressed during the last few years, we still continue 
to aid — to the best of our ability — ^the development and extension of an im- 
provement — we may say tin invention — second to few in the bearing it is 
likely to have in the welfare and advancement of the human family. y^ 

EAILWAY ADMINISTRATION. • "* 

" We have seldom seen a more masterly exposition on the subject of rail- 
ways than is to be found in this brief pamphlet ; if, therefore, we dissent 
from its reasonings and the remedies it proposes, it is because we draw dif- 



(■■•_ -ri.-rf. ^3p:*i. ,JJ 



Railway Administration. 209 

ferent conclusions from the same premises, and regard premises upon which 
our author has not argued. At a time when rant and cant are so prevalent 
with regard to railways, and a pretext is earnestly sought to hunt them down, 
it is matter of great consolation to find an advocate so staunch come forward 
to defend them, one earnest to do them duejustice, at the same time too impar- 
tial to defend their errors. Those, however, who have deeply studied the 
subject, and been intimately connected with them as our author has been, 
know that railway bodies have been much more sinned against than sinning, 
and will feel cautious in what way they interfere with an institution which 
has shown and possesses such elements of good. The railway system of 
England is both a moral and physical phenomenon of the age. A connected 
chain of public ways extending over 1800 miles, and in the construction of 
which 60 millions sterling have been embarked, the largest sum ever yet 
applied in any country in bulk to any other purpose than that of war, natu- 
rally excites attention to the colossal magnitude of the enterprize, but the 
moral features are still more deeply interesting. Not only has this vast sum 
been raised by private means, and expended under private direction, but dif- 
ficulties of the most serious character have had to be contended with. At 
every step experience had to be acquired, invention exerted t6 overcome dif- 
ficulties and establish new precedents, the immense amount of money required 
and expended, enhanced the cost of procuring it, and the price of every kind 
of labor and material. No colony, no new political institution, was ever 
formed with such difficulties and such success as the railway system ; finan- 
ciers, engineers and contractors had to be created, while, as we have said, 
the very vastness of the works have enhanced the cost of their execution. It 
is well, at the present time, and with our present experience, to turn round 
and say the railways could have been executed for less. It is true, if, as our 
author says, there had been no parliamentary contests, no law, no extrava- 
gant landed compensation, that much might have been saved, but we are not 
quite so sure as he is that the future lines to be executed will cost only the 
present moderate rate, and we deny, therefore, the propriety of measuring 
things by the present standard. At this time money is abundant and interest 
low, so is the price of labor and materials, and as many contractors have 
been ruined, and none have too much work, a line can be let at a very low 
price. Prices are however rising, and will rise ; labor will cost more, tim- 
ber will get up, iron double in price, to say nothing of a crisis by and bye, 
and the serious consequences of depression in the money market, which it is 
in the nature of events to bring about from time to time. We would not 
have contractors or engineers blind to these facts, for it was to such facts that 
many difficulties were owing at a previous period. The much vilified esti- 
mates of Stephenson, Brunei, Rastrick, Braithwaite, etc., were founded upon 
works actually executed, but, in the interval, a most serious difference in 
prices was created by the number of contracts in the field. While, how- 
ever, we expect prices to rise as a matter of course, we do not anticipate the 
serious excesses of the old system, because many of the difficulties have been 
overcome. In the infancy of the railway system, as the development of 
traffic was not foreseen, so neither was the cost of stations duly provided for, 
then it must be remembered that in those days contractors were not used to 
works so gigantic, and were not so competent to undertake them. Now, the 
weight of locomotives is ascertained, and the rails will not have to be in- 
creased in weight 60 per cent, above the estimate, as was the case previously 
in consequence of the experience gained in the course of the working. Now 
many and economical arrangements are well known, people are not afraid 
to lay down timber bridges, as to which formerly much prejudice prevailed. 






210 Railway Administration. 

" We say that this experience, now so advantageous, had then to be gained 
and to be bought at every step, and that the old system instead of being 
chargeable with blame, is deserving of the highest degree of praise and ad- 
miration. Few know the burden which weighed on the minds of railway 
managers in those days, and rarely have exertions so great been made, and 
received so little appreciation. Our author graphically describes the diffi- 
culties of the panic. 

" ' Still worse was the condition of some other lines two years later. The 
commercial embarrassments that weighed so heavily upon the country bent 
them to the ground. The proprietors were totally unable to answer the calls 
upon them. No credit could be given, no money couW^e obtained. Con- 
tractors failed, works were stoped, loans were raised at usurious interest, ca- 
pital was provided at a sacrifice of one-third of its amount. Whatever cen- 
sure boards of directors deserved in other matters, at this time they stood 
forward manfully to face tl^ storm. Many of them supplied large sums 
from their individual resources, and pledged their credit to a frightful extent. 
They risked ruin for the benefit of their fellow proprietors, which they never 
would have hazarded for their own. Few know the perilous state of some 
of these now flourishing concerns, or of the anxious days and sleepless nights 
of those who had to provide the sinews of war, to uphold a sinking credit, 
and ward olT impending bankruptcy and rum.' 

" We disagree with him, however, as to railway directors pushing on the 
works at any cost, becatise they were deeply imbued with the gambling spirit 
of the day. They pushed on the works as a matter of financial necessity, 
to which they were in the strongest degree urged by their proprietors. To 
the bulk of the then holders on the realization of a traffic and a dividend de- 
pended the tenure of their property, often whether they were to be rich men 
or beggars. When the panic came, the resources of many became inade- 
quate to meet the heavy calls ; they had to borrow or to hold on by any 
means. To go into the market and sell was ruin, to hold wa3 their only 
chance, until the opening of some portions of the line made their shares a 
better security, or until the subscription of two-thirds of the capital enabled 
the companies to postpone the calls, and raise money on debentures. Any 
sacrifice of capital to gain time was preferable to throwing shares on the 
market, where scarcely any description of property was at par, while the 
perils of forfeiting everything by non-compliance with the act of parliament 
made shares without a traffic totally unavailable as a security for raising 
money. When all these circumstances are taken into consideration, railway 
managers will not be censured for excesses of estimates, which circumstances 
alone produced. ^ 

" The evils produced by the legislature the pamphlet before us well show*, 
it particularly dwells on the legalized extortions of land owners, and the pro- 
hibitions of level crossing of common roads, which, of course, it proposes 
to remedy. 

" We have now, therefore, to consider the present state of the railway in- 
terest. We have so many hundred miles of railway, costing so many mil- 
lions, and as a new institution has arisen, new public wants have been cre- 
ated, first and foremost of which is cheap travelling. In a national point of 
view, there can be no question upon this subject ; cheap travelling is in the 
highest degree desirable: how is it to be obtained? Every one has his re- 
medy ; and the legislature is called upon by many well meaning individuals 
to cut the Gordian knot, and to buy up the whole of the railways ; others, 
among whom our author is one, propose modifications of this principle. For 
our own part, we are most free to admit, that on the leading lines of traffic 



' ^ » j':';. *i*;^''A''-''-'^-»i<v.- 



V.- 



Railway Administration, i 211 

the charges for travelling are absurdlv high, and the accommodation for the 
laboring classes totally inadequate ; slill we are inclined to say that it is bet- 
ter to let the matter alone than to legislate upon it. The mischief hitherto 
has been in legislating for questions of public enterprize, imposing restric- 
tions and giving privileges, which are the fertile sources of mischief, and we 
anticipate little good therefore from any legislative remedy, the most efficient 
in such cases being, in our opinion, to legislate as little as possible, but to 
proceed upon the broad economical principle of leaving industry to regulate 
itself Not that we doubt the right of the legislature to interfere in this spe- 
cific case, or in any similar case. Apart from the question of rails and lo- 
comotives, shares and shareholders, the railway system is an institution ha- 
ving the same public relations as a bank, a college, a hospital, or a public 
house, and in which any rights of private property exist subordinate to the 
public objects. On the equity of the case, it must be remembered, that if 
railways have been allowed a maximum fare, it was on the express condition 
that anybody should be allowed to compete with them on their own lines. 
This, however, is found to be injurious to the public, and the legislature has, 
therefore, the equity of requiring some other equivalent security for a reason- 
able rate of fare. Our gro'.md for letting the railways alone on the subject 
of fares is, that it is more remunerative for railway companies to charge low 
fares than it is to charge high fares, and that this principle is making satis- 
factory progress, and must and will be adopted by all companies. The fol- 
lowing observations from a very able article in the Railway Record, will be 
read with interest. 

" ' A very large amount of manufacturing business has been created by 
the railway system, for the supply of railway stock, and this will be ever 
on the increase, not merely for England alone, but for her colonies, and for 
foreign lands. We are prepared to see railways rise in value, in the same 
proportion that canals have risen. For although it be true, that the price 
of making railways has been reduced very low of late, it is quite certain 
that, with increasing traffic, those prices will rise. When railways shall 
commence in the East and West Indies, in Australia and China, English 
capital will find so many vents, that the intense existing competition will be 
lessened, and assuredly the value of land will rise as our population thickens. 
The greater the numbers of the community the more valuable will the roads 
become. England will be virtually the metropolis of the continent, by means 
of free communication throughout all lands. 

" ' Nothing can 'defeat railway prosperity, but, at the "same time, nothing 
can check it so much as injudicious high fares. We cannot too strongly 
insist on this point. The increase of expenses in railways is great in pro- 
portion to the diminution of traffic, and the increase of traffic is followed by 
a very slight increase of expenses on the annual amount, while the propor- 
tionate decrease is very great People are gradually getting used to travel, 
the circle continually widening, and as they get used to it, it becomes a ne- 
cessary of life. They can no more do without it, than they can forego their 
provisions. But they must be inoculated to it, and this inoculation will not 
take place while they are frightened by high fares. We are of opinion that 
it would be a wise thing for railway companies to establish some rule in 
lowering their fares in proportion to the increase of their passengers. It is 
'.he largest number that will pay best, in all cases, and we apprehend that 
the lowest fares will also pay best, unless where the number of passengers 
is limited.' 

" The author before us certainly does not go far enough for us in his pro- 
posed legislation, for he is content to have open third class carriages at ^d. 



■ -.'- ^»-' ■jT.LcJf'iw.r.'f^,^^ **■.-:■ J..- 



212 Railtoay Administration. 

per mile, attached to all trains. Now we think as a matter of public health 
It is desirable that all trains should be covered, as in Belgium, and that suffi- 
cient distinction in comfort will always exist between the several classes of 
carriages. Third class carriages should be provided with seats, covered 
with tarpaulin, and have curtains ; and second class carriages be first class 
carriages without the cushions. In practice this arrangement has worked 
well, and will work well. On short omnibus lines, however, openstand-up 
carriages do no harm. On all lines a step remains to be taken, which may 
be pursued with advantage, we mean the running of slow, cheap trains, go- 
ing at the rate of some ten miles an hour. Such trains can be worked much 
cheaper than high speed trains, and there are large classes of the public to 
whom time is of less importance than money, females in particular. All 
these things, however, may be safely left to experience, and experience is 
beginning to show that a high fare is the wrong system for extracting the 
greatest revenue from a railway. The cheap fare system is satisfactorily 
progressing, and will establish itself without legislative aid. A great many 
experiments are also being made as to excursions, return tickets, weekly, 
monthly, season and yearly subscriptions, the results of which are promul- 
gated by the railway press to the general information. Here, too, we may 
observe, that it is not one of the least remarkable features of the railway sys- 
tem, that it has created a press, by the competition and energy of the mem- 
bers of which a degree of information is diffused which has been productive 
of the greatest benefits, and which under no central administration could 
exist. By the means of this agency upwards of a hundred reports of di- 
rectors and engineers are yearly brought under the scrutiny of the great 
body of railway capitalists, while the comqients of the shareholders at the 
meetings are recorded at a length, and with a degree of accuracy only sur- 
passed by the reports of the houses of parliament. This is totally indepen- 
dent of the weekly communication of every kind of intelligence, and the 
keen investigation of a number of editors experienced on the subject, and 
solely engaged in such discissions. Indeed it is not one of the smallest mar- 
vels of the railway system to see one of these papers with more than thirty 
of our pages of close type recording the minutest details of railway man- 
agement, and the most trivial observations of the humblest shareholder or 
official, for the perusal of many hundred railway directors, secretaries, en- 
gineers and functionaries. The loss of such auxiliaries consequent on the 
centralization of the railways by government, would deprive us of an en- 
gine of improvement which no other machinery could supply, even suppo- 
sing the government to be willing at its own risk to keep up for the benefit 
of its functionaries a Railway Journal, or Railway Record, for even if it 
found the money it could not find the materials. Seeing the influence which 
this press has in the diffusion of intelligence and the propagation of truth, 
we are quite satisfied that the directors still holding out against low fares 
will not be for long. 

" The grand remedy, however, we think, lies in improving the arrange- 
ments for obtaining acts of parliaments This our author has also turned nis 
attention to, but we think he has not struck at the root of the evil. In com- 
mon with many other individuals he has the customaay horror of projectors 
and share jobbers, and for the sake of remedying any evil connected with 
share jobbing, he is willing to sacrifice the interests of the community. We 
say give every facility for obtaining acts of parliament for railways, harbors, 
docks, bridges, and all useful works, take no trouble about whether the work 
will pay, or whether the parties have money to carry it on, leave them to 
look after that themselves, and do not for the fear of encouragmg share job- 



Cost of Transportatiojk. 



S13 



bing prevent people from carrying out useful works. Let such parties also 
have the power of raising as much money as they can upon the work, and 
let the parties lending the money look to their own investigations for the se- 
curity, and not to the legislature. We know these are views diametricallv 
opposed to the prevailing practice, but let them be canvassed and they will 
be found to be right. Depend upon it, the more trade is left to regelate itself, 
and the more it is carried on by private enterprize, the better. The public 
is very well able to protect itself, and to form its own judgment as to the ad- 
visability of an investment without any legislative aid on the score, which 
after all is totally erroneouf — for have not many of the lines, guaranteed by 
parliament to pay five per cent., been for years without a dividend, and others 
on the contrary surpassed all parliamentary calculations. As to the bubble 
companies, we have no fear on that head ; West Middlesex swindlers may 
exist as they have existed, but a whole community is not to be fettered to pre- 
vent the perpetration of crime. Give every facility for obtaining railway 
bills, relax the standing orders, do away with all deposits, and you need en- 
tertain no fears about existing lines charging high fares. Here, too, we may 
observe that nothing could be more absurd than the doctrine lately held in 
the legislature, that no new line should be authorized to compete with an ex- 
isting railway, for the more railways the better for the public at large. The 
idea, too, of the vested interest of a railway in the traffic between particular 
towns is supremely ridiculous, for it is evident that it did not regard the vested 
interest of the turnpike road it superceded. No one can have a vested in- 
terest in abuse, and it is an abuse to subject the public to a high rate for tra- 
velling, when they can be carried more cheaply. 

" The suggestions of the author, that the five per cent, government tax on 
railways might be appropriated as a tax for buying them up, is an exceed- 
ingly good one, and we think such a fund might be advantageously applied 
in the gradual purchase of shares at the market value without involving any 
great interference with the grand principle of private enterprize, for after all, 
what we have to look to is not what we shall do with the present railways, 
but how we shall keep up the national energy, by which such great works 
have been prosecuted, ana by which still greater things can be effected in 
our own country, and in our vast colonial empire." 

COST OF TRANSPORTATION. 

The interesting and flattering statements of the Delaware and Hudson 
canal company, for 1842 and 1843, will be fresh in the recollection of our 
readers. We allude to them again in order to give some explanations which 

-\ appear to us important. Since the appearance of these statements in the 
Journal^ we have been informed that the amount charged to the railway in- 
cludes many miles of new line of road, as well as a very different arrange- 
ment of the entire " modus operandi" on the eastern side of the mountain. 
The canal has also been improved, hence the actual cost to the company 
cannot be stated with the accuracy we should desire, from any data in our 

: possession. It will be seen that the greater quantity brought down in 1843 
cost less than the smaller quantity of 1842 ; and it is probable that the next 

.. statement will show a still greater reduction. We have heard also that some 
pdrtion of the coal was sold at three dollars and a quarter per ton. The 
account our informant gives us^of the style in which the works are carried 
on, has made us desirous of a detailed account of the operations of the com- 



--'^ --■••■' : 



214 



Atmospheric Railways. 



pany, as far as they fall within the scope of the Journal, and when winter 

brings a little leisure we hope our wishes may be gratified. The results of 

the new arrangement are, we understand, highly favorable to the railway 

cause. 

. Mr. Nicolls, the superintendent of the Reading railroad, states the actual 

cost on that work, 93 miles long, to be 46 cents per ton, {Journal, March, 

p. 83,) which is at the rate of 495 mills per ton per mile. The average 

load was 160 tons nett, and the return of the empty cars is included in the 

4-95 mills per ton per mile. 

The Baltimore and Ohio railroad company estimate the cost at 941 cents 

per ton per rpile, with loads of 210 tons, and ascending gradients of 2 64 

feet per mile. In this estimate the cost of locomotive power is 2 28 mills 

per ton per mile, and with the gradients of the Reading railway this would 

be reduced one-half, and the estimate of the Baltimore and Ohio company 

•228 
-— = -827 cents per ton. This is nearly twice the esti- 



would be -941 — 



mate of Mr. Nicolls, and it is obviously intended to be high enough. Again, 
the latter gentleman may not include renewals of railway. In that event 
the account would stand thus — actual expenses, "495 cents -.s i i. n- •.^:f<i 
Renewals of track, bridges, etc., - - -250 " ^- N • . r.'-**''^ 

Contingencies, .... -lOO " 

Total cost on Reading railway, - • - -845 cts. per ton per mile. 

This agrees with the Baltimore and Ohio company's estimates very nearly. 

While on this subject, we would observe that the objections to high grades 
may be carried too far, and that too many imagine that, because an engine 
on the Reading railway can draw twice as much as on most of our railways, 
therefore the cost of transportation will be reduced one-half This investi- 
gation, however, to be thorough, requires a^complete examination into the 
details of each peculiar case, and we must refer the reader to Mr. Ellet's 
papers, to Mr. Casey's paper, (Aug., 1839,) and to the report of Mr. Vig- 
noles' lecture — the two former written for the Journal, 

It will be remembered that the cost on the Cumberland canal is about the 
same, and the experience of Pennsylvania shows, that with boats of 70 tons 
burden, seven mills per ton per mile, even for long distances, yields but a 
sorry remuneration to the boatmen. Still coal is carried at that rate, and 
where the business is very great, and where small or nominal dividends only 
are expefjted, coal may be carried on some canals for one cent per ton per 
mile. , '■ .. ■'■. : , : '■ .. 



..iaSii -- - . ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAYS. 

We gave in the January number of this Journal, an article on " Atmos- 
pheric Railways," from the Glasgow " Practical Mechanic and Engineers' 
Journal." We now give further details in relation to this interesting subject, 
m a letter from one of the patentees, in reply to inquiries made by the South 
Carolina railroad company, through Messrs. Palmer, Makillop and Co., of 



'/ 



-..■■. j - - ■ 

Atmospheric Railways. 215 

London. In the Railway Times, of May 18th, we find the commencement 
of a report of an examination before a select committee of parliament, in 
which Mr. J. Samuda gives a minute description of the construction of the 
atmospheric working apparatus — to which we shall refer hereafter. 

In our next number we shall republish most of a " Treatise on the 
adaptation of Atmospheric Pressure, to the purposes of Locomotion on 
. Railways ;" with engravings, illustrating the mode of connecting the cars 
with the atmospheric apparatus ; together with a statement of the cost of 
construction, and expense of working, as compared with the locomotive sys- 
tem — based upon actual operations. 

This system, Iflf e all new theories, especially if of great* importance, has to 
work its way against the prejudices of the community, and in this case against 
the interests of leading men connected with railroads in England— conse- 
quently its progress has been gradual, and mainly at the cost of those im- 
mediately interested in it ; but if the statements now before us are to be relied 
on, we are of the opinion that it will at no distant day, supersede the present 
mode of working railways ; and that the improvement in safety, economy, 
and speed will be as great over the present system as that is over the almost 
obsolete stage coaching of former days. ' 

We give, in this number, a short extract from this treatise, which, if ac- 
curate, places the two systems in a position exceedingly favorable to the at- 
mospheric. We shall be gratified to receive the views of our correspondents 
on this interesting topic for publication in the Journal. 

We are under obligations, for these documents, to J. £L Bloomfield, E."<q., 
who will please accept our thanks. ' 

Mr. D. K. Minor : By the last steamer, I have been favored with a copy 
of Messrs. Samuda, Brothers' communication, giving the cost of laying dowa 
a mile of atmospheric railway, as well as the cost of working the same- 
being a reply to an application from a railway company in this country, 
who desire to dispense with stationary power, on an inclination of 360 feet 
to the mile. 

It would appear by Messrs^. Samuda's letter, that the atmospheric principle 
of motive power, costs 5^ pence sterling per train per mile to run 50 miles 
in the hour — while the slow locomotive engine, to run 25 miles per hour, 
costs 15 pence, or nearly three times as much, to run with half the speed, 
and with greater risk, as I understand it, to the passenger. 

I would claim your notice of the remarks of the editor of the London 
Railway Times, of the 18th May, as well as the first part of the examina- 
tion of Mr. J. Samuda before a committee of the house of parliament, also a 
description of his plan. 

" To apply the subject" — allow me to ask, if the atmospheric railroad is 
what its friends claim for it, why not adopt this plan to make a railway to Al- 
bany 1 The charter of the New York and Albany company will cover 
the application of this principle, and as the objection heretofore has been that 



216 Atmospheric Railways. 1 

a railway could not compete with the North river steamboats, it is to be 
hoped that this interesting subject will claim the early attention of our en- 
gineers and mechanics. We must not be behind England — in this " go 
ahead, age,^' particularly, when we have got Professor Morse's magnetic te- 
legraph, to announce in forty seconds that 30 cars, carrying 1500 passen- 
gers, in three hours from this city to Albany, after breakfast, desire that the 
requisite arrangements be made for dinner, so as to be in time to take tea at 
Buffalo, over 320 miles of intervening railway. 

Very respectfully, J. E. B. > 

Extract of a Letter from a Railway Company at Charleston, to which 
Messrs. Samudals Letter is a Reply. , . 

" We have on our railroad an inclined plane of 360 feet to the mile, which 
at present requires stationary power to overcome, but which we are desirous 
of dispensing with. From the examinations made, the operation will involve 
no little expense, and we have been deterred from proceeding by a notice 
which has appeared in the English Journals on the success of the atmos- 
pheric railroad between Dublin and Kingston. We are inclined to the 
opinion, from what we have read on the subject, and from our own calcula- 
tions, that this atmospheric power may be applied most advantageously to 
planes, and particularly where the plane is not to be avoided but by a circuit 
and increase of distance, involving no ordinary expense — we will, therefore, 
esteem it a very great favor rendered to our company if you will obtain from 
General Pasley, R. E., J. Brunei, Esq., M. Mallet, or Mr. Vignoles, or 
from any other competent source, the real practical results of the experiment 
now making, with the cost of construction per mile, and the power exerted, 
with the advantages of this power compared with steam, on the various in- 
clina'tions of a railroad. We would be pleased to have the arguments both 
pro and con., so that we shall be the better able to decide on the two ques- 
tions which present themselves. .^ 

" First. The expense of reducing the grade of inclination at our plane 
by a circuit, and 

" Second. The expense of overcoming the inclination and delay at the 
plane by the new power." 

Copy of Letter from Messrs. Samuda, Brothers. ' •« 

« - V ii ' t « Southwark Iron Works, April 30, 1844. ^ 

" Messrs Palmer, Mackillop & Co. § 

. " Gentlemen : We beg to acknowledge the receipt of your inquiries re- 
specting the atmospheric railway, and in reply beg to hand you the follow- 
ing information which we regret will not, in all probability, be as complete 
as your friends might wish, owing to the want of some information which 
their letters do not supply, and which we would feel obliged by your obtain- 
ing for us. Thus, the length of the inclined planes is not named. We can 
only, therefore, in the present instance, give them such general information 
as we hope may be useful. ' . v. ^ ^ ,v, ,.,.'.>':*• ^^r^ 



Atmospheric Railtcays. ' 217 

" The diameter of the vacuum pipe which we recommend in all ordinary- 
cases is 15 inches ; this will draw -a ^ >;.;;:;5;, i: ] ; ' ' 



300 tons on a level, . .. .<• .j^^ 
60 " up 1 in 160, ^ : 

65 « « 1 " 120, - f^ 
58 « "1 " 100, A 



48 tons up I in 80, 
44 " " 1 " 70, 
39 " " 1 « 60, 
33 « « 1 « 60. 



" Up such an incline as you name (360 feet per mile, or 1 in 15 about,) 
it will take 12 tons, which, in all probability, will be too small a load, if so, 
however, the area of the pipe will require to be increaised till it meets the 
load you deem sufficient — probably 20 to 25 tons will suffice, in which case 
a pipe of 22 inches diameter will be required on that incline. - •' ■• 

" The engine power necessary depends on the speed you require the trains 
to travel — thus with a pipe 15 inches diameter, (which is capable of draw- 
ing any of the loads on the corresponding gradients mentioned in the an- 
nexed table.) an engine of 100 horse power will be sufficient for a speed of 
50 miles per hour, or 68 horse power for 30 miles per hour. 

" The distance apart the engines should be placed will be slightly influ- 
enced by local circumstances, but will average 3^ miles from each other. 
We have subjoined a table showing the working expenses on the atmosphe- 
ric system on a long line of railway, similar to the London and Birming- 
ham here, and performing the same amount of traffic ; from that statement, 
the cost of haulage on the atj^aospheric system, travelling at 50 miles per 
hour, is - •■ - . - - 5^rf. per train per mile, 

while the present cost with locomotives, at the t : : ^ ' i; 

present speed of 25 miles per hour, is 1*. 2d. " " 

" In the maintenance of way there is abo a saving on the atmospheric sys- 
tem, for the destruction caused by the locomotive engine to the rails, and the 
way itself, is entirely avoided, and in its stead, we have only the expense of 
attending the mains, and which in practice we find fully provided for with 
one laborer per mile. 

" The cost of the atmospheric apparatus will of course be slightly influ- 
moed by local causes, the price in London will be as follows : 
15 inch vacuum pipes, about 309 lbs. per yd. = 272 tons 

per mile at £6, - - - - - £1632 per mile. 

" Continuous valve and fastenings, viz ; 
Wrought iron plates and bars, 18^ tons, - £129 *^;^i 

Leather, 42 cwt, - . . - . 324 

Bolts and nuts 24 cwt, - , * ^ . .. '^ 67 

Labor, rivets, oil, tools, etc.. ' - . ^. . 250 — 770 " ** 

Tallow lining and composition for grove, • • 250 '< " 

Planing, drilling and lining with tallow, Zs. Ad. per yard, 295 " *< 
Station valves, about - • - • - 50 " « "; 

Travelling piston and gear, • • • . 50 '^ << 

£3047 " « r. 
Drawings, 8upeniiteDde&ce,8pecificati(»8, etc, ny 5 per ct, 153 <* " 



M^.«ftw«^.,^MTV 4«i|lT' i-fr^ipw**^' y^^- 






218 On the Atmospheric System. 

" The cost of a vacuum main, 22 inches diameter, will be £4200 per 
mile. • . . - f ,'''"' 

" Table of workinor expenses of the atmospheric system referred to, on a 
line similar to the Londoji and Birmingham railway, 112 J miles long, and 
performing a similar traffic. , . 

Coal — each engine burns 500 lbs. per hour, and 

works for each train ... 8| min. :. /- 

Add for waste while standing. Is. Sci., • 2f min.' -. ^, ,...;«. 

v^v V, .-j^-..: 11 min. =92 lbs. I>v>u 

32 engines x 92 lbs. = 2944 lbs., or 1 ton 6 cwl. 1 qr. 4 lbs., at 9s., Us. 10 d.' 

Wages — 33 engine stations, each 2 men at 65. > ,0 18 X 33 

" " " OS. ) 30 trains 

Repairs to engines, oil, hemp, etc., 5 per cent, on cost, say per . , >*i 

£212 10s. X 33 -_ ' k**j 

year, jTT- -. „-, . - - • , - . 12s. 10 <t 

■^ ' 30 trams x 365 days -> . .-'.:',i 

Piston leather2s.,charcoal6rf., wear and tearoftravellinggear4J<Z.. 2s. lO^d. 

Superintendence, clerks, foremen and office expenses, say £2500 . ■, j:-; 



v 



£2500 ,. . . ^.. 

p^^ ^"""'^ 333;r365' ■ V r- ;.t-i' ^^ 

Total haulage = b-^d. per mile, .1 ' . • 51s. 10 d. 

" Any other information which your friends may require, we shall at all 

times be happy to furnish. We are, etc. "^ 

• ^- [Signed,] " Samxtda, Brothees." -'^^ 

Messrs. Samuda, Brothers, having omitted to state the cost of stationary 
engines, they write on 10th May as follows : 

" We regret that we should have omitted the price of the stationary en- 
gines in our particulars of the atmospheric apparatus furnished you. 4'^>p<H 
** The price of two 50 horse condensing engines with their vacuum \fv>. 

pumps and apparatus complete in every respect, and put on 

board a vessel in the Thames, will be - - - £4260 

" A pair of 34 horse engines and pumping apparatus as above, ' 3060." 

it. 

ON THE ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEM. 

" Ist. The I06S of power occasioned by the locomotive engines having to draw their own 
weight is entirely avoided, and steep hills may be ascended with no more additional power . 
than that actually due to the acclivity, as there is no weight except the train. 

" There is no other known power which can be applied to locomotion without carrying 
considerable weight and friction with it. The ill effects of locomotive engines have been 
already pointed out, and the same disadvantages exist in the application of ropes, which 
must be drawn along with the train, and become an increased mcumbrance on inclined 
planes. The defects of ropes in other respects are too generally known to need comment. 

"2d. The weight of the rails and chairs on the new system may be less by one>third 
than where locomotive engines are employed, as the carriages of the train will be too tight ' 
to injure them. The annual charge of mtdntenance of way will, firom the same cause, be 
reduced to a considerable extent. 

"3d. The wear and tear of locomotive, compared with stationary engines, is as 18 to I. 

" 4th. By the new system the full power of the engines is always obtained ; and on an 
incline the additional quantity of fuel consumed in ascending will be saved in descending, . 
ftg the trains run down by their own gravHy. The expense of fiiel will be farther do> ■ 
creased, as the expense of using coal a only half that of coke. 

" On the new lystem the velocity depends entirely npcn the velocity with which the air 



On the Atmospheric System. 



219 



is withdrawn from the jripe ; therefore, by simply increasing the air pump, any speed may 
be attained ; and with a fixed quantity of trathc per diem, no considerable increase in the 
fuel consumed or any other expense is incurred for improving speed, further than the small 
additional power required to overcome the increased atmospheric resistance. An actual 
saving in the first cost of a railway constructed for high velocities may be effected, because 
by performing the journey in less time, a greater number of trains may be despatched each 
day, and theu: weight diminished ; therefore the piston, having less to draw, may be smaller 
in diameter. The cost of the pipe (which forms the largest item in the first cost of this 
railway) will thus be reduced in nearly the same proportion as the speed is increased. 

" Besides these advantages, the system possesses others of still more importance to the 
public. No collision between trains can take place, for as the power cannot be affiled to 
more than one piston at a time in the same section of pipe, the trains must ever be the 
length of a section apart from each other ; and if from any cause a »rain should be stopped 
in the middle of a section, the train which follows it will be obliged to stop also at the en- 
trance of the pipe, as there will be no power to propel it until the first train is out. It js 
also impossible for two trains to run in opposite directions on the same line, as the power 
is only applied at one end of each section. A train cannot get off the rail, as the leading 
carriage is firmly attached to the piston, which travels in the pipe l>etween the rails, and, 
the luggage and carriages cannot be burnt, as no engines travel with the trains. > 

" We now come to the comparative cost of the two systems. 

" 1st. The necessity of having the railway comparatively level causes the present enor- 
nxous outlay for earth work, viaducts and tunnelling, and increases the cost of land, not 
only by lengthening the line to save cutting and embankment, but by the quantity wasted 
on each side of the road wherever such work is required. Thus, if an embankment or 
cutting has to be made of 30 feet, at least 60 feet of land must be covered on each side of 
the railway in order to obtain sufficient slope, malting a width of 120 feet, besides the road, 
except where they occur in very favorable ground. The comparative expense of this item, 
between the two systems can be ascertained by referring to the average cost of forming a 
turnpike road and that of the principal railroads now in operation. 

" Since it is not necessary to make detours to avoid steep gradients, the direction of the 
road in a straight line may be more nearly pre||rved." 

LOCOMOTIVE SYSTEM. Per mile. 

Taking five of the principal railroads as the basis of our calculation, their 

average expense of formation has exceeded* - - - £36,000 

And the origmai stock of locomotives, - - a -:ft ;•- ■■v.'>;---;;v--' ' 1,600 

--'"' £37^600 
ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEM. Per mile. 

The average expense of forming a turnpike road throughout Elngland 

has been £3000 per mile, but for our road say - £4,000 

Allow extra for road bridges, . - - 2,000 

Rails, chairs, sleepers and laying down, - - 3,&00 

Mtdn pipe and apparatus complete (on a scale for transporting 360 tons 

per hour, or 5000 tons per day of fourteen hours, on a road with gra- 

diente of 1 in 100), - - - -^ 5,900 T; : 

Fixed engines, air pumps, and engine houses, - - 1,400 »^.. . 

Travelling pistons, - . - - 90 

15,120 
Saving per mile in forming and furnishing on the atmospheric systsm, 22,480 

^7,600 
Annual expenses of working per mile, when conveying two thousand tons per day. 
(This is beyond the average quantity conveyed on the Liverpool and Manchester railroad :) 

LOCOMOTIVE SYSTEM. Per mile> 

5 per cent, interest on capital invested, £37,600, - 
Maintenance of way, .... 

Locomotive department, including coke, 

ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEM. 

5 per cent, interiston caiHtal invested, viz., £15,120, 
Maintenance of way, andi attendance on mains, 
Wear and tear of fixed engines, 5 per cent, of cost, - 
Coal, 0-75 lb. per ton per mile, 214 tons, at 20b., 
Wages to enginemen and strokers, 

1,400 

*Oar calculations an feniidwl on the reports of difliueat compaaie* wheae railways are complete, 
or ia a forwacd atate. 



. 


£1,880 


. 


450 


- 


1,800 




4,130 


Per mile. 




£756 




■ 300 


•^'■- • 


70 




- 914 


' 


60 





,'ii^£. 



ttO lUiscetlanea. 



•*-.i^ 



1,400 



Wages to train conductors, ... 

Renewal of travelling appan^as and compoeiiion, - • 50 

Sondiies, - - '■••• ;■;■ ;.7'-' •r«;,\ .s.-'-? •.'"■■ - 160 



1,6 

Annual saving per mile on the atmospheric system, • :' * 2>&04 

Total expenses per ton per mile on the locomotive system, - * - l,54d. 

" " " atmospheric " - - 0,06d. 

Exclusive of carriages and management, which may be taken as the same on both syv- 
tems. 



MISCELLANEA. . • ' -^ ^ ..-. . | ?.: * . 

There is a very interesting though somewhat discursive article on " Aque- 
ducts and canals" in the London (Quarterly Review, for March last. It will 
perhaps astonish the advocates of canals to learn that the Duke of Bridge- 
water regarded with no little uneasiness, and with almost incredible fore- 
sight, the ultimate capabilities of the railway, though at that time nothing 
beyond the common tramroad existed. When congratulated on at length 
reaping the profits of his perseverance and sacrifices, he replied " Yes, we 
shall do well enough if we can keep clear of those d — d tramroads." 

The Croton aqueduct is also mentioned in these flattering terms : " Till 
London with all its water companies is as well supplied with accessible 
water as modern Rome is by only ^>ro of the aqueducts, whether fourteen, 
as some count them, or twenty, which ancient Rome possessed, we must 
content ourselves, Anglo-Saxons as we are, with resorting to New York for 
wise saw and modern instance, and must lead our readers to drink at the 
Croton aqueduct." •'/'^' I 

The reviewdr has got it into his head that there is some doubt as to the 
work accomplishing its object. The only objections we have heard are that 
the deviations from the original plan in the Harlem bridge and dam in the 
Croton have cost the city several hundred thousand dollars, and that archi- 
^ tectural effect appears to have been avoided not by an increase, but certainly 
without any diminution of expenditure. There having been no estimate of 
income, and the expenditure having been in fact " ad libitum," the Croton 
water works have escaped the searching and infallible ordeal through which 
the railway has to pass. But as regards the supply of water with referene** 
to quality and quantity, there can be no doubt as to the excellence of the for<- 
mer, or the abundance of the latter. 

The Mohawk and Hudson railroad company having done away with the 
use of the inclined plane at Schenectady, are now engaged in building an 
entire new road at Albany, in order to avoid the inclined plane at that city. 

The Long Island railroad company are making a tunnel in Atlantic street, 
Brooklyn, in order to bring the engines near the ferry, and to do away with ,^ 
the use of horses. It will also save time, and thus aid them in competing 
for the Boston travel. Should this meet the eye of the engineers of the above 
important works, we would beg leave to intimate that some details as to the 
annual cost on the old plan, the saving by the new and the outlay by which ^ 



.. .. '^1 . s.il^lL- :..li_;v ^ • V- . ■ 



"♦^.V' 



Rates of Fare and Rates of Speed on Railroads. 



that saving is effected would be of interest to our readers generally, and, as 
we have in another part of this number endeavored to show, would be at- 
tended with no disadvantage to themselves. 

The Central railroad (Michigan) will be opened in July to Marshall, and 
in the fall to Kalamazoo. 

Enlargement of the Lachine Canal. — " In the list of imports by the La- 
chine canal in this day's Grazette, will be found the cargo of the Quebec forwarding com- 
pany's barge Shannon, consisting of 1903 barrels of flour. This, we are informed, is the 
lamest cargo ever brought from uie upper country to this market, by about 400 barrels." — 
[Montreal paper.] 

Here it will be seen that a wooden canal boat, which passes the old locks 

of this canal, has actually brought down 190 tons of freight. An iron boat 

would take 250 tons. Now we know that 100 boats per day can be passed 

through single locks with ease, and — we quote from memory— the total 

amount of western produce, via the St Lawrence, does not exceed 600,000 

to 700,000 barrels per annum ; and 100 boats with 1900 barrels each, gives 

190,000 barrels per day. Hence, the old Lachine canal will easily pass the 

western freight in 5 or 6 days, and would not require more than 10 or 12 days 

to pass all the flour and pork which passes over the Erie canal. Yet the 

former is to be enlarged from 20 x 100, (the size of the present locks,) to 

46 X 200, and the channel of the canal in proportion? The " Canals of 

Canada" have, however, been thoroughly discussed in the Journal, and we 

only allude to them now to show that the views of the writer are fully borne 

out by experience, and also to give a practical and striking example of the - - 

ruinous consequences which infallibly result from entrusting to political ad- ! 

venturers the management of works, to the success of which that character 

and skill, which we have strongly insisted on in our opening article, so 

largely contribute, and without which all is a lottery. 



RATES OF FARE AND RATES OF SPEED ON RAILROADS. 

In our number for April we presented some considerations on this subject, 
and cited the case of the line of railroads between New York and Wash- 
ington, as one on which rates of fare, much higher than could be judicious, 
were adopted. Our impression is that the prosperity of this route of travel 
has been much retarded by these rates, which have a tendency to throw off 
the travel on other routes, and at the same time to prevent the increase which ; - 
at more reduced rates would take place between the cities which it connects. -: 
At the same time, it was evident to us, that the present rates of &re, if con- 
tinued, must lead to rival lines being gotten up between these cities, of an % 
inferior character perhaps, but at more reduced charges to the traveller, '; 
which would carry off much of the aliment pertaining to these works ; and T 
aff friends of the railroad system, reluctant to see it retrograde, we were : 
anxious to see a policy adopted, which, while it was liberal to the public, v' 
"vna the true policy for the railroad companies. At a rate of from $2 to 
$2 GO between New York and Philadelphia, the same between Philadel- 
phia and Baltimore, and from $1 to $1 50, at &rthest, between Baltissore 



-1.;:- 



2^2 Rates of Fare and Rates of Speed on Railroads.\ 

and Washington, and with not raore than four and a half hours between 
New York and Phila4elphia, and from five to five and a half between 
P^hiladelphia and Baltimore, the railroads connecting these towns may mo- 
nopolize,the whole travel between them, and that greatly increased, probably 
nmch more than doubled, by such a policy ; but we predict if the present 
high rates of fare, and low rates of speed, on this great line are continued, 
a year will not elapse before rival lines of steamboats and stages will be estab- 
lished throughout its whole extent ; and if established they will be sustained, 
both because at the present reduced prices of labor, provisions and materials, 
they will be kept up at a comparatively reduced cost, and because the pub- 
lic, which considers its good nature to have been abused by the railroad 
companies, will be inclined to support them. We trust that the railroad 
companies will look calmly at the subject, and see to what they are at pre- 
sent exposed by their too grasping policy, and mistaken views of it, and as 
we expressed ourselves in our previous number, on the subject, will " act on 
the principle of the ounce of prevention being worth the pound of cure. ' 

It is apt to be the case that we are not apprehensive of danger where we 
have been for some time exposed to it, and the companies in question, having 
so far escaped any direct competition, may perhaps think themselves safe from 
it. But they should bear in mind that the country is no longer in the pros- 
trate condition in which it has been since the revulsion of 1837, and that a 
spirit of enterprize is now abroad, which will leave unexplored no avenue 
to profit. Ericsson boats have been already built, and more are building, 
for the conveyance of freight and passengers between New York and Phila- 
delphia, New York and Richmond, and Philadelphia and Richmond. 
These boats may be expected to divert some travel from the railroad lines, 
but nothing in comparison with what would be taken from them by lines 
of stages and steamboats at a reduced rate between New York and Phila- 
delphia, and Ericsson steamboats between Philadelphia and Baltimore, by 
way of the Chesapeake and Delaware canal, or a line of very quick steam- 
boats on the Delaware river, and Chesapeake bay, connected by an expedi- 
tious stage line between Newcastle and Frenchtown, or parallel to the Chesa- 
peake and Delaware canal. An independent canal line, or a day line of 
quick, steamboats could not fail to do well at half the present rates of fare 
charged by the railroad company between Philadelphia and Baltimore. 

We say an independent canal line, because there is at present a daily line 
of Ericsson boats between Philadelphia and Baltimore on the canal route, 
but these it is generally understood are owned by the railroad company, or 
large stockholders in it, and are now, not to make money by the trsuisporta- 
tion of passengers, but rather to keep travel from the canal, and throw it oa 
the railroad, the rates with this view being kept nearly as high by the canal 
line as on the railroad itself The fact that few travellers under these cir- 
cumstances take the canal route, is no evidence that a really effective liae on 
the canal would not carry off a very large travel. On the contrary we are 
rery much mistaken, if a night line on this route would not compete even at 



lJ^Ji^M^-^i':f^. ,!^-.V.'- 



Itemt. ' ' .;'"■:,... - "' ■;» . -. 223 



the same rate of fere very advantageously with the railroad ; and, therefore, 
if once gotten up and prosperous, there would be no probability of the rail- 
road company putting it down, or buying it up without a great sacrifice. 

Instead of adopting a policy which will certainly bring about these results, 
we would earnestly urge the companies between this and Baltimore to look 
to the other side of the picture, and see what may be done by diminished 
rates of fare and increased speed. In the first place their example would be 
followed by other railroad companies south and west of them, and the whole 
of that travel which is now diverted to the sea, and passes between the north 
and south in sloops and schooners, or which passes up the Hudson, and 
thence around by the great lakes, even to New Orleans, would pass over 
their railroad and the Baltimore and Ohio railroad to Wheeling, or by the 
railroads south of Baltimore to the south and south-west. Secondly, the 
local travel between the large cities would be greatly increased. But, lastly, 
and what seems to us of much more moment than any other consideration, 
the companies would establish the prosperity of their works on a more per- 
manent foundation, both by doing away with the temptation which now ex- 
ists to competition, and by satisfying the public which is at present univer- 
sally impressed with the opinion that the fares on the great routes in ques- 
tion are too high, and their rates of speed too slow, and that in other respects 
it is not accommodated on them as it ought to be. 

Our thanks are due to the Hon. Asher Tyler, the Hon. Horace Wheaton 
and the Hon. Hamilton Fish, of the House of Representatives, for public 
documents — recently received. 

Elihu BuRRiTT expresses himself as follows in relation to the " iron 
horse" of the railroad : how few there are who can do it more eloquently. 
" I love," says he, "to see one of these huge creatures, with sinews of brass 
and muscles of iron, strut forth from his smoky stable, and, saluting the long 
train of cars with a dozen sonorous puffs from his iron nostrils, fall gently 
back into his harness. There he stands, champing and foaming upon the 
iron track, his great heart a furnace of glowing coals ; his lymphatic blood 
is boiling in his veins ; the strength of a thousand horses is nerving his 
sinews — h« pants to be gone. He would ' snake' St. Peter's across the desert 
of Sahara, if he could be fairly hitched to it, but there is a little sober eyed, 
tobacco chewing man in the saddle, who holds him in with one finger, and 
can take away his breath in a moment, should he grow restive and vicious. 
I am always deeply interested in this man ; for, begrimed as he may be with 
coal, diluted in oil and steam, I regard him as the genius of the whole ma- 
chinery, as the physical mind of that huge steam horse." 

Fitchburgh Railroad.— The cars on this road made their first appearance 
at Concord on Thursday, June 6th, and the trains will now run regularly ; 
the track is progressing rapidly towards Vermont, and — Canada ? certainly. 

Since the above, we have received a copy of their report, and shall refer 
to it in our next. 

Railroad Accident— ^n the Syracuse and Auburn railroad, on Wednes- 
day evening, 5th June, says the Rochester daily Advertiser, without other 
injury than what was sustained by the " iron horse." Would it have occurred 
if the cars had been moved on the " atmospheric" principle ? Mr. Samvda, 
one of the inventors, says it is impossible. 7 



:.:£^.y---^ 



' -1 ■:.■?**£:::«. . ■ ;-. Li.s=,:i; ». .^ 



224 Items. 

Norwich and Worcester Railroad. — The Norwich Courier, of June 4th, 

says that the annual meeting of the stockholders of the Norwich and Worcester railroad 
took place in this city yesterday. The following gentlemen were elected directors for the 
cnsuincr year : D. Tyler, W. P. Green, J. A. Rockwell, Norwich ; A. DcWitt, Oxford ; 
W. w! Ward, Boston ; S. R. Brooks, Jacob Little, Elihu Townsend, John Rankin, Al- 
fre<l Brooks, New York ; Asa W. H. Clapp, Portland, Me. 

It is said that is in contemplation to extend the Long Island railroad seven miles beyond 
Greenport, bringing its terminus to within fourteen miles of New London. Another pro- 
ject on the tapis is to extend the Norwich and Worcester road down the river to a point 
opposite or below New London, so that the termini of the two roads shall be brought with- 
in 13 or 14 miles of each other. Thus this route between Boston and New York would 
be substantially a land route. If, then, the distance from New York to the eastern termi- 
nus of the Long Island road — one hundred and one miles — shall be accomplished in three 
hours — no more and no less — (and that is what the company confidently expect to do) this 
route will inevitably be the quickest, surest and most popular route between the two cities. 
As such, it is sure, also, to become the great mail route. 

Boston and Worcester Railroad. — The stockholders, at their annual 
meeting on Monday, 3d Jupe, says the Bay State Democrat, re-elected Messrs. Nathan 
Hale, David Hcnshaw, Daniel Denny Eliphalet Williams, George Morey and Nathaniel 
Hammond, directors — and chose Messrs. John Hathaway, Abraham T. Low and Benja- 
min F. White^ in place of Messrs. Moses Williams, Addison Gilmore and Nathaniel F. 
Emmons, who declined a re-election. The annual report w£is submitted and ordered to be 
printed. 

We have received a copy of the report — from some kind friend, who will please accept 
our thanks — but have not yet had time to examine it, will do so, however, in time for our 
next number. 

Boston and Providence Railroad. — At the annual meeting of the stock 
holders of the Boston and Providence railroad, the old board of directors were re-elected. 
The receipts from January 1st, 1843, to January 1st, 1844, have been S98,82l, against 
S75,620 in the same time of 1843 — increase S2if,201 . The month of June is estimated at 
$26,000 — last year, ^23,749. The expenses have been materially less than in 1843, and 
the nett revenue for the past six months will be nearly equal to what it was when the 
whole New York business was done by this road. It was voted to subscnbe S'40,000 in 
aid of the Stoughton Branch railroad, which insures its being built, and will give a large 
addition of busiAess to the Providence. The freight has increased this year % per cent. 
to way stations, and 1 1 per cent, to New York. — [N. Y. American.] 

Greenfitld and Northampton Railroad. — We learn, says the Greenfield 
(Mass.) Democrat, that Mr. Hoyt, is making good progress in the survey of this road. 
From a point a tittle this side of Northampton, for the distance of about 11 miles, the road 
can be made in a right line " as straight as an arrow," and perfectly level. The country 
is so level that the expense of grading that part of it cannot exceed one thousand dollars 
per mile. So favorable a location for a railroad can scarcely be found in "New England." 
The distance from Greenfield to Northampton, by the railroad, will be 18 1-2 miles. 

Another Railway. — The Hartford papers recommend the construction of 
a railway from that city to Dan bury, for the purpose of forming a direct railway commu- 
nication from Boston and Hartford to New York ; in opposition to the proposed railway 
from New Haven to Bridgeport. The distance from Hartford to New York via Danbuiy 
it is estimated can be performed in four hours. The highest gradients will not exceed 40 
feet per mile, and the road will pass through Waterbury and severed manufacturing villages. 

At an election of directors of the Mohawk and Hudson railroad company, held on the 
r2th inst , the following prsons were elected directorsfor the ensuing year : George Law, 
Jacob Little, Edward Mills, Wm; S. Hoyt and John B. Lasala, of ISfew York ; Rufus H. 
King, Augustus James, Herman Pumpelly and John V. L. Pruyn, of Albany. And at 
a meeting of the board held the same day, Geoi^e Law was re-elected president and Jacob 
Little vice president. 

CONTENTS: —— 



Pi 



^ 



Remarks on the profession, 

Canadian works, 196 

ExpUnation and arrangement of the tables, 197 
Bxamplet, showing the manner of using the 

tablM. 197 

Memorandum — cubical quantities, 207 

Vew rotary engine, 907 



^ 



Railway administration, 

Cost of transportation, 

Atmospheric railways, i 2i4 

On the atmospheric system, Slg 

Miscellanea, I' 390 

Ratasof&raaadratMeffpMdoBrailiewb, m 

Ittou, SB 



^rOl/yr . ' .- \ Sm 



-i^-' ,-■■ 



• > 



■^^'**^' AMERICAN " ' ' . '^■ 

RAILROAD JOURNAL, 

AND 

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. 



Pnblishtid Monthijr at 23 Chamberi'St. New York, > S n ir wrurt irj-.„ 

at «2 a-year, in advance, or 3 copies for $5. \ . } "■ *- J*"*"' Editor. 

No. 8, Vol. 2. ; ATTrTTG^ Iftdil J Whole No. 439. 

Third Series. \ AtXjrU&l, 1044. ^ Vol. XVIL 

I' ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY. 

^ In our" July number we published a letter from Messrs. Samuda, Brothers, 
the patentees of this new mode of working railways, and promised to give 
in a subsequent number, a further description, with illustrations. In accor- 
dance with that promise we now give the main part of a short " treatise on 
the adaptation of atmospheric pressure to the purposes of locomotion on 
railways," by M. J. D'A. Samuda, together with several extracts from the 
examination of Mr. Cubit, Mr. S. K. Brunei, and Mr. Robert Stephenson, 
engineers of reputation, before a committee of the house of commons, in 
relation to its advantages as compared with the present locomotive engine 
system of working railways. Mr. Stephenson appears to take decided 
ground against the principle, yet he admits that " its safety is nearly perfect 
if you keep the trains moving in one direction, at the same time" — that is 
to say there is no danger of running off the track — or the only danger of 
accident arises from the possibility of two trains meeting, of which it seems 
to us there is little probability ; but the other gentlemen were decidedly in 
its favor, as the extracts from their examination will show; and, "the de- 
cision of the committee was unanimously g^ven in favor of the Croydon 
and Epsom line to be worked by the atmospheric system, to the exclusion 
of the other." 

It is by no means surprising that there should be a diversity of opinicm 
among gentlemen of the profession, as well as others, in relation to an in- 
vention which, if it i^ in reality what its friends claim for it, bids fair to pro- 
duce a revolution in the present mode of railroad locomotion. And eveu 
Mr. Stephenson, high as he stands as an engineer, and manufacturer of lo- 
comotive engines, may be as much mistaken, and as honestly so too, as was 
Dr. Lardner in relation to Atlantic steam navigation ; but we see no reason 
to doubt the accuracy of the experiments and the correctness of the obser- 
vations made by the other gentlemen who were examined by the committee. 
At all events, we think we see enough in it to warrant us in laymg it before 
our readfers, and to request those editors with whom we exchange to do the 
same to theirs, or to call attention to the Journal containing it. Jr 



296 



On the Atmospheric SysUm. 



DESCEIPTION OF CLEOO AND SAMUDa's ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY. 

On this system of working railways the 
moving power is communicated to the train 
by means of a continuous pipe or main A, 
laid between the rails, and divided by sepa- 
rating valves into suitable and convenient 
lengths for exhaustion ; a partial vacuum 
is formed in this pipe either by steam en- 
gines and air pumps fixed at intervals along 
the road, or by water power, if the nature 
of the country be such as to afford it — 
These valves are opened by the train as it 
advances, without stoppage or reduction of 
speed. A piston B, which is made to fit air 
tight by means of a leather packing, is intro- 
duced into the main pipe* and connected to 
the leading carriage of each train by an iron 
plate C, which travels through a lateral 
opening the whole length of the pipe. This 
lateral opening is covered by a valve G, 
extending the whole length, formed of a 
strip of leather riveted between iron plates ; 
the top plates are wider than the groove, 
and serve to prevent the external air forc- 
ing the leather into the pipe when the vac- 
uum is formed ; the lower plates fit the 
groove when the valve is shut, and making 
up the circle of the pipe, prevent the air 
passing the piston ; as shown in figs. 2, 3 
and 4. One edge of this valve is securely 
held down by iron bars a a, fastened by 
screw-bolts b b io a. longitudinal rib c, cast 
on the pipe on one side of the lateral open- 
ing, and the leather between the plates and 
the bar being flexible, forms a hinge as in a 
common pump valve ; the other edge of 
the valve falls on the surface of the pipe on 
the opposite side of the opening, thus form- 
ing one side of a trough F, as shown in 
figs. 2, 3, 4. This trough is filled with a 
composition of bees' wax and tallow, which 
substance is solid at the temperature of the 
atmosphere, and becomes fluid when heated 
a few degrees above it. This composition 
adheres to the edge of the valve, which 
lorms one side ot the trough, &"that part of the pipe which forms the other, & 
produces perfect contact between them ; but as the piston advances, the valve G 
must be raised to allow the connecting plate C to pass, and this is effected by 
four wheels H H H H fixed to the piston-rod behind the piston, and the ap- 
erture thus formed serves also for the free admission of air to press on the 

* When the first division or section is exhausted, the separating valve is opened, and 
the front of the piston being thus exposed to the exhausted portion of the pipe, the atmos- 
pheric air pressing on the luu:k of it propels it forward in the pipe, and with it the train to 
which it is attached. 




^^tmMt: ^l>r- 



On the Atmospherie System. 



back of the piston: by this 
operation of raising the valve 
out of the trough, the com- 
position between it and the 
pipe is broken, and the air- 
tight contact must be repro- 
duced. To effect this, an- 
other steel wheel R is attach- 
ed to the carriage, regulated 
by a spring which serves to 
insure the perfect closing of 
the valve by running over 
the top plates immediately 
after the arm has passed, and 
a copper tube or heater N 
about 5 feet long, filled with 
burning charcoal, is also fix- 
ed to the under side of the 
carriage, and passes over and 
re-melts the surface of the 
composition which has been 
broken by lifting the valve, 
and which upon cooling be- 
comes solid, hermetically 
sealing the valve as before. 



Fig. 2. 







Fig. a 




Thus each train in passing leaves the pipe in a fit state to receive the 
next train. A protecting cover, I, formed of thin plates of iron about 5 
feet long, hinged with leather, is placed over the valve, and serves to pre- 
serve it from snow or rain ; the end of each plate underlaps the next in the 
direction of the piston's motion, thus insuring the lifting of each in sue* 
cession, which is effected by the wheels D 6xei under the carria^ 



On the Atmotpkeric SyttemV 




Fig. 6 is the exit separa- 
ting valve, or that at the end 
of the section nearest to its 
steam engine ; this valve is 
opened by the compression 
of air caused by the piston 
after it has passed the branch 
%vhich communicates vvrith 
the air-pump. 

Fig. 6 is the equilibrium 
or ew/rawceseparating valve. 
The arrow denotes the di- 
rection in which the trains 
advance. The pipe is ex- 
hausted on the side of the 
valve letered C, and is only 
prolonged on the other side 
to allow the piston to enter 
the pipe before the valve is 
opened. Attached to one 
side of the main is a semi- 
circular box B A, divided 
into two compartments by 
a partition, of which jgi a a 
is a sectional view, andithro' 
which is a circular opening : in the top of the box are 
two small square holes, one on each side of the parti- 
tion, furnished with a box slide, by which either or both 
of them may be covered at pleasure ; within the box 
B A are two valves, b and c, (of which b is the great- 
er,) connected by an arm d dio each other, and to a ver- 
tical axis e, on which they can swing horizontally for 
about 100 degrees. When the pipe is to be exhausted, 
the valves are placed by hand or otherwise, in the posi- 
tion represented in the figure ; b filling the opening in 





the 



closing 



the 



partition, 
main. The box slide also* 
covers the hole on the side B 
of the partition, leaving the 
other hole open as the exhaus- 
tion proceeds ; C and B are 
in vacuum ; A and D open to 
the air. There is then the 
same pressure on each square 
inch of b and c ; but b being 
larger than c both remain 
close, for the total pressure on 
b preponderating, will keep c 
against its seat, as will be plain 
on looking at the figure. But 
the train on approaching, 
moves the slide box so as to cover both holes, and a passage is formed thro' 
which the air in the partition A, rushes into the main C, so that A and B 
are both in vacuo, and the pressure being removed from ^ that On c forces 






'" ' "■^- ■ -— '- -■ . A->-'.-kW.>-'": '-t.... ^ yr: w.- ,,^^'z. ». -.^u^M . 



On tht Atmospheric System. 



\ it back and allows the piston to pass. — 

,: The valve, or rather, piston Z», is a cup 

-t leather, riveted between iron plates and 

:. shuts into the opening in the partition: c 

f- is a flat leather valve, and shuts against a 



facing in the main. 



The main pipe is put together with 
deep socket joints, in each of which an 
annular space is left about the middle of 
the packing, and filled with a semi-fluid ; 
thus any possible leakage of air into the 
pipe is prevented. 

When it is necessary to stop or retard 
the train, in addition to the use of a com- 
mon break, a valve in the travelling piston 
is opened by the conductor by which 'means 
the external air is admitted into the ex- 
hausted portion of the pipe, and the pro- 
pelling power destroyed. 

In localities where a sufficient quantity 
and fall of water can be obtained, the at- 
mospheric system can be worked without 
the assistance of any machinery whatev- 
er : by constructing a tank or tanks (of 
a total capacity double that of the section 
of pipe they have to exhaust,) filling them 
with water, and allowing it to run out 
through a descending perpendicular pipe 
about 32 feet long (which it will do by its 
gravity alone,) the whole of the air con- 
tained in the pipe will expand itself into 
the tanks, and by the time they are half 
emptied of water half a vacuum will be 
formed in the pipes, as the air will be ex- 
panded into twice its bulk, and the other 
half will run out while the travelling pis- 
ton and train are advancing, thus increas- 
ing the space in the tanks as that in the 
pipes is diminishing by the approach of 
the piston, and by this means maintaining 
the same degree of vacuum during the 
whole time the train is passing, whatever 
be its speed. 

Workings of the Atmospheric railway 

on the Birmingham, Bristol and 

Thames Junction railway. 

The system is in operation on part of 

the above line between the Great Western 

railway and the Uxbridge road, on an in- 

cline, part 1 in 120 and part 1 in 115. 



230 



On the Aimosphric System. 




The vacuum pipe is half a mile long, 
and 9 inches internal diameter. 

The exhausting pump is 37^ inches 
diameter and 22^ inches stroke, worked 
by a steam engine of 16 horses' power. 

For the purpose of experiment a series 
of posts were fixed along the half mile 
every two chains, and a barometric gauge 
was attached at each end of the pipe, for 
the purpose of ascertaining the degree to 
which the pipe was exhausted ; a vacuum 
equal to a column of mercury 18 inches 
high was obtained in about one minute, 
and both gauges indicated the same ex- 
tent of vacuum at the same instant. 

The following table shows a fair ave- 
rage of the results obtained during six 
months. 

By following out these results, it will 
be foimd that a main pipe of 18 inches 
diameter will be sufficiently large for a 
traffic of 5000 tons per day, viz., 2500 
tons in each direction, supposing the gra- 
dients of the road to average 1 in 100. 

Note. — A main pipe, 18 inches diam- 
eter, will contain a piston of 254 inches 
the usual pressure on this piston, 



area; 



produced by exhausting the pipe, shoula 
be 8 lbs. per square inch (as this is the 
most economical degree of vacuum to 
work at, and a large margin is left for ob- 
taining higher vacuums to draw trains 
heavier than usual on emergencies) — a 
tractive force of 2032 pounds is thus ob- 
tained, which will draw a train weighing 
45 tons, at 30 miles per hour, up an in- 
cline rising 1 in 100. Two and a half 
miles of jhis pipe will contain 23,324 cu- 
bic feet of air, -^ths of which, or 12,439 
cubic feet, must he pumped out to effect a 
vacuum equal to 8 lbs. per square inch : 
the air-pump for this purpose should be 
5 feet 7 inches diameter, or 247 feet area, 
and its piston should move through 220 
feet per minute, thus discharging at the 
rate of 24 7 x 220 = 5434 cubic feet per 
minute at first, and at the rate of 2536 cu- 
bic feet per minute when the vacuum has 
advanced to 16 inches mercury, or 8 lbs. 
per square inch, the mean quantity dis- 
charged being thus 3985 feet per minute ; 



therefore -SV^ = 31 



minutes, the time 



required to exhaust the pipe ; and as the 
axea of the pump piston is 14 times as 



On the AtmoipUric ^gtm. 



iSi 



great as that in the pipe, so the velocity of the latter will be 14 times as 
great as that of the former, or 220 feet per minute X 14 = 3060 feet per 
minute, or 35 miles per hour : but in consequence of the imperfect action 
of an air-pump, slight leakages, etc., this velocity will be reduced to 30 
miles per hour, and the time requisite to make the vacuum increased to 4 
minutes: the train will thus move over the 2^ miles section in 5 minutes, 
and it can be prepared for the next train in 4 minutes more, together 9 mi- 
nutes ; 15 minutes is therefore ample time to allow between each train, and 
supposing the working day to consist of 14 hours, 56 trains can be started 
in each direction, or 2520 tons, making a total of 5000 tons per day. The 
fixed engine to perform this duty will be 110 horses' power, equivalent to 
22 horses' power per mile in each direction. 



■'■■<.- ■ '■.■ 






Maxim'm 


Vacu'm in 


■'.' ■ '^ 


Number of passengers. 


Totol load. 


speed in 
ms. pr. hr. 


inches of 
mercury. 






tons. cwt. 






June 11, 1840 


23 


8 


22i 


18 




23 ■ ■^'-->' 


8 


22i 


16 


, ■ . 


15 K&'.. 


7 10 


20 


19 


- ,' A •■"■ * ". 


21 -:>'f^-i:^ 


7 18 


22i 


19 




44 ^^>;>-^-v: 


9 10 


22i 


20 


• '"* '!■'/■'■■ 


68 "M^:- ' 


10 7 


22i 


19 


_. .. ' .' -^ y:^.- 


57 U-i*-' 


10 6 , 


18.- 


19 




26 :<•:■:■■: 


6 9 


30 


18i 


■;;/,-; • y;:^ - 


75 ^4'-^\^i-^^ 


11 10 


22i 


17 


V -.,-;-::. : 


24 :■■ -5.- ^^^:- 


8 2 


22i 


15 




13 i::-^:i-h:^-i 


4 12 


30 


16 




9 


7 2 


22i 


m 


June 29, 1840 


28 


8 2 


30 






28 «^ 


, 5 13 


30 




- 


28 -% 


5 13 


36 




July 24, 1840 


21 


7 18 


30 


22 




15 


4 15 


30 


22 


<v f -f'.^-' y-v'-V* i ." '5 ■ 


i^-^P^^H>.'-ivni-^-^-?:. 


4 6 


30 


23 




15 >..>H>^^ 


5 


30 


2U 


Aug. 8, 1840 


16 


5 1 


30 


21 




18 and ballast 


13 10 


18 


20i 




18 


6 4 


30 


20^ 


Aug. 10, 1840 


16 


5 


30 


20 




17 and ballast 


13 10 


20 


22 




10 


4 13 


30 


22 


Aug. 11, 1840 


28 ; - 


6 17 


30 


20i 




25 -.^vvV:v 


5 13 


30 


20 




14 


5 


30 


20 


Sent. 24, 1840 


23 


5 10 


36 




Nov, 6, 1840 


17 


5 3 


36 


21 




16 


5 


45 


23i 


Dec. 9, 1840 


11 


4 14 


45 


23 


Dec. 15, 1840 


15 


6 


36 


22i- 


Jan. 6, 1841 


10 


4 13 


36 


22| 


Feb. 19i 1841 


8 


4 If 


45 


^i 



By reference to the dates of this table it will be seen that the workings of 
the system are equally perfect dnring all seasons ; through the height of 



;:■>.: ^-i..^.^ ^.A^L.ari.MXxt.t.t^.J., 



Jjti^^tm 



■f-iiifiiinh»trnti' 



832 On the Atmospheric System. 

summer, and in the severest winter that we have known for many years : 
in no single instance during the whole time has any derangement of the 
machinery taken place, to prevent, or even to delay for one minute, the start- 
ing of the trains. The main pipe and valve have considerably improved by 
working ; the composition for sealing the valve has become so much more 
firmly bedded in its place, that while in June last we were only able. to ob- 
tain a vacuum equal to a column of mercury 19 to 20 inches high, we now 
obtain from 22 to 24 inches, and occasionally 25. The speed, originally 
from 20 to 30 miles per hour, now ranges from 30 to 45. The whole at- 
tendance the valve and main received during this period was that of a single 
laborer for about one hour every week : the composition now' in the valve- 
groove has never been changed ; and 56 lbs. weight only has been added to 
supply the waste : the cost of this composition, which consists of wax and 
tallow, is \s. per lb. 

We have now procured data from which the economy and advantage of 
tkis system can be arrived at with certainty. 

It is true that we have heard many objections made ; and as these objec- 
tions, if tenable, would involve the principle of the invention, we cannot do 
better than notice and comment on them here. We have been told, IsL 
That our experiments do not prove the applicability of the system to an ex- 
tended line of road. 

2d. That the number of stationary steam engines and establishments re- 
quired on this system would be an objection, in point of expense, and liabil- 
ity to accident. 

3d. That an accident occurring at one of these stations, or anywhere along 
the pipes, would interrupt the traffic on the whole line ; and so strenuously 
has this objection been urged, that we have heard it asserted that a hole the 
size of a pin's head, in the sealing composition, would prevent the action of 
the invention, and thus the traffic might be stopped for a whole day while 
making fruitless search to discover it. 

In answer to the first objection we would say, in every case Avhere a train 
has been started the pipe has been first exhausted to 18 inches of mercury 
or upwards : the time of performing this operation is about one minute, and 
from the barometric gauges fixed at both ends of the pipe the vacuum is as- 
certained to be formed to an equal extent throughout the whole length with- 
out any appreciable difl!erence of time. The pipe laid down is 9 inches di- 
ameter, and half a mile long, and a pressure equal to a column of mercury 
18 inches high is obtained in one minute by an air-pump 37^ inches diame- 
ter, moving through ^65 feet per minute. Now it is obvious that if the 
transverse section of the pipe be increased to any extent, and the area of the 
air-pump proportionately increased, the result will remain unaltered, — i. e. 
half a mile of pipe will be exhausted in one minute ; and supposing the air- 
pump has to exhaust 3 miles, it will perform the operation in 6 minutes ; it 
is also obvious that if the area of the air-pump be increased in a greater 
proportion than that of the pipe, the exhaustion will be performed more ra- 
pidly, or vice versa. These results are matters of absolute certainty, as 
convincingly clear, as that the power of a steam engine must be regulated 
by the area of the piston on which the steam acts. No person of scientific 
attainments will for one moment doubt, that 'if a steam engine were made 
with a cylinder twice the area of the largest cylinder ever set to work, the 
power obtained would be in proportion to the increased area : and so with 
the air-pumps before alluded to ; the excess of work is immediately arrived 
at that an air-pump six feet 3 inches diameter will perform over another of 
3 feet 1^ inch diameter, the speed, of the pistons being the same ia bo^ in^ 



On the Atmospheric System. 

u 

stances. So plain and self-evident is this result, that we believe the most 
sceptical will admit it to be correct"; and this being granted, the applicability ; 
of the system to a line of any length must follow ; for Avhatever the lengta 
of railroad be, whether 3 or 30, or 300 miles, no different effects have to be 
produced. The working a road 30 miles long would be the same thing as 
working 10 roads each 3 miles long. Every 3 miles an engine and air- 
pump is fixed, which exhausts its own portion of pipe before the train ar- 
rives ; thus, as the train advances it receives power from each succeeding 
engine in turn, and without any stoppage, unless required, until it arrives at 
its final destination, and the air-pumps continuing to work, after the train has 
passed, on the section they act upon, re-exhaust it in readiness for the next 

The second objection, as to the complexity and outlay attendant on a 
number of fixed engines, may perhaps be better answered by taking a re- 
view of the number and expense of these engines and the duty they are re- 
quired to perform. On a line 30 miles long, supposing the average distance 
between the engines to be three miles, there -would be 10 engines and air- 
pumps with their engine houses ; and if the railroad were appointed for 
transporting 5000 tons per day over the whole distance, (considerably more 
than double the amount carried daily on any railroad in England,) the ex- 
pense of one of these stationary engine establishments would cost complete 
£4200, which, multiplied by 10, will give £42,000 — total cost on the whole 
line. But it is a fact which probably must have escaped the notice of those 
urging this expense as a drawback to the atmospheric system, if they were 
ever acquainted with it, that to perform a traffic of only 1700 tons per day 
upwards of one locomotive engine per mile is necessary ; and as each loco- 
motive costs £1500, the total capital required for locomotive power on a rail- 
road 30 miles in length would be £45,000; in first cost, therefore, there 
would be a saving of £3000 in favor of the stationary power ;* but this is far 
from being the most important saving. Every mill owner in Lancashire 
and Yorkshire, and any persoh connected with mining operations, will rea- 
dily admit that his outlay being once incurred for a steam engine to drivie 
his machinery or drain his mine, and his engine being once fixed on terra 
firma, its deterioration, uncertainty of action, or annual expense of mainten- 
ance, is not a sourcejof annoyance or anxiety to him. Five per cent. p«r 
annum on the cost will more than cover all repairs necessary to be perform- 
ed to it, and all oil, hemp and tallow used in working it. It is the excep-. 
tion, and not the rule, if a stationary engine once fixed meet with a derange-r 
ment to render a stoppage necessary. 

The annual expenses will be for repairs at 5 per cent, on £42,000 £2.100 
For coal for these engines (when transporting 2000 tons per day,) 

6420 tons per year, at 20s. per ton - . . < - 6420 
Wages to engine-men and stokers 1800 

i £10,330 

v The Liverpool and Manchester railway is 30 miles long, and is the only 
railway that transports as much as 1700 tons per day over its whole dis» 
tance ; and the annual expense of its locomotive department, including cokCj* 
is about £50,000 a year. 

Need we make any further comment, when the annual expense of power 
for the atmospheric system is £10,320, and for performing the same traffic 
on the locomotive system upwards of £50,000 is found necessary? Great 

• This saving is in engines only, but it should be recollected that there are many other 
items, and by reference to ihe comparative expense of the tWo systems (page 238, R. R. J.,) 
it will be seen that the total outlay on the locomotive system is £37,600 per mile, and MH 
the atmospheric £15,120. ^ 



- ■ --"^-^rlf ruMrfir^li'i i-iiri 11 iniin'miri-i nVi ifTfiirlr'^- 



S34 On the Atmotpkric Sffsiem. i 

as the pecuniary advantages have been shown to be, we must not forget to 
correct the third objection ; viz., the erroneous opinion that the system is 
iiiulty because an accident occurring at one of these stations would interrupt 
the traffic on the whole line. Prima facie, this argument is correct, but 
we have already shown how small the chance of accident is to a stationary 
steam engine ; hundreds are employed day and night without interruption} 
draining mines ; if any derangement in their action were to take place, these 
valuable properties would be overflowed, and it would require no difficulty 
to point out many establishments where engines have been in action for years 
together.* But to make assurance doubly sure, a pair of engines and a 
pair of air-pumps, each of half the requisite power, may be fixed at each 
station : should anything cause one engine and pump to stop, the traffic 
would not be interrupts! ; the only delay would be the retardation of the 
train while passing over that section of pipe where only half the power was 
in action, and until the cause of the stoppage were removed the trains would 
be some five or six minutes more than usual performing the journey. 

The next objection we have to meet is the interruption to the traffic from 
some derangement in the pipe. This comprehends, 1st, an accident to the 
pipe itself; and 2d, from the composition not being effectually sealed. 

An accident to the pipe can only occur from breakage, and unless design- 
edly perpetrated, could never happen at all. But for the sake of argument 
we will suppose a pipe has been broken-— no matter how • the time of re- 
moving it and replacing it with another would be consideraoly less than the 
time now necessary to clear off* the fragments of a broken engine and train 
after a collision ; and supposing a length of valve to require replacing, it 
could be done in less time than replacing a rail when torn up by an engine 
running off" the line. 

If, instead of one, there were one hundred places along the pipe where 
the heater had imperfectly performed its functions, the admission of atmos- 
pheric air through the composition in these places would only reduce the 
column of mercury a few inches : no stoppage or interruption of the traffic 
could possibly occur from this cause, and by comparing the quantity of air 
pumped out each stroke of the pump, with the quantity that will leak in at 
each imperfectly sealed spot, any such erroneous idea will be removed. 
Perhaps on this head, an appeal to experience will be more satisfactory than 
any argument, however strong : in the whole of our virorkings, the column 
of mercury has never varied in height more than 2 inches on the same day ; 
and as it requires eight times the number of minutes to destroy the vacuum 
in the pipe, when the engine is at rest, that it takes to raise it when in action, 
it follows that one-eighth only of the power (two horses) is all that is em- 
ployed to overcome leakage. Perhaps the necessity of stopping the traffic 
of a line in the event of an accident until the damage is replaced or the ob- ~ 
stacle cleared away, should be regarded upon all railways as a peculiar ad- 
vantage: by this necessity all chance of " running into" is avoided, and 
where stationary power is employed the difficulties of commuication which 
a locomotive line has to contend with are overcome. By means of an elec- 
tric telegraph, every engine station along 100 miles of road may be com- 
municated with in half a minute, and thus the traffic may be suspended and 
resumed at pleasure. i 

On examining the facts we have collected, it will be seen that the atmos- 
pheric system is grounded on sound principles, and free from many objec- . " 

* At Rock's Mine, Cornwall, an engine has worked day and night without internum- '"'_ 
don for 3 1-2 years. At the East London water works, a nair of engines, called " the 
twini^" h&ve woj^ed 11 years, with scaicdy one hour's roit day or night. 



;• I'T^'J 



- On the Atmospheric System. 

tions that the present railways have to contend with : and a very casual re- 
ference to these defects will prove the necessity of substituting an improved 
system to meet the wants of the public, when this means of travelling be- 
comes fully developed and understood. 

* The general benefits that railway travelling has conferred, are admitted 
by all ; their introduction has given a new stimulus to industry, and present- 
ed increased facilities for the merchant, manufacturer and agriculturist, by 
bringing the remotest parts of the kingdom within a days journey, — ^thus 
enabling goods and agricultural produce to becogveyed to distant towns, for 
which the previous mode of transport was unequal ; indeed, the numerous 
advantages of railways have been fully appreciated by the public, who have 
not hesitated to embark immense sums of money to construct them between 
most of the principal towns. 

In proportion as persons have acquired a knowledge of the commercial 
benefits that arise from this improved system of travelling, and have felt the 
advantages of it practically, their distaste for the old mode of conveyance 
has increased ; and if railway communication were attainable at a cost at 
all approximating to that previously employed, it would very shortly become 
universal throughout the empire. But the general adoption of the railway 
system followed its introduction so speedily, that many roads were half fin- 
ished before their expenses could be ascertained ; each town capable of rais- 
ing sufficient capital to connect itself with the metropolis did so immediate- 
ly, — more eager to be on a par with its neighbor, than considerate of the 
expense it was about to incur. Fortunately these increased facilities in 
many cases created a traffic which compensated for the outlay that was 
found necessary to form and work these roads ; and as there is now so large 
a portion of capital sunk in this description of property, and a moral cer- 
tainty that a greater number of railways will be made in the'next ten years 
than have been made and partially completed in the last,* any invention ten- 
ding to facilitate their formation, or to reduce their cost, is a matter of the 
greatest national and commercial importance : and if by such an invention 
the speed of travelling can be further increased, the danger of accidents di- 
minished, and the expense of transporting goods reduced to as low a rate as 
by canals, the traffic, and, as a natural consequence, the remuneration to the 
proprietors, will be proportionably augmented. 

Our object is to point out, that these results will follow the adoption of 
the atmospheric system of working, and we think it will be admitted that 
we have fully borne out and justified this idea, when we have taken a re- 
view of the nature of the power and the experience already obtained on the 
one hand, and of the drawbacks under which the present systnm labors on 
the other. We will first notice the principal defects in railways worked by 
locomotive power. These are the expenses consequent upon their forma- 
tion and working, in addition to the impossibility of obtaining a speed be- 
yond 25 miles an hour, without incurring a more than proportionate addi* 
tlonal expense. For an engine that would draw 61 29 tons on a level at 
the rate of 25 miles an hour, would if required to travel 30 miles an hour, 
only be able to draw 29 66 tons, or, for the additional 5 miles in speed, a 
loss of more than one-half in power. These evils arise from the following 
causes. 

First, from the necessity of making the roads comparatively level, owing 
to the nature of the power employed. The whole power of the locomotire 
engine is not available to impel the train because it has to drag itself and 

* In England alone, since 1R3], upwards of 2000 miles of railway have been completed, 
or are in progress of comjdction 



V 



236 On the Atmospheric System, > 

tender. Thus a great portion of its power is consumed even on a level ;" 
but that loss of power is greatly augmented when contending with the 
slightest ascent. 

The extent of this defect will be more clearly apparent by an example : 
'.' Supposing a locomotive engine to possess a gross tractive force of 1700 
lbs., and its weight including tender, to be 20 tons,'(this is the actual weiglit 
and tractive force of the best locomotive engines in general use when trav- 
elling at a mean rate of 20 miles per hour,) and as 14 lbs. per ton is requir- 
ed to attain this velocity o(| a level road, 280 lbs. will be consumed to impel 
the engine and tender, leaving 1420 lbs. available for the train. This, at 14 
lbs. per ton, will draw 101 tons on a level road. We will now place the 
same train on an inclined plane rising 1 in 50. The power required to 
draw a ton at the same speed is then increased from 14 lbs. to 59 lbs., or 
nearly 4| times as much as on a level : therefore the engine and tender 
weighing 20 tons will consume 1180 lbs. instead of 280 lbs., and will leave,.'^ 
but 520 lbs. available for the train, instead of 1420 lbs. ; but as the traiir 
now needs 5959 lbs. to enable it to ascend, 11^ locomotives, each possessing 
a tractive force of 1700 lbs., together 19,550 lbs., will be required to pro- 
duce that available force ; we thus have an absolute waste of more than two- 
thirds of the power employed on an ascent of 1 in 50, while on a level it 
is less than one-sixth. By the same calculation it will be seen, that if the 
activity be slightly increased, the locomotive engine will not have sufficient 
power to draw itself and tender, even without the train. 

Secondly, by the necessity of having great weight and strength of rails 
and foundation consequent on the employment of locomotive engines. 
These engines (exclusive of tender) weigh generally from 14 to 15 tons 
each ; and, in addition to the rigidity of road required to sustain this weight 
passing over it on one carriage, the motion transferred to the wheels by the 
engines alternately on each side, causes a continual displacement or forcing 
out of the rails. 

The third, and perhaps the greatest evil, is the heavy expense attendant 
on working a railway by the ordinary method ; and this item is rendered 
more excessive by the necessity of having a large number of extra engines 
in store to keep an adequate supply in working order. By reference to the 
half-yearly accounts of the Liverpool and Manchester railway, the annual 
expense for locomotive power and coke is found to be from £57,000 to 
£60,000 a year, nearly £2000 a mile per annum, on a traffic of about 1700 
tons a day. This amount is exclusive of first cost and interest on the origi- 
nal stock. * 

The fourth evil is the large consumption of fuel in proportion to the 
power obtained, which arises, in part, from the great velocity in the move- 
ment of the pistons, preventing the steam from acting on them with full 
force ; which causes a back pressure on the pistons, reducing their force in 
proportion to the velocity at which they move : the power of the engine is 
thus constantly diminished as the velocity of the train is increased. To so 
great an extent is the combined action of these defects felt, that when travel- 
ling at 20 miles per hour, the effective power of the engine is reduced to 
half that which would be obtained from the same quantity of steam gene- 
rated, and fuel consumed, with a stationary engine. When travelling at 30 
miles per hour it is reduced to less than one-fourth ; and at a speed but little 
exceeding 45 miles, the power is so far destroyed that the engine will scarcely 
draw more than itself and tender. An additional waste of fuel, to an im- 
mense extent, is also occasioned by the loss of power (as already shown) on 
inclined planes. And, lastly, the chances of accident from collision, run- 



On the Atmospheric System, 



m 



ning off the rail, bursting of boilers ; effects, which have been too severely 
felt during the past six months. 

From the foregoing remarks it will appear that the evils of the present 
system are entirely attributable to the use of locomotive power, and the re- 
medy must be sought for in the employment of stationary power in its stead : 
the means by which this can be effected without diminishing the accommo- 
dation and advantages at present given to the public, are next to be consid- 
ered ; and it is confidently expected that in the following summary will be 
found, not only remedies for all existing evils, but also many important ad- 
vantages, both in speed and safety, which cannot p(>ssibly be obtained by the 
above named system. 

1st. The loss of power occasioned by the locomotive engines having to 
draw their own weight is entirely avoided, and steep hills may be ascended 
with no more additional power than that actually due to the acclivity, as 
there is no weight except the train. 

There is no other known power which can be applied to locomotion with- 
out carrying considerable weight and friction with it. The ill effects of lo- 
comotive engines have been already pointed out, and the same disadvantages 
exist in the application of ropes, which must be drawn along with the train, 
and become an increased incumbrance on inclined planes. The defects of 
ropes in other respects are too generally known to need comment 

2d. The weight of the rails and chairs on the new system may be less 
by one-third than where locomotive engines are employed, as the carriages 
of the train will be too light to injure them. The annual charge of main- 
tenance of way will, from the same cause, be reduced to a considerable ex- 
tent. 

4 3d. The wear and tear of locomotive, compared with stationary engines, 
is as 18 to 1. 

4th. By the new system the full power of the engines is always obtained : 
and on an incline the additional quantity of fuel consumed in ascending will 
be saved in descending, as the trains run down by their own gravity. The 
expense of fuel will be further decreased, as the expense of using coal is 
only half that of coke. 

On the new system the velocity depends entirely upon the velocity with, 
which the air is withdrawn from the pipe ; therefore, by simply increasing 
the air pump, any speed may be attained ; and with a fixed quantity of trafr 
fie per diem, no considerable increase in the fuel consumed or any other eX* 
pense is incurred for improved speed, further than the small additional power 
required to overcome the increased atmospheric resistance. An actual sa- 
ving in the first cost of a railway constructed for high velocities may be ef- 
fected, because, by performing the journey in less time, a greater number 
of trains may be despatched each day, and their weight diminished ; there- 
fore the piston, having less to draw, may be smaller in diameter. The cost 
of the pipe (which forms the largest item in the first cost of this railway) 
will thus be reduced in nearly the same projwrtion as the speed is increasai. 

Besides these advantages, this system possesses others of still more im- 
portance to the public. No collision between trains can take place, for as 
the power cannot be applied to more than one piston at a time in the same 
section of pipe, the trains must ever be the length of a section apart from 
each other ; and if from any cause a train should be stopped in the middle' 
of a section, the train which follows it will be obliged to stop also at the 
entrance of the pipe, as there will be no power to propel it until the first 
train is out It is also impossible for two trains to run in opposite directions 
on the same line, as the power is only applied at one end of each section. 






238 J On the Atmospheric System. 

A train cannot get off the rail, as the leading carriage is firmly attached 
to the piston, which travels in the pipe between the rails, and the luggage 
and carriages cannot be burnt, as no engines travel with the trains. 

We now come to the comparative cost of the two systems. -s 

1st. The necessity of having the railway comparatively level causes the 
present enormous outlay for earth work, viaducts and tunnelling, and in- 
creases the cost of land, not only by lengthening the line to save cutting 
and embankment, but by the quantity wasted on each side of the road \Vher- 
ever such work is required. 7'hus, if an embankment or cutting has to be 
made of 30 feet, at least 60 feet of land must be covered on each side of the 
railway in order to obtain sufficient slope, making a width of 120 feet, be- 
sides the road, except where they occur in very favorable ground. The 
comparative expense of this item between the two systems can be ascer- 
tained by referring to the average cost of forming a turnpike road and that 
of the principal railways now in operation. 

Since it is not necessary to make detours to avoid steep gradients, the di- 
rection of the road in a straight line may be more nearly preserved. 

LOCOMOTIVE SYSTEM. Pcf mile. 
Taking five of the principal railroads an the basis of our cadculation. their 

average expense of formation has exceeded* - - - j£36,000 

And the original stock of locomotives, - « ?.«..•.-* 1.600 

37,600 

ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEM. Pcr mile. 

The average expense of forming a turnpike road throughout Elngland , , 

has been £3000 per mile, but for our road say - 4,000 i-i-i*! 

Allow extra for road bridges, - '«-,•. ■ ■'. i*^ - 2,000 

Rails, chairs, sleepers and laying down, - ' - 2,500 

Main pipe and apparatus complete (on a scale for transporting 360 tons 

per hour, or 5000 tons per day of fourteen hours, on a road with gra- • T 

dients of 1 in 100,) - ' - - - 5,200 ^i* 

Fixed engines, air pumps and engine houses, - -, 1,400 ,^- 

Travelling pistons, - - , :,»:,;;,;.»...;,. 20 %. 

15,120 j-A,'.^ 
Saving per mile in forming and furnuhing on the atmospheric system, 22,480 

~37;600 '1 

Annual expenses of working pcr mile, when conveying two thousand tons per day. 

(This is beyond the average quantity conveyed on the Liverpool and Manchester radroad.) 

LOccMOTtvE SYSTEM. Per milc. 

5 per cent, interest on capital investetl, j6 37,600, - « t 

Maintenance of way, ... , j,-j ;>"*»> ^.iii; 

Locomotive department, including coke, .i^re-i • ."*•• ';JJ^''v' •■/>.■ ' \^, 

•-■■; :.■-•■ -^ ^:;^J?.' ■ 
ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEM, . .-. . >■ 

5 per cent, interest on capital invested, viz., £15,120, -' ' ' ' - 
Maintenance of way, and attendance on mains, - ' i' ' 

Wear and tear of fixed engines, 5 per cent of cost, - > " •; ■' 
Coal, 0-75 lb. per ton per nule, 214 tons, at 209. - •; '~ • 

Wages to engine men and stokers, - , ^.t j - 

Wages to train conductors., - ^ - '^ • 

Renewal of travelling apparatus and composition, ** i(>:T;-«'^ ': 
Sundries, - - - _ - * 

Annual saving per milc on the atmospheric system, 

Total expenses per ton per mile on the locomotive system. 
Total expenses per ton per mil<* on the atmospheric system, - 

Exclusive of carriages and management, which may be taken as the same on both 
gystems. 

— — ; — — f* 

* Our cmlculatious are founded en the reports of dtfiferent companies whoM railwayi ate complete 
•r ia a forward state. 



4 


1,880 


v'.'iiv 


450 


'C * "^v . . 


1,800 




4,130 


Per mile. 




756 




- 300 


.^r 


70 


■>) 


- 214 


'•# 


60 
- J6 


m 


^ 


■f¥ 


150 


■ 


1,626 




2,504 


■ .ii^ 


4,130 




- 


l-54d. 


- 


006d. 



.:;•-... 



On the Atmespkerie System. ; ^WKm" 

In the comparison which we have instituted between the locomotire and 
the atmospheric systems, we have notdweh particularly on many important 
defects of the locomotive system, but have only noticed them with a view to 
point out their existence, and to show that the very nature of the system we 
are advocating, prevents the possibility of their being found in it. We do 
not think, however, that we should do justice to ourselves if we were not to 
notice more fully some of the worst of these evils, with the view of ascer-^- 
taining to what they are attributable, and what hope exists of remedying 
them. We have no wish, nor unfortunately have we any occasion, to ex- 
aggerate the dangers of steam travelling. Not a newspaper but teems withi 
arguments the most cogent, the most appalling, in favor of a change of sys- • 
tem. We may be told that these arguments have been listened to ; that the 
attention of the legislature has been called to the subject, and that conse- 
quently steps will be taken so as to entirely prevent the recurrence of the 
deplorable sacrifices of human life. We answer, that it is impossible. The 
fault is in the system ; and no legislative enactments, however stringent, can 
remedy it. We have no need of assertion to prove this position. The re-; 
port of the Liverpool and Manchester railway directors, and adopted by the 
general meeting of railway proprietors, at Birmingham, on the best means 
of preventing accidents on the lines, has just been published, and we desire 
no other arguments to support our views than the opinions put forth by these 
directors, who must be admitted, from their great experience, to be compe- 
tent judges of the question, and whose interest is too deeply concerned to al- 
low them to exaggerate the evils they comment upon, the following is the 
substance of their report. 

" In considering the subject of the various accidents which have recently 
taken place on different railways, and the different circumstances connected 
with each accident, it appears that they are attributable to one or more of 
the following causes : 

i " 1st. The want or insufficiency of signal lights, giving warning of dan-'* 
ger. 

" 2d. Neglect on the part of enginemen of such signals when given, com- 

{>rehending a culpable want of care and vigilance in not keeping a good 
ood-out; and, 

" 3d. The difficulty of stopping a train when danger is perceived near' 
at hand." « 

With respect to the first cause the committee are of opinion, " that the 
printed rules and regulations of this company, which have been brought 
under the consideration of many other companies, and, as your committee 
believe, constitute the basis and tenor of their respective regulations, are, on 
the whole, well calculated to answer the purposes intended. One modifica- 
tion seems desirable, viz : that the red light or the red flag should, in all 
cases, and under all circumstances, be viewed as a warning against danger."* 

As to the second point ; " the committee can only recommend great care 
in the selection of active steady men in the first instance. Good wages, and 
a considerate regard to their comforts so long as they do their duty ; accom- 
panied by the strictest discipline, and by uniformly putting in force the pro- 
visions of Lord Seymour's act in cases of any neglect of duty or disobedi- 
ence of orders, hazarding the safety of life or property, although no loss of 
either should take place." 

" With respect to the third point under review, the difficulty of promptly 
stopping trains when danger is perceived, the most efficient means hitherto 
employed are immediately to reverse the engine, and put on the tender break: ' 
Qreat care should be taken by the engineers that the reversing gear is of 



^40 On the Aimosphric System. 

the most improved construction, not liable to get out of order, and which 
cannot fail to act when the reversing lever is applied. * * With regard 
to the numerous proposals of improvements and schemes for the prevention 
of accidents by mechanical means, if that unceasing vigilance which cannot 
be too strongly insisted upon on the part of the engine driver should be at 
any time relaxed, those who have not been long conversant with the practi- 
cal working of a railway can hardly be aware how many of them have 
been long since, and under various forms, already tried, and found to be at- 
tended with risks and inconveniences more than compensating for any sup- 
posed advantage." 

The committee strongly deprecate the idea of relieving the engineman 
from " the responsibJe charge of his engine" by appointing a " conductor of 
a higher standing and superior acquirements, whose special business it should 
be to look out, and under whose orders the engineman should act. 

" By introducing another man on the engine you have another pair of 
eyes to look out ; but this advantage, if it be one, might be more than coun- 
tervailed by the divided authority and responsibility which must inevitably 
take place. 

"Jealousy and disunion, it is to be feared, would frequently arise. These 
would be destructive of confidence in their own resources to the men them- 
selves, and fraught with danger lo the whole train. As to the necessity for 
superior acquirements or professional skill, there is no evidence of a single 
accident having occurred owing to the want of these qualifications. The 
desiderata are constant vigilance and presence of mind in emergencies ; and 
your committee are of opinion that no man, however professionally compe- 
tent, ought to be trusted with the charge of an engine till he has served an 
apprenticeship to the business, and has thus become familiar with the rapi- 
dity of the locomotive engine and its consequent excitement, with its severe, 
exposure to the weather, with the customs and practice of railway operations, 
and with all the contingencies of locomotive transit regarding police regu- 
lations, signals, etc." 

Such are the only means recommended by the Liverpool and Manchester 
railway committee, with a view to get rid of the dangers attendant on this 
method of travelling; and we really believe that these gentlemen havesug- 
gested all that can be done ; and if all railway accidents, or the greater num- 
ber of them, were attributable to carelessness and neglect on the part of the 
engine drivers, their suggestion would go far to remedy the evil. But here 
we contend they are greatly mistaken ; the fault is in the system, not in the 
men. It is quite true that the evidence produced at many of the inquests 
puts beyond tloubt the fact, that the necessary signals have on those occa- 
sions been made and must have been seen ; yet no attention appears to have 
been paid, and the most disastrous consequences have been the inevitable re- * 
suit. But does it follow that this inattention on the part of the conductor 
has been the result o[ wilful neglect? Can it be for a moment believed that . 
any man would thus rush headlong into danger, to the almost certain de- 
struction of his own life, and the imminent hazard of those committed to his 
care ? Common sense repudiates the thought. Nothing short of madness 
could lead to such gross acts of crime and folly. Let us next consider the 
circumstances under which these accidents occur, and it will be readily seen" 
that they may be accounted for much more satisfactorily. Many altema* 
tives'^must be rejected before having recourse to the insanity of the engine ' 
drivers for an explanation. It will be seen that the question to be discussed'^ 
is not, have the conductors the will to avert the calamities, but have they the ' 
FQWEK? — not whether we are to consider them as suicidal maniacs, but as 



■VC' 



On the Atmospheric Ssfstem. 9tl 

the slaughtered victims of a murderous system. Let the impartial reader 
judge. 

Suppose our engine director fully understands the construction and man- 
agement of his engine : suppose we can answer for his discretion, that he 
never gets intoxicated, never gets fatigued, never falls asleep while on duty, 
never leaves his engine while on the line, never "sits down on the seat.;"* 
suppose him uninfluenced by the " excitement of rapid travellmg,"t or by 
the '• severe exposure to the weather."^ Let us suppose that he can readily 
attend to the working of his engine, and yet keep a good lookout ahead ; 
that he retains his vision perfect under all circumstances ; that it is unim- 
paired by moving rapidly through the air, and is not affected by the clouds 
of ashes from the chimney. Let us suppose, moreover, that the atmosphere 
(is always clear, that fogs never occur, or that they never prevent him dis- 
tinguishing the color of a flag or lamp ; and, lastly, let us suppose that no 
curves exist on the line, and that he is consequently enabled to see the signal 
half a mile ahead of him. Now what is the time, under all these favorable 
circumstances, allowed ta the conductor by the usual speed, to shut off the 
steam, give the signal for the breaks to be applied, or, if necessary, reverse 
his engine? One minute! But in addition to the above absurd supposi- 
tions, we have presumed that the accident by which a train has been stopped 
has taken place at a station, and that the danger is consequently known ; we 
have presumed that, knowing this danger, the company's servants have 
hoisted the red flag or lamp. But trains much more frequentJy break down 
between stations, where they cannot be expected to be provided with signals: 
we frequently hear of trains getting on the wrong line and meeting each 
Other. How are they in such cases to be apprised of their danger ? If 
they are enabled to see each other at half a mile, and recognize their dan- 
gerous position, yet but half a minute must elapse before they come into 
Qollision if unchecked? Is it p^sible that this short space of time can be 
sufficient for the two engine drivers to think, act, and give their directions 
for others to act ? And if so, can we be certain that the machinery by which 
the engines are stopped is in proper order to obey these actions of its direc- 
tor? It may be of "the most approved construction," and may have been 
perfect on commencing the journey ; but does it follow that it is so at this 
particular moment? It is well known that the cost of repairing locomotive 
engines is about 60 per cent, of the fir.st cost ; is the reversing gear, are the 
valves, breaks, the machinery, in short, now required to act, never among 
these expensive repairs? Or are we to believe that the accidents by which 
they are deranged always occur at the stations? No answer is required to 
these questions. No one, we think, will presume to assert that these parts 
are excepted from the fatalities which occur to the rest, or that they take 
place while at rest. The precautions strongly insisted upon in the report 
relative to this machinery prove that they have been called for. And now 
we would ask, are we justified in attributing these melancholy occurrences 
to the folly of the engine driver? Is it not sufficient to see his mutilated 
corpse stretched before us, but we must accuse him of felo dt 5C, and refuse 
his remains a christian burial, when an accident to the machinery (of the 
occurrence of which the report indirectly admits the possibility) would at 
once excuse him ? Charity, pity, all the better feelings of humanity, answer 
in the affirmative. 

It will be readily seen that the suppositions we have made in order to give 
every possible advantage to this system are absurd, for we have assumed 

. * One of the charges made against the unfortunate Simpson on the inquest. 

■ ■ t Vide report. J Ibid. , .r 



On the Atmospheric System. ' 

humanity to be perfect, materials indestructible, the atmosphere invariable, 
curved lines straight ; yet this is not sufficient : we must still presume that 
actions require no time for their performance, and that matter is deprived 
of its vis inertia! Had we drawn any inference from the facts that' sad ex- 
perience has afforded us to judge from, we should have concluded the dan- 
ger to be entirely referable to the use of locomotives, huge masses moving 
at a great and varying velocity, and over which the conductor has compa- 
ratively no control. To render railway travelling safe, (a method of travel- 
ling now so essential to the commercial prosperity of this country,) we must 
begin by rejecting the locomotive, and substituting in its stead stationary 
power. 

If we have shown, as we hope "we have, dispassionately and fairly, that 
so large a balance of safety is due to the atmospheric system, the large sa- 
ving of human life and suffering that would result from its adoption ought 
to be one of its best advocates for public patronage ; and in the same pro- 
portion that it restored public confidence and appetite for railway travelling, 
would it benefit the directors and proprietors. Every fatal accident, on 
whichever railway it has occurred, has been followed by a sensible reduc- 
tion in the traffic ; and this can be a matter of no surprise, when it is recol- 
lected that the present traffic possessed by all railways was actually formed 
by the increased facilities and inducements they held out to travellers over 
turnpike roads ; remove these facilities, and the increased traffic will van- 
ish. No railroad in existence could pay its expenses carrying only such 
passengers as are actually obliged to travel, and therefore the best policy 
of railway directors is to induce the public to use their lines by affording 
them the fullest and best accommodation as regards safety, speed, cheap 
fares and agreeable travelling. That railway which provides best for the 
wants and wishes of the public will, and very properly so, become the most 
patronised ; and it is scarcely too much to assert that a very large portion 
of business will spring up and locate itself along such lines, while others 
which may at present possess a large traffic will lose what they found to 
their hand, if, neglecting this course, they lull themselves into the mistaken 
notion that the monopoly they possess, not the convenience they afford, will 
guarantee them an equal amount of business. 

The first grand object in railway undertakings is to render them a per- 
fectly secure mode of transit — a conveyance by which the most timid may 
travel without hesitation, without a thought of fear, and of course without 
an example of ill, arising from the badness of their workings, to refer to : 
these great works, destined as they are to effect much good to all classes of 
society, will never be, nor indeed deserve to be, looked upon as a permanent 
benefit until they have arrived at this point. Precisely as a country flour- 
ishes under a well regulated system of police and justice, where the liberty 
and right of the subject are respected, so will railways flourish as human 
life in their keeping becomes secure. The high roads of England became 
more travelled over as the robbers that infested them fell into the hands of 
justice ; and it is a matter of small importance to a person contemplating a 
journey whether he have to fear falling a prey to the assassin's knife, or 
losing his life from the collision of two railway trains. The possibility of 
either would equally prevent the timid from travelling, and the courageous 
from travelling more than necessity required. 

To render Uie railway system perfectly secure is, then, the first object, 
and to this end should those who have its prosperity at heart look well. 
Humanity dictates it, and interest prompts it - and what greater inducements, 
we would ask, need be urged % . . _ 



■^^.V-: 



On iht Atmospheric System. 243 

i-' Perhaps the next point, after having arrived at that degree of security re- 
quired to satisfy the public, is to obtain that system of working which is the 
most economical. A large portion of the British commercial public have, 
with that enterprize which characterizes all their actions, embarked large 
sums of money in establishing railway communications between most of 
the principal towns in the kingdom. They saw the advantages that were 
certain to result from such an improved communication, but they did not 
know, indeed it would have been too much to have expected from them the 
expense of making and maintaining this communication. They Only knew 
what their eng^ineers told them. Their engineers' estimates in most cases 
were considerably less than was found necessary for the work, and this, 
added to the increased annual expense of working (above that originially 
contemplated when most of the present lines were projected,) has placed 
these undertakings in a very questionable light as commercial speculations 
and permanent investments. If Ave show this to be the present position of 
most railways, which we intend doing by reference to their own accounts, 
we wish it to be understood that we do not from this circumstance draw a 
conclusion that they cannot be made a lucrative investment. On the con- 
trary, we are of opinion that they can : we think it has been clearly shown 
that all their difficulties have arisen and are perpetuated by the use of an im- 
proper system of working. So long as the locomotive system is adhered 
to, a strict economy may in a small degree lessen the expenses, but no ma- 
terial improvement can be hoped or obtained. To strike at the yoot of the 
evil, the system must be abolished ; anything short of this will not be pro- 
ductive of benefits on a sufficiently extensive scale to enable railways to 
maintain their present position, and yield a return for the millions they have 
cost A better instance of this fact can scarcely be needed than an inspec- 
tion of the receipts and expenditure of those railways already in operation. 
From the official weekly returns in the " Railway Times," we perceive 
seventeen railways are in operation the whole of their length, and out of 
the whole number only thrse are earning sufficient to pay their subscribers 
more than common interest for their money. Of the remaining fourteen, 
six are not taking as much for their gross receipts as the interest of their 
capital embarked, iJidependent of working expenses ; and the receipts on 
the remaining eight, after deducting the working expenses, do not leave £5 
per cent, dividend for their subscribers. 

Fifty millions sterling have been embarked in railway speculations, and 
seventeen lines have come into full working activity, of which number only 
three can show a return beyond common interest to the subscribers : it well 
behoves capitalists to ascertain the cause of their disappointments, and to 
seek to recover some of the golden harvests they were led to expect, and 
which have melted away before their eyes like ice in the rays of the sun. 
Anything short of perfect indifference to their own interest will force on 
them the conclusion that they must no longer shut out the idea of improv- 
ing, and listen only to the counsel and advice of those at present in their 
confidence, whose interests are served by maintaining things as they now 
are, and by clinging to preconceptions and prejudices as part and parcel of 
their existence. When looking over the half yearly accounts of a railway 
worked by locomotive power, common sense and observation cannot fail to 
lead to the conclusion, that a very large portion of what would be profits is 
absorbed by the nature of the power applied ; but although a cursory no- 
tice of the accounts would prompt this conclusion, few would imagine, with- 
out giving the matter very close attention, how great this portion is. Some 
idea of it may be drawn from the following facts. Each train on railways 



344 On the Atmospheric System. ■ j. 

is drawn by an engine, the average weight of which is 20 tons ; therefore 
20 tons carried with each train is perfectly useless. On the London and 
Birmingham railway the lowest charge for goods is £2 per ton for the 
whole 112 miles. Supposing, for the sake of argument, the expense of V 
maintaining and working the locomotive department to remain unaltered, i* 
but the engines to weigh nothing ; it is clear that the company would be 
able to transport 20 tons more with each train for the same cost, or 16 tons 
of profitable merchandize, after deducting one-fourth for the wagons, which 
at £2 per ton would add to their revenue £30 per journey, or; with their 
present number of trains, (12 each way daily) — £306,000 a year. No 
doubt this fact will take many railway proprietors by surprise, who by a 
natural course of reasoning will immediately seek to discover by what 
means so large an amount, at present wasted, can be made to find its way 
into their pockets. The means are obvious ; the waste is occasioned by 
transporting useless weight ; remove the useless weight, and the objection 
ceases of itself Before the introduction of the atmospheric system, it was 
hopeless, by any known mechanical means, to effect this : every previous 
opplication of power carried considerable useless weight with it. The at- 
mospheric is entirely free from this objection ; and it was mainly from a 
knowledge of the benefits that must result from this source that we have la- 
bored so incessantly (and happily with ^uch success) to mature and bring it 
before the public, for their consideration and approbation. 

Such would be the effect of dismissing only the useless weight ; but add 
to this the other advantage possessed by the atmospheric system, and the 
London and Birmingham railway (notwithstanding its present large capital 
sunk) would be enabled to carry passengers at 5s. each, and goods at 6s. 
3d. per ton, the whole 112 miles, and share the same dividend as now. 

The calculations from which this statement is adduced are shown as fol- 
lows: viz.* ..-,;,..,._.-, ^-.^--Ti. f^v." ~ .- "■'.^-'■?-' '; 

.-.j-i:^ ',..;• Per day. Peryeav' 

2500 persons at 5s. each, - , ;. -* . - £ 626 t 

5930 tons merchandize at 6s. Zd. per ton, - v^^^i; 1,863 

,. £2,478— £805,360 
" Expenses, viz: ' 

Coals, 38 stations X 600 lbs. per hour X 16 hours per K 

day = 6867 tons per year at 10s. per ton, - - £ 3,434 : jy- ?• HI 

76 engine drivers at £100 per year, - £7,600 '-^'r'^^ikk 

76 stokers at £50 per year, - - - 3,800 "v-'^v >*i?^' 

Repairs to engines, oil and tallow, at £70 '?f 

eachx38, .... 2,660— 14,060 xi 
Renewal of travelling apparatus, composition, charcoal, 

etc., £100 per mile X 112, - - - 11,200 «^V -•"^4 

Maintenance of way and attendance to main £300 per mile, 33,600 V 

Police, coaching, wagons, etc., (as on locomotive lines), 80,604 t 

General charges, (as on locomotive lines), w* i-' - 16,400 * 

Parish rates, (as on locomotive lines), - - 14,400 " 

Add 5 per cent, interest on £1,500,000, the total amount * 

required to furnish the atmospheric apparatus on a -^ 

K- scale for transporting 9600 tons per day, - 76,000 — 247,698 

Balance, £657,652 

* This ectimate of traffic is of coarse much gteater than at present exists on the line, bnt consider- 
ably less than the reduced prices would produce ; it is scarcely necessary to add, that at these ratM 
any extent of traffic could be obtained in coals and iron alone, as it is less than a sea borne freight 
fr»B Um Aortk. 



On the Atmospheric System. 346 

Per day. Per year. 
By reference to the last general meeting of the London 

and Birmingham railway company, (see " Railway * ;: 

Times," 13th February, 1841.) the present receipts - :' 

average per year, - ^ - ^^ > " - £810,000 - v. ,' . 

And the present expenses, - v • • - • ,; j- 260,000 '-'■ ""-'■ 
Balance, - ^> -> •i,'v^;5ii^^^^ :w ~ £550,000 

The present charges are, ^l;]vr f^S^-^f •: - ■ ■ -....y-^. ■-:■:'■.' 
For passengers, (average), - ;•/",; • ' ' :. . • 25s. each. 

Lowest charge for merchandize, -i - - '' - 40s. per ton. 

We have already shown the expense of formation in railways to be 
greatly influenced by a portion of the power employed being unavailable, 
and that the road is levelled as a convenience for the propelling power, not 
the traffic conveyed. We have also shown that the destruction to the road 
is attributable to the weights and shocks of the engines, not of the trains ; 
that the enormous expense of locomotive power and coke arises from the 
bad application of power and the artificial means employed to work engines 
at an unnatural speed. In other words, all the expenses have been traced 
home to the use of locomotive engines, which have, from the opening of 
railways for passenger traffic to the present day, been a source of continual • 
annoyance and vexation ; breakage after breakage has occurred, and been 
succeeded by increasing the weight and power of the machines ; this in turn 
has led to the necessity of increasing the strength and stability of the rails 
and foundatfons on which they travel, and increasing the strength of the 
passenger carriages, to resist any shocks they may occasionally receive from 
their ponderous neighbor ; until we have arrived at this conclusion, that on 
an iron railroad, where the surface is by comparison smooth and the track 
marked out, a carriage to convey eighteen passengers must weigh about 3 
tons, while over a rough paved road an omnibus weighing only 1 ton will 
perform the same amount of duty. Here are facts which must at once con- 
vince every one that there are in the present system, radical defects to be 
weeded out: if no remedy were suggested, it might be difficult for railway 
companies to determine how to extricate themselves from their present po- 
sition ; but under existing circumstances their position is by no means a dif- 
ficult one. The atmospheric railway has been tested by actual operation at 
the entire expense of the inventors and their friends. The public have not 
been nsked to support it, or even encourage it, until it has been clearly 
proved beyond all doubt to merit confidence from its general usefulness. It 
has claims to notice both in a national and commercial point of view ; for 
while it will afford the means of railway communication to second and third 
rale towns by the small outlay necessary for the formation and working, it 
will enable the proprietors of railway enterprizes already established or in 
course of formation, to realize that return for their capital which they so 
richly deserve, and which, under the present system, they so hopelessly 
look for. ^ .. ;- r--*y- 

^ jj The length of the foregoing treatise, prevents us from giving, as we pro- 
mised and intended, in this number, the examination of Messrs. Gibbons, 
Cubit, Brunei and Stephenson, before the committee of the house of com- 
mons. We shall, however, continue the subject in our next, and at consid- 
erable length, that it may be properly understood in this country, at least aft 
far as it can be from the experience of those who have examined, studied I 
and tested it. In giving thus fully the views of the patentees, and those 






246 



Georgia Railroad Report. 



who have experimented upon it, we have but one object in view, and ihat is 
to bring the matter fairly before the railroad community that it may be un- 
derstood, and if found to possess advantages over the present system, adopt- 
ed ; but if not, then let us stand by the " iron horse^^ which has already ac- 
complished so much. 

To succeed and come into general use, it has yet to overcome a powerful 
opposition, not greater however, than the locomotive has already overcome ; 
we therefore have no anxiety in relation to it, as there is likely to be a 
thorough and probably fair trial of it on the Epsom road, after which, 
opinion or theory will give place to fact, and the system will be either sus- 
tained or exploded ; although we do not agree with the " North American" 
that it has already " exploded" as there are quite as good opinions in its fa- 
vor, — Mr. Cubit's, Mr. Brunei's and Mr. Gibbon's — as Mr. Stephenson's 
against it, as we will show in our nexL 



■:.-<\»...Lf 



GEORGIA RAILROAD AND BANIKNG COMPANY. 

We are indebted to J. E. Thompson, Esq.. chief engineer, for a copy of 
their last report, giving a statement of their progress to April last, from 
which we learn that the work is progressing steadily, but surely, to com- 
pletion. In 1837 forty miles of this road was brought into use; in 1838 
it was extended to 75 miles ; in 1839 to 88 miles ; in 1840 to 105 miles, 
and in 1841 to 147^ miles. The total receipts for passengers and freight 
are given as $1,233,887 00, its total expenses §528, 168 00 and its net pro- 
fits $705,719 00. The rates were considerably reduced last year, and the 
business increased nearly 33 per cent., and the net profits are nearly $10,000 
greater for 1843 than for the previous year, thus showing in an eminent 
degree, the correctness of the policy of putting the charges at rates which 
will increase, rather than prevent or divert in other channels the business of 
the region through which railroads pass. It is wQTlhy of remark, that 
with an increase of business of over 30 per cent, in 1S43, the expenses of 
the road were less by $9,246 than in 1842. The net pyofits exceed six per 
cent, on the cost of the road, including its branches and machinery, which 
is certainly encouraging to those interested, to push on the work as rapidly 
as possible ; and it encourages us to look forward, with increasing confidence 
to its connection with other interests and other roads, until it rests one foot 
on the Mississippi and the other on the gulf of Mexico, with its outlet on 
the Atlantic. -i^^ 

engineer's report. 
To the Ho7i. John P King, president of the Georgia railroad and bank- 
ing company. 

Sir : — I have the pleasure to communicate to you the proceedings of this 
department for the year ending on the 31si of March. 

Active operations upon the extension were commenced between Madison 
and Covington about fifteen months since. From the nature of the contracts 
entered into, the work has necessarily progressed but slowly. Yet we have 
every reason to believe, that the whole of the. grading and masonry then 
contracted for — much of it quite heavy — will be finished by the first of July 



I" 



Georgia Railroad Report 247 

__.. ■ _vj:> -..v:c ,..-.-, . . ..■;f.:;-.^v.;_ ..^,-.- .. _ ^ ... 

next, except probably a rock section which may not be completed until Au- 
gust In consequence of the uncertainty which rested over the extension 
of our road, even to Covington, the wood work of the bridges, from its 
perishable character, was not contracted for until the general letting in No- 
vember last, at which time it was thought that if immediately commenced, 
it could be finished as soon as the grading. The subsequent demand for 
labor, and consequent rise in its price, has however, materially interfered 
with the execution of the timber, con tracts, which together with the failure 
of the Nisbet iron works to supply the bridge irons required, has greatly 
retarded the progress of the work, and I fear, will prevent us from reaching 
Covington as early as we had desired. 

As soon as practicable after the means necessary for the continuation of 
the road to the southeastern terminus of the State work had been obtained, 
the grading and bridging of the whole line was placed under contract. The 
work was let upon very favorable terms, but from causes already referred 
to, it has not progressed with that spirit which we had expected. Since the 
late decline in the staple of the country, labor has become more abundant, 
and the work is now advancing with renewed vigor. From our present 
prospects, it is believed that the whole line, with some immaterial exceptions 
will be ready by the first of February next for the reception of the super- 
strueture. While we cannot calculate with certainty the precise time we 
shall reach Covington, yet we may safely place the completion of the entire 
road to the State termmus at not later than September, 1845. 

The following is a revised estimate of the cost of the road from Madison 
to the southeast terminus of the Western and Atlantic railroad, a distance 
of 67 ,\ miles. 

Graduation, including culverts. :'-/' C 

From Madison to Rutledge's, 8 8 miles, $26,500 00 ' • '' *^-' r^ 

« Rutledge's to Social Circle, 7-3 miles, 27,800 00 -V ■'" 
" Social Circle to Covington, 104 miles, 87^400 00 
" Covington to Holcomb's, 105 miles, 51,800 00 ':-^'"-..\Z. 

" Holcomb's to Stone Mountain Depot, 150, 43,100 00 
" Stone Mountain to Marthaville, 154 miles, 71,600 00— 308,200 00 

Bridging. 
Alcovy bridge and truss work, 1400 feet, 20,600 00 ; : ■ 

Cornish creek bridge, 610 '^ 4,900 00 ••^^^''•^ 

Wood's mill bridge, 470 " 4.700 00 i "i:^:;^^i-- ; 

Dried Indian creek bridge, 900 " 4,600 00 ■ - 

Turkey creek bridge, - ' 370 " 1,800 00 '■ 

Yellow river bridge and approaches, 490 '• 12,800 00 
Sundry small railway and road bridges, 3,300 00— 52,700 00 

Superstructure. 
Mud sills for main line and turnouts, 69 miles, 20,700 00 ' . ' ' - 
Cross ties " " " 28,900 00 - : ^- ^V • 
Wooden rail or stringers, " « 29,800 00 z^;;^ .■>•- 
Iron (exclusive of duty) at $45 per ton, " 185,000 00 - :•■ 

Cast iron chairs and washers, " 11,000 00 
Screws, spikes and bolts, « 19,000 00 
Laying superstructure and contingencies, " 48,000 00 — 342,400 00 
Right of way, - - • 18,000 00 .. 

Real estate to be retained for use of road, - 12,000 00 v-i^i^ 

Engineering, etc., - - - 33,000 00 
Depots, wells, pumps, tanks and division houses, 18,000 00 — 81,000 00 
Total cost of road,' ;.,-....:* $784,300 00 



348 Georgia Railroad Report. I 

Equal to $11,366 per mile for the length of single road, or $11,636 per 
mile for the distance between Madison and Mavthaville ; which, if the 
whole had been executed at the present low cash rates, could have been done 
for about $1000 per mile less. # # # 

The receipts of the road for this year, have exceeded those of last year 
only $69 50, while the gross tonnage has been increased fully 33 per cent. 
On the down freight, the receipts have fallen off $6,173 80, and the passage 
money has increased $6,290 08 — the up freight remaining nearly station- 
ary. It will be recollected, however, that we received last year about 
$12,000 for the transportation of iron, spikes, etc., for the Western and At- 
lantic railroad, which should not be counted in the general business of the 
country. By deducting this amount from the receipts of that year, we have ' 
the increase of the receipts of this year, about equal to those of last year 
over the year previous. 

The reduction iu our rates was probably greater than succeeding cir- 
cumstances have justified; especially as they have not been met by corres- 
ponding concessions on the part of our neighbors on the other side of the 
Savannah, except upon such articles as they are competitors with the steam- 
boats for. But as there has been no diminution in our receipts, and not- 
withstanding the increased tonnage transported, the expenses of the road 
have fallen short of those of last year. We are not disposed, from these 
causes, as well as a disinclination to frequent changes, to make any material 
variation in our tariff 

Having failed in our efforts to form a satisfactory ticket at a reduced rate, 
for the travel going through from Baltimore to Montgomery, we have been 
content to confine ourselves to a ticket from Montgomery to Charleston — be- 
tween which points passengers are now carried in less than two and a half 
days, for $26 50, by railroad and stages. 

We have also, in conformity with a resolution of the board, carried out 
the suggestion referred to in my report of last year, in relation to plan- 
ters accompanying their produce to market at a reduced rate. The system, 
as far as we can judge of ils effects, seems to have operated alike beneficial 
to the company and planters, aijd is at least worthy of a longer trial. 

The business of the road, and the expenses incurred in working it, during 
the year ending on the. 31st ultiTno, are shown in the following summary 
statement. The usual detailed statements of the several accounts, will be 
found among the accompanying papers. 

CR. rrt.^i'^ ■■■:':■ ^y^'v^'^'^^\^-'?ii^: 

By amount received for passengers up - - - S'34,005 20 

down - - - 31,G60 83 

** '. " extra trips, extra baggage, negroes, etc. 3,664 86 

,<« " freight up - - - 69,661 19 ^ 

. «« " " down - ,- - 78,400 26 |- V^'V • 

" " " between stations - - 388 52 • ^'> 

" " rents - - - - « 809 66 

. •' « United Sutes mail - - - 29,246 97— 8i248,096 44 

DR. ' . 

For expenses of conducting transportation - " "•' $26,902 61 »*. '. j; i^r5X 

". motive power - - - - 25,838 29 •'•-!( 

•* " maintenance of way, - - - 38,156 97 

" " " cars - - - 9,675 45—8.100,573 33 

■ '- Leaving net profit - - - ^'^^m - $147,523 12 

Over six per cent on the cost of the road, including the branches machi- 
nery, etc. 

The expenses of the road have, for reasons given in my last annual re- 
port, fallen below those of last year. For the next year mainly from oppo- 
site causes, they will be somewhat higher. 



r 



% 



/ron 12e«cnttC Steamer. — Qaerp. 849 

The efficiency of our motive power has been so materially increased, 
Ihat although we have had a larger tonnage than usual, and had disposed 
of one of our original stock of engines, we have still been able to do the 
business with regularity, without calling into service two of the remaining 
number. This improvement is mainly to be attributed to the alteration of 
^. .the l^ennessee, to Messrs. Baldwin and Whitney's improved freight engine, 
.referred to in a former communication. This engine having been the first 
?of the kind made, we had to encounter the risk of a failure in some of the 
■ details of its construction — the subsequent occurrence of which, as antici- 
'■ pated, prevented us from deriving any benefit from the services of the ma- 
^chine until last fall. We have since given it ample trial, and have become 
', as fully satisfied with its practical performance, as we had previously been 
.;'v with the principles upon which it was built. As soon as we had fully test- 
'^'*d this machine, we ordered in accordance w^ith our original intention, a 
..small engine of similar make, for the Athens branch, to be delivered this 
spring. We are informed however, by the manufacturers, that upon put- 
ting it together, its weight greatly exceeded our limits, and in consequence, 
^we have been compelled to reject it, and wait until another can be completed. 
The number of miles run by all our engines, during the year, is 153,125, 
^irof which 87,200 miles was by the regular passenger trains, on the main 
I line and Athens branch, carrying also some freight. The net amount of 
{freight hauled by all the trains one mile, is about 1,300,000 tons, exclusive 
of materials for the road. The expenses of the motive power department 
are $25,838 24, or 16 -^q- cents per mile run by the engines. The repairs 
I of the engines and tenders, and the cost of fuel, are each 3 -,^u- cents per 
mile run. The whole expense of the road is 65J cents per mile run by 
the trains. The cost of maintaining the road is, this year, $260 per mile 
or nearly 25 cents per mile run by the trains. 

> IRON REVENUE STEAMER ON LAKE ERIE. 

* We have been politely furnished with the following statement in relation 
to the iron revenue steamer on lake Erie, built by Messrs. Stillmam, Alien 

; & Co., of this city, for the United States revenue service. Length of keel 

,f 144 feet, breadth of beam 23 feet, depth of hold 12 feet ; keel 1 foot in depth 
of ^ inch iron ; ribs or frame 4^ X f inch ; plating of bottom f inch. — 
Rigged with three masts, having a pair of Capt. Hunter's submerged wheels. 
Weight of iron about 125 tons. This ship was put up in the ship house 
of Stillman, Allen & Co., taken down in sections of convenient size for ship- 

iment, and sent to Buffalo, where she is now rapidly going on to completion. 
She is one of four of the same class now building under the direction of 
Capt. Wm. A. Howard. The engines for this vessel are being made at the 
" Buffalo steam engine works," according to the direction of Capt. Hunter, 

ubut of their capacity we are not informed. 

-,, Jl3» Will the chief engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad please 
JJanswer the following enquiry ? . 

June 26. 
Mr. EnrroR : To decide a discussion, will you be so kind as to furnish a 
reply to the following query, in the next number of your Journal, or when- 
evier at is cMxyeni^ to ^mn or call up<^ a correspondent. weU iaSoj^oi of 



■m 



Delaware Breakwater. 



the facts, for an answer? — What was the actual t^ost of the depot and cat 
house at Baltimore ? I am anxious to get a certain estimate, and your at* 
tention to this request will be considered a real favor. Respectfully your*8, 

A Friend to Internal Improvement^'..- 



DELAWARE BREAKWATER. 



i;: 



Major Bachc, United States engineer, says, in his report to the secretary 
of war, dated October 15th, 1843, 

" Since the session of 1837 and 1838, no appropriation has been made to 
continue the construction of the Delaware breakwater, and the last stone 
provided by that appropriation was deposited in 1839. * • 

" The following table shows the number of days' shelter afforded to ves- 
sels by the Delaware breakwater, from the 1st of September, 1833, to the 
30th of September, 1843, inclusive — omitting the periods embraced betweeii 
the 1st of July and the 17th of October, 1834 ; and the 4th of June, 1840, 
and the 30th of April, 1841, (when no record was kept) ; and also omitting 
vessels carrying stone, or otherwise connected with the work. 



Years. 

1833 


Ships. 

22 


Brigs. 

178 


Schoon- 
ers. 

372 


Sloops. 

167 


Pilot 
boats. 

127 


TotaL 

866 


Remarks. 


From Sept. 1st, inclusive. 


1834 


48 


315 


667 


303 


411 


1,744 


July 1st to October 17th, in- 
, elusive, not recorded. 


1835 


133 


569 


1,719 


461 


644 


3,526 




1836 


301 


1,027 


2,719 


620 


767 


5,433 


■ ;. "^ /._ . "' '- 


'.; 


1837 


227 


478 


2,777 


629 


732 


4,843 


.' _ ,*'.: 




1838 


165 


732 


3,191 


765 


685 


5,538 


, ; •" ■"- ■ ■" ' ■ , /■■' 


■•■.;;.v>>'''' 


1839 


165 


504 


3,561 


734 


697 


5,661 


- • ■' ^ . ■'' "\. 


." V ' ■-*'. 


1840 


172 


279 


1,909 


308 


371 


3,039 


To June 3d, inclusive. 


1841 


111 


902 


3,916 


590 


483 


6,002 


From May 1st, inclusive. 


1842 


107 


1,060 


5,335 


802 


794 


8,098 




1843 


84 


644 


3,865 


962 


572 


6,127 


To Sept. 30th, inclusive. 




1,535 6,688 


30,031 6,341 


6,283 50,878 





Making a just allowance for the periods when no records were kept, it 
may be safely said, that from its commencement to the present time, the har- 
bor has given sixty thousand days' shelter. According to the record for the 
last four years, twenty-two vessels on an average, had been lying in the har- 
bor for each day. Sixty to seventy vessels are seen frequently lying in the 
harbor at the same time, and on one occasion the number of vessels reached 
as high as one hundred and eight. • * • * 

" These works have not yet been completed to the extent of the design thus 
briefly described. The breakwater is in a course of construction for 862 
yards, and the ice breaker for 467 yards. In other respects, the design of 
the harbor is necessarily incomplete. The entrances at the cape, and be- 
tween the two works, are 780 yards, and 455 yards, respectively, instead 
of 500 yards and 350 yards, as at first contemplated. It would thus appear 
that on the one hand the breakwater proper is 338 yards, and the ice breaker 
33 yards, less ; and on the other, that the entrance towards the sea is 280 
yards, and that between the works 105 yards, greater than the plan called 
for. In short, the lines of protection are less, and the entrances greater, by 
the quantities just given, than were originally designed. • • 

" It is believed that no plan has been devised to correct the evils in the 
harbor caused by running ice. One is incideataily alluded to in the annual 



.vl-i 



Bear Mountain RAilroad. "\ 251 

report of 1836, and the imperfection of it is cilearly demonstrated. Any 
structure on the course of the current would not afford protection against 
running ice ; and one of stone across the current would, by impeding it, 
create shoals that would injure if not destroy the harbor. The great desi- 
deratum is, to be able to obstruct the ice without obstructing the free course 
of the current. In order to accomplish this result, the application of the 
iron screw pile has been suggested in former reports These piles, it is con- 
ceived, may be so combined as to constitute a complete barrier against the 
passage of the floating ice, at the same time that the current is allowed to 
flow in its accustomed course, and with the same velocity. It is, in all re- 
spects, worthy of consideration, whether a fair experiment, conducted with 
liberal means, ought not to be made, in order to ascertain clearly whether 
the iron screw pile may not be successfully applied to this purpose. The 
result, if favorable, would constitute an epoch in the construction of ice har- 
bors, and would lead to kindred applications of much importance. It is 
With a view to such an experiment, that an item for iron screw piles is in- 
cluded in the estimate of the operations for the next season. In using such 
piles in the formation of an ice harbor, they may either form a continuous 
work, composed of rows in quincunx order, or constitute piers at certain in- 
tervals, as may be deemed advisable, after proper investigations. Under 
any form of combination, the piles should be braced horizontally, by bars 
of iron, at low water and at the top, in order that the shock caused by the 
ice may be sustained, not by one pile, but by numerous contiguous piles. 
In adopting the work just described as a remedy for the defect in the harbor 
of the Delaware breakwater, arising from running ice, it should commence 
at the west end of the ice breaker, and extend towards the shore, on the 
shortest line, until the required protection is gained." 



-'" • -. •■ V • BEAR MOUNTAIN RAILROAD. " -^ 

This road penetrates one of the richest and most extensive anthracite coal 
flelds in the State. The Bear valley coal basin, which will be immediately 
opened by this road, comprises the southwestern termination of the great 
coal field surrounding the town of Pottsvilie. This basin is about thirteen 
miles in length, varying from two to three miles in breadth and the average 
breast of the coal veins above water level in the two mountains forming the 
sides of the basin, is over one thousand feet. 

All the varieties of anthracite coal, red, white and grey ash, found in the 
Pottsvilie region, are found here, and the quality is in every respect of the 
most superior kind. ; <;' • v- -• ■■ \^: ; ;> i^v- - k^ix^-i^^.^^-fi'j'.: 

Prof. Walter R. Johnson, in* his report on the Bear valley coal district, 
states that this coal bears a stronger analogy to that of Yniscedwyn in 
Wales, used in Crane's celebrated iron works, than any other anthracite 
coal in Pennsylvania. 

Iron ore also in abundance and of excellent quality, has been found inter- 
vening the coal veins. The coal veins run lengthwise of the two moun- 
tains throughout their whole extent, and dip in each mountain under the en- 
closed valley, at an angle of about forty-five degrees. They are found al- 
ternating with coal slates and large strata of sand stone and conglomerate 
rock, interspersed with^ occasional layers of iron ore. The annexed dia- 



,< 



.;;*! 



252 



Bear Mountain Railroad. 



i 



gram exhibits a cross section of these mountains and the position of the 
coal veins. ' " * "^ " 




isa 



The north, or Bear mountain is cut to its base 
by Rausch creek, forming a gap, on each side of 
which, all the veins can be opened ; and the south 
or Big Lick mountain will be penetrated by the 
railroad tunnel directly opposite Rausch gap, thus 
opening all the veins in that mountain in the same 
manner. 

By this means every coal vein m the entire re- 
gion will be opened in the most advantageous 
manner for working. It is confidently believed 
that no other coal region in the world is possessed 
of equal advantages. ,'.. . ^, .. 

The height of the mountains above the tunnel, 
and above the grade line of the road in the gap, is 
about eight hundred feet, consequently the breast of 
coal in the veins outcropping at the summits of the 
mountains is over eleven hundred feet. The tun- 
nel will cut across at least fifty veins of good coal 
varying in thickness from, four to thirty feet, and 
besides these there are not less than thirty veins of 
similar thickness in Rausch gap. 

From this it will be perceived that even if the 
whole supply of coal for the United States, was to 
be obtained from this region for centuries to come, 
it would not be necessary to mine below water level 
and consequently the enormous outlaj'S for ma- 
chinery, and constant expense necessary to raise 
coal from below water level, will in this region be 
entirely avoided. ;•*• . 

The railroad tunnel through the southern coal 
mountain will be about one and a half miles in 
length, and of sufficient width for three tracks, the 
centre track being intended for the use of locomo- 
tives and through trains, and the side tracks for coal 
cars only. 

It will require about 750 lineal yards of this 
i -^ .2 tunnel from the south end driven through solid rock 
5-| s to reach the outside coal vein, and the remaining 
-^bi^ distance will be through coal, coal slates, sandstones, 
I. tf ° conglomprate and iron ore. It is intended to drive 
^ :rj about 800 lineal yards of this tunnel by the time 
S<2 -the road is ready for business, leaving the remain- 
P§ ing portion of the tunnel to be driven after the road 
1 "^r-^ goes into operation. The tunnel will be cut on a 
' .S I grade descending towards the canal at the same rate 
as the other portion of the road, viz. 17^ feet per mile, and when the tun- 
nel is completed, the road will be extended on the same grade through 
Rausch gap. ■^r* ' 



7ft 






i;3 



■s -3 



i-J-t -^-t 



a 2 



\ 



^■».,v. *. 



..:.i..l 



Bear Mountain Railroad. 

s:--^'i The form and dimensions of this tunnel are shown in the following sec- 
tional drawing. 

SECTION OF TUNNEL THROUGH BIG UCK MOUNTAIN. 




-=-V^ 



From the termination of the road on the Pennsylvania canal at Dauphin 

to tide water at Havre-de-Grace is eighty miles. The canal from Dauphin 

, to Columbia is of the same capacity as the Erie canal, capable of passing 

' boats of from seventy-five to eighty tons burthen, and the Tide Water canal 

, from Columbia to Havre-de-Grace is of still greater capacity. Havre-de- 

- Grace being at the head of Chesapeake bay, the Atlantic coast can be reach- 

' ed from this place, more readily than from any other point where anthracite 

coal is shipped, unless it be Delaware city, and to this point the coal can be 

transported in the same boats used on the canal. 

It is not the least recommendation of the Bear valley coal region, that it 

, will have a very large home consumption, without coming into competition 

with the coal from any other region, and as the Bear mountain railroad will 

be the only means of transportation from these mines, it may perhaps escape 

" the effects of " incendiary publications." 

The coal from the Bear valley region will have the entire comrnand of 
.- the trade south and west of the mines, including the cities of Lancaster, 
■ Baltimore, Washington, the Boroughs of Harrisburg, Columbia, York, 
Chambersburg, Carlisle, Hagerstown and the adjacent country, with its ex- 
tensive iron and other manufaciuiing establishments and consequently must 
have a certain trade of nearly 300,000 tons per annum, before coming into 
competition with coal from other districts. When in addition to this we lake 
into account its proximity to the seaboard, the favorable character of its av- 
enues to market, and the low price at which it can be delivered in the At- 
; iantic cities, there cannot be a doubt but that this coal basin and the railroad 
leading to it will yet eclipse all their cotemporaries in the magnitude of their 
'\ operations. Ira Spaulding, >^ 

Dauphin, Pa., July 1844, Chief Engineer, B. M. Railroad. 



264 :> Utility of Wire Ropes. 

"^ We published in our June number aletter from Ira Spaulding, Esq., chief '"^ 
engineer of this road, showing that a new route had been discovered far 
more favorable than the one formerly contemplated through Lykins valley. '■' 
It will be seen by reference to that letter, (page 171, June No.), that a sa--' 
ving of 14 miles in distance will be effected, and that instead of from a level" 
to a maximum grade of 36 feet per mile, they will now have a regular de- '' 
scending grade of about 17 feet per mile from the heart of the coal veint '^ 
to the canal at Dauphin, eight miles above Harrisburg. 

We now give a further account of this remarkable work, with illustra- • 
tions, showing the position of the coal bed, and the manner in which it is | 
perforated by the railroad tunnel, of a mile and a half in length, WhichT 
passes through at least fifty veins of coal, of from four to thirty feet in thick- •^^' 
ness, at a thousand feet below their outcropping, A position more favora- 
ble for working, it would seem to us, could not have been devised by the •. 
most ingenious and selfish man — as it may be led in shutes directly into the ' 
cars — and the road itself, having 17 feet fall, forms an ample drain to lead ." 
off the water — thus avoiding the immense expense at many other collieries l?' 
of raising the coal and draining the mines by steam power. * 

We desire to make our acknowledgments to Messrs. Spaulding and "'^ 
Sickles for their remembrance of the Railroad Journal, in laying the merits t-- 
of their work before the public. Wfe hope to hear from them again soon ^ 
in relation to their progress. 

UTILITY OF WIRE ROPES. '' 

The following statement, from the London Mining Journal, in relation to. 
the use of wire ropes for coal mines, may be useful to those in this country 
requiring ropes for such purposes, or for inclined planes, as well as our "^ 
worthy friend, Mr. John A. Roebling, of Saxonburg, Pa., who is engaged ' 
in the manufacture, as will be seen by reference to the Journal of Novem- 
ber last — therefore we transfer it to our pages. 

" The question of the comparative strength of hemp and wire ropes used 
in the ' winning' of coal, and, indeed, for every other purpose for which rope 
is applicable, having been frequently discussed in our columns, we have v 
pleasure in complying with the request of a correspondent, by inserting the ? 
following communication, addressed to Mr. Newall, manufacturer of wire i; ■ 
rope, by so distinguished a colliery reviewer as Mr. Matthew Liddell, dated J; 
from Benton Grange : 

"'Dear Sir — I consider the followiii? information may be interesting, ■ 
and certainly goes far to establish conficrence in the equal security of flat 
wire ropes with those made from hemp, when exposed to a sudden violent 
strain ; which, it has been stated, would cause the former to snap, or break. 
On Monday, last, when employed in drawing coals, the breaksman of the 
engine, ^46 horse power) on which a pair of your flat wire ropes were put 
in June last, neglected to check the engine on the approach of the cage and 
tubs to the surface ; and, consequently, the engine continued at full speed, 
(the rope moving about 120 fathoms a minute), until suddenly stopped by 
the cage coming into violent contact with the pulley. The shock slightly -, 
displaced the pulley frame, wi\en the rivets of the shackle which you attacn ' 



Miscellanea. j,-'"' .-._;■• 866 

to the end ot the rope where the cage is hung on to it, were drawn through 
the strands of the rope, and the cage and coals fell on the ' keeps' at the top 
of the pit, which prevented their falling down the pit, so that the damage 
done was trifling. I have since then had the wire rope examined, and, al- 
though the strain on it must have been very great to stop the engine, yet it 
does not appear to have sustained any injury, and is, apparently, as good as 
when it was first put on. Matthew Liddell: 



J » 



SATJLT DE ST. MARIE CANAL, AND ST. JOSEPHS RAILROAD. 

We have received, since our July number was put to press, a communi- 
cation from the Hon. Mr. Woodbridge, of Michigan, in relation to the de- 
feat of the bills before congress in aid of these important works, accompa- 
nied with various documents of interest, in relation to the Canadian canals 
and plank roads, together with the annual report of the board of internal 
improvement, of Michigan, for which we desire to tender him our thanks. 
We shall avail ourselves of their use, and then dispose of them in accor- 
dance with his directions. 

hunt's merchants' magazine. ^^^^.»i;> -f-.-.t 

This popular and useful work was punctually on our table, and is, as 
usual, filled with useful information for the business man ; and it should be 
on the desk of every merchant in the Union, and be read attentively by 
every clerk, as well as merchant. 

parsons' locomotive expansive apparatus. 
The following communication from Horatio Allen, Esq., copied from the 
Franklin Journal, exposes one of the numerous piracies perpetrated by de- 
signing knaves upon ingenious inventors. 

" Sirs — The March number of the Journal of the Franklin Institute con- 
tains a description of ' Parsons' locomotive expansive apparatus.' That 
part of the arrangement which provides an adjustable cut-off, by the use of 
two slide valves attached to the same rod, one by right handed, the other by 
left handed, screws, and the mode, adjustment, etc., are precisely those for 
which I obtained letters patent in August, 1841. The American Repertory 
for December, 1841, contained apart of my specification and claim. 

" The patent of Mr. Parsons is dated December, 1842, and vms enrolled 
in June, 1843. 

" The ' adjustable cut-off,' as my invention is named, has been adopted on 
an engine lately put to work on the railroad from Jersey City to New Bruns- 
wick, to one on the Long Island road, and to engines building for the Pat* 
terson road, and for the Stonington road. 

" I intend soon to send you accounts of the performance of these engines, 
which have been very satisfactory, and shall also furnish a full description 
of the combinations embraced in my patent. Yours respectfully, 

" New York, May 14, 1844. Horatio Allen." 

Modt of Folating Large Stones for Building Sea Walls in Deep Wa- 
ter. — At the meeting of the institute of civil engineers of the 12th March, 
Mr. Bremner read a paper describing the casks used for floating the large 
stones for securing the foot of the sea wall of Banff" harbor, which had failwL 
The casks were strongly built of fir staves, hooped externally with iron, and 
supported inside by radiating bars like the spokes of a wheel. Two of 



256 V, MUcetldiiia 

these casks, of 445 cubic feet capacity each, were use to convey stones of 30 
tons weight, by passing two chain cables, which were wound round them, 
through the eyes of the lewises, which were fixed in the stone at low water, 
at which time the chains being hauled down tight, when the tide flowed, the 
buoyancy of the casks floated the stones, and they were towed by a boat 
over the place where the stone was intended to be deposited. The lashing 
being then cut away, the stone fell into its seat. This method was found to 
succeed in weather that Avould have destroyed any crane barges ; and the 
works of Banff" harbor were thus secured from further degradation, and 
were subsequently restored at a comparatively small cost. 

Mode of making Looking-glassea, Mirrors, etc., without Mercurjf.-^A. . 
correspondent (J. B. N.) sends us the following particulars of a process by which looking 
glasses, etc. may be silvered in the most effectual way without the use of mercury ; he has 
done several ; " the most splendid mirrors imaginable." The following is his account of 
the process : — " Take a little nitrate of silver ; add carefully liquid ammonia till the preci- 
pitate formed is nearly all dissolved, but not fully ; add a little of this to a mixture of al- 
cohol and oil of cassia ; the piece of glass to be silvered is laid flat, with a ledging tied 
round of pipe clay or the like, exactly as if a mould were to be taken ; upon the fr|ass 
pour the above named mixture till it has a depth of between a q uarter and half an inch ; 
then drop here and there upon this a mixture of oil of cloves and alcohol ; a violent action 
takes place whore the drops fall ; this rapidly spreads, and the whole surface, in the course 
of from a quarter to half an hour, appears brown ; the liquid is now poured off, and a 
layer of silver is found reduced upon the surface of the glass, forming a complete and 
beautiful mirror ready to be framed. The chemical action is no doubt the formation of 
aldehyde which reduces the silver. This process has recently been made the subject of a 
patent, for which, I am told, the firm of Rothschild has offered £100,000 for the purpose 
of suppressing the discovery, as it may affect the valuable monopoly in mercury poss^sed 
by that house. The offer has been refused. The name of the patentee, I am informed, 
is Durant, of Brighton." The process of silvering by means of aldehyde was exhibited 
two years ago at the Glasgow Philosophical Society, by Dr. Stenhouse. 

Scaffolding. — Two papers on this subject were read at the same meeting 
of the Institution. The first paper was read by Mr. T. Grissell, in which the author de- 
scribed the scaffolding first used by Mr. Cubitt for the erection of the facade of the Bir- 
mingham railway station, and which had since been adopted for other works with com- 
plete success. It was stated to be composed of sills, uprights, cross-heads, longitudinal 
timbers, braces and struts, all of whole tunber. The upright timbers were slightly turned 
into the horizontal timbers with junctions secured by iron dogs, driven into the timbers 
diagonally across the joints, which were preferable to bolts and spikes, inasmuch as they 
coiud be easily withdrawn, and the timber was not injured. The next paper on the sub- 
ject was by M. Pierre Joumet, whose scaffolding was stated to consist of a simple com- 
bination of a number of brackets, fixed at regular distances of about five feet apart verti- 
cally, upon girdles of chains and screws,'l)raml tight round the column under repair : upon 
these brackets the platforms were laid, and as the workmen proceeded upwards, the lower 
brackets were alternately raised to the platforms above, where the workmen stood. The 
progress thus made in forming, and in taking down a scaffold, was stated to be very rapid, 
with corresponding economy of time and expense ; no poles or cords were used and no 
waste of material occurred. By these means the -obelisk of Luxor, at Paris, was repaired 
in a, very short time and at a very small cost. The machine for raising building materials 
consisted of an endless chain of square open links, the lower end revolving around a dri- 
ven wheel, and the upper end around a corresponding wheel, fixed upon a scaffold, at the 
height of the building. The hods, buckets and baskets were each furnished with a hook 
by which they were suspended on the rising side of the chain, and when they arrived at the 
necessary height they were taken off by laborers, and carried to the spot where the mate- 
rials were to be used ; when empty they were hung upc»i the descending side of the chun 
and lowered to be again filled. 

CONTENTS: 

Page- If^Vt- 

Atmocpheric railway, 226<De]aware breakwater, 

Q t b rgia railroad report, 246 

Iron revmae >t«amei on lakf Bii«> 249 



Bear Mountain railroM} SM 

UtUitT of wire rop«% '^V.i-'- "" 



'""■''''"' ^^^■•^- >-: ^ , •• AMERICAN ''^:::Qa -: 

* RAILROAD JOURNAL, 

>; - MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. 



PttblMbed Monthly at 23 Chamber».$t. New York, ? S « ir vncnn uj . 

at 92 a-year, in advance, or 3 copies for «6. J | D. K. MINOR, Editor. 

'T^i^^L'- i >' SEPTEMBER, 1844. V T'^^xW:^ 

"'L;> ;:■-■; THE ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY. 

Evidence given before a Committee of the House of Commons. ;- . ■ 

Mr. B.irry Gibbons, engineer of the Dublin and Kingstown railway, ex- 
amined : Trains propelled on the atmospheric principle started and stepped 
more easily, and with less loss of time, than those with locomotive power. 
The atmospheric principle on the Dalkey line, compared with the expense 
of other lines, as to haulage, was much cheaper than the locomotive. The 
maintenance of way was less favorable in a newly opened line than on an 
old one. Taking the cost of haulage on the locomotive line of the Dubliu 
and Kingstown, according to the published accounts of the company, the 
cost of locomotive power on that line was 10 Q-lOd. per train per mile. 
The maintenance of way was 3 1-lOd making a total of I4<i. The cost 
of moving power on the atmospheric principle was 7 \-\0d. and the main- 
tenance of way 1 3-10<2. Could distinguish the wear and tear o( rails on 
a locomotive line in the space of six weeks. In the estimate of \Ad. there 
was an allowance made for wear and tear of rails. In the atmospheric 
there was no parallel allowance for the pipe. Believed, though there were 
great curves on the line, that there was no wear and tear of the pipe, and 
DO centrifugal friction. The wear and tear of the pipe would not require 
an expenditure for fifty years. It became perfectly polished inside, owing 
to the tallow. In going round sharp curves on a locomotive line, the inside 
of the rail is worn away by the flange of the wheel. Did not make any 
allowance in the estimate for wear and tear of rails on an atmospheric line, 
because it was inappreciable. In the item for haulage, witness debitted 
wear and tear to the atmospheric railway, which would take place in the 
stationary engines, and included coals consumed, wear of machinery, and 
persons employed in the engine house. The cost of coals was 1/. 4s. %d. 
per day ; wages 12s. ; wear and tear, oil. etc. 6s. If the Dalkey line were 
longer, the expense would be less Had laid out an extension of it to Bray, 
six miles, and an engine would work at both places. There would be 
more consumption of coal, but at less per train per mile. Paid Messrs. Sa- 
muda for the construction of the line, and their estimate was not exceeded 
by \d. Their promises as to load carried, and velocity attained, had been 
perfectly accomplished. They entered into a contract to carry trains of ^6 
tons at 30 miles an hour, and had performed it at double that rate. The 
Dublin and Kingstown was a very cheap line, and the low fares had in- 



258 On the Atmospheric System. 

creased the passengers enormously. The trains had been increased from 
time to time, and there had been a corresponding number of passengers. It 
induced a system of country residence. They estimated that every new 
house built in the neighborhood of a station was 20/. added to the annual 
receipts. There were four stations on the six miles. The fares were 1»., 
8rf., and (id., but there was a reduction to families of 5, 10 and 20 per cent. 
The average fare was something under Id. The fares on the Dalkey were 
Hd. and 3^. They would pay at that. The company received 45/. on last 
Sunday, which would represent 4500 persons. The increase in traffic on 
the Kingstown railway was not so much to be attributed to reduction of 
fares as to the frequency of the trains. The coals consumed by the engine 
on the atmospheric line were 35 cwL per day, which would keep it work- 
ing from 8 A. M. to 6 P. M. at intervals. Witness reckoned a daily mile- 
age allowance for wear and tear of piston of 4rf. per day. *One set of pis- 
ton leathers, costing 16i , worked a fortnight. The rails on the atmospher- 
*ic line were 521b. per yard weight. Had examined the pipe, and could find 
no lateral pressure made by the tube on the piston. The straightforward 
movement of the piston counteracted the centrifugal force of the curve ; but 
witness did not think that the piston had ever been brought into operation to 
prevent the carriages going off the line. If it had ever exerted such a force 
there would have been some indication of it on the pipe. The atmospheric 
carriagos were 15 cvvt., or a ton light^^an the locomotive. Witness's es- 
timate for maintenance on the locomotive line was for a double, the estimate 
for the atmospheric for only a singl^ line. Had made the experiment of 
stopping the trains almost instantaneously, and had brought up a train to a 
dead rest, travelling at 40 miles an hour, within 220 yards. There were 7 
carriages, and 78 persons in them. The weight of the rails on the Kings- 
town and those on the Dalkey was precisely the same. The calculation 
given by witness of 7«/. for haulage on the atmospheric, was only for one 
way. If worked backwards and forwards as a locomotive, it would be i4d. ; 
but the trains came back by their own gravity, and therefore cost nothing. 
Were the line on a level, the cost would have to be doubled. 

Mr. I. K. Brunei, C. E., examined : Had been consulted on the expedi- 
ency of working the proposed Croydon and Epsom on the atmospheric sys- 
tem, and had considered its application thereto very fully. Thought that 
the adoption of the atmospheric plan was well adapted for the working of 
the proposed line. Taking all things into consideration, the trains could be 
conveyed in a shorter time by it than by the ordinary locomotive engine, 
and with greater frequency. Where the trains were not very numerous, 
could understand that the working expenses would be less by locomotive 
power than by a fixed engine. In a great number of cases it would be the 
reverse ; the working expenses would be reduced by the atmospheric prin- 
ciple, assuming that a great many trains would run. The prevailing gra- 
- dients on the Epsom line were 1 in 100, which he thought applicable to a 
line with a view to economy in working. The diagrams of Mr. Samuda, 
as to the manner of working the trains might be worked with frequency 
: and safety. There was a point where expensive locomotive power would 
"' become more economical than stationary power, if the number of trains 
were very much reduced. Thought that the atmospheric train oould be 
propelled much faster than is done at present. Had no reason to doubt but 
^ that trains might go at a speed of 50 and 60 miles an hour. Had gone at 
' 60 on a locomotive, and thought a train might go easier and at a higher 
rale by the atmospheric than by the locomotive engine. It had greater 
speed than the locomotivet It possessed the advantage over the latter of 



On the Atmosj^rie System. '■■: 869 

■terting at once into a state of motion from a state of rest. This was a 
great advantage where there were many stations, as contemplated in the 
£psom line. On the Great Western they found that it was six to eight 
miles from the station before they got into a good maximum rate of running ; 
therefore it was only on a long distance from London to Slough that they 
did attain their full velocity. With respect to the atmospheric attaining a 
velocity of 50 miles an hour, it would depend entirely on the power, the 
size of the pipe, and the degree of vacuum. Did not see any difficulty in 
their getting it at the end of 2^ or 3 miles. Had no doubt but that if they 
chose to put on the power, they might obtain it at 1 mile or ] i- When 
witness saw the line at Dalkey, it was not laid in a manner which admitted 
of a very high velocity. Did not think it safe when he made the experi- 
ments to go higher than 40 miles. The derangement of the rails, and the 
difficulty of keeping the railway in perfect order, arose from the weight of 
the locomotive engines, and the mode of working them on the rails. Wit- 
ness's object in making the experiments at Dalkey was to satisfy his own 
mind, with a view to govern him in advising others. The results of these 
experiments were, that he found they could attain a high velocity on the 
line in a short time, so as even to attain the rate of 50 miles an hour. 
Found that the mechanical part of the apparatus and valve was even then 
in a good working condition, and saw enough to satisfy his mind that it 
could be rendered still more perfect. Found that a weight was moved at a 
good velocity of 22 miles an hour — a weight fully as great as that due to 
the free effect of the vacuum in the piston. Satisfied himself that there was 
no amount of friction or leakage round the piston, nor other mechanical de- 
fects, which would prevent getting the full effect of the vacuum. Was con- 
firmed in the opinion that a mechanical contrivance of that sort could be 
worked, so as to produce that effect at a less cost than the ordinary mode of 
applying power by a locomotive. Had in consequence of these experiments 
advised the promoters of the Croydon and Epsom to adopt the atmospheric. 
Had no doubt that an atmospheric railway might be made more comfortable 
to passengers than a locomotive, which was one of the great advantages to 
be derived from it. Thought that the rails might be kept in much more 
perfect order than with locomotive carriages ; and that carriages might be 
constructed in a totally different manner from those now in use. The mo- 
tion would be smooth and noiseless. There was also the absence of coke 
dust from the chimney. With respect to the expeiiiments of stopping trains, 
thought that on a railway worked by stationary power, whether atmospher- 
ic or other, the power of stopping was greater than it was on a locomotive 
line. The power to be overcome in stopping a train arose, not from the 
power of friction, but from the momentum of the train, which, at 40 miles 
an hour, would be 10 or 15 times as great as the power of traction that 
could be produced for a distance of 250 yards ; and therefore in stopping a 
train at a short distance of 250 yards, what they had to think of was the 
momentum of the train. Did not think that the reversing of the engine at 
all equalled the advantage that might be derived from breaks or slides, such 
. as those Mr. Cubitt spoke of on carriages on the atmospheric line. The 
reversal of an engine for stopping a train did not produce so much effect as 
might be supposed. On the Great Western they never reversed ; but the 
break in the tender stopped the train at high velocities. Had calculated the 
power of the engine at Dalkey. In a commercial point of view, Mr. Sa- 
muda's mode of calculating was correct The power on the atmospheric 
railway had a facility for adapting itself to the load. That was a great ad- 
vantage. Where the gradients were steep they could apply more power. 



260 On the AtfuPfpi^nc^iSjtf tent. t 

Assuming even that the pipe was not of the same size everywhere, at one 
small steep part of the line they might work a vacuum up to 18 or 20 
inches of mercury, which would not be so economical as working it at 14 
or 16 inches. Still, for a short part of the line, they could do so ; whereas 
on the rest of the line they might work at the more economical pressure of 
14 to 16 inches of mercury. With respect to the variation of the work, 
according to the variation in the weight of the train, of course any engine 
working expansively, and well constructed, would adapt itself to the weight 
of the train ; and the cost of working the engine would be somewhat pro- 
portional to the weight. Was so satisfied of the advantage of the atmos- 
pheric, that he had proposed to adopt it on the line (26 miles) he was now 
surveying from Croydon to Chatham. An advantage of the atmospheric 
was, that when a train stopped at the station, the power for propelling was 
accumulating in the pipe, so as to bring the train more rapidly into motion 
from the state of rest. Witness's preference of the atmospheric was limited 
to cases where the passage of trains was required to be frequent. Had no 
hesitation in saying, that if the two lines now before the committee were to 
be worked by locomotive power, the Southwestern would be the cheapest 
and safest; but if the atmospheric were applied, it could be done cheaper 
by the Croydon and Epsom. Had no doubt but that the atmospheric upon 
a single line, where everything was adapted to it, was much safer than a lo- 
comotive on a single line with double power. The atmospheric might be 
so managed that no carelessness could produce a collision ; but it was im- 
possible on a locomotive line to prevent one train catching or meeting 
another. Thought that the leakage could safely be neglected. Did not 
think that any experiments which had yet been made would enable a correct 
calculation to be made of the amount of power required to overcome the 
leakage. He spoke guardedly and carefully, inasmuch as he was express- 
ing an opinion adverse to that of his friend, Mr. R. Stephenson, whose re- 
port he had seen. Thought there was no difficulty in constructing car- 
riages in the manner stated by Mr. Cubitt, by bringing them at once on 
slides or sledges, or by locking all the wheels of one entire train, which, 
now that they used steel tires, he should not be afraid of doing. Thought 
there would be no difficulty at all in keeping the atmospheric railway in 
such good order that the carriages might be better constructed and connect- 
ed one with another, so that the break might be made to act in the whole at 
once. There had lately been introduced a new mode of valve-gearing, 
which facilitated the adapuition of engines to the load. The practical effect 
of the expansive gear was rather to put larger cylinders on the engine, and 
to work economically, than to vary the power much, because the variation 
of power between shutting off the steam was not very great. The, sole ob- 
ject of this improvement was, by the use of a rather larger cylinder than 
was necessary to enable the steam to be used expansively, and thereby ob- 
tain economy of fuel. Was among the first to use the expansive gear on 
the Great Western, but had no such object as the saving of steam in goinw 
down an incline, in order to reserve it for use in going up an incline. Had 
advised a line between Chatham and Croydon to be laid down on that prin- 
ciple, and also between Genoa and Turin, which was over a steep part of 
the Apennines. Witness wished to be allowed to explain himself more 
particularly on one point, as he was now giving an opinion professionally, 
and more pssrticularly as a report had just been published by an eminent — 
probably the most eminent — man in his own profession, in which a strong 
opinion was expressed on all these points diametrically opposite to those 
which he entertained. He sWld vrjsh it to be understood that he was not 



* 
% 



On the Atmospheric System. 361 

carelessly giving any opinion now without recollecting that circumstance, 
and he should, in his own vindication, repeat the object of his making the 
experiments at Dalkey, and also say, with sentiments of much respect for 
Mr. Robert Stephenson, that he still thought it possible to form a more cor- 
rect opinion on this particular case by a general practical view of the work- 
ing of the Dalkey line, and of the modiHcations of which it was susceptible 
when applied to longer lines, than by the very minute calculations and mi- 
nute experiments recited in Mr. Stephenson's report. In the first place, the 
Dalkey line was too short, and, he must say, loo badly constructed, owing 
to local difficulties, to allow either velocity to be attained or the train to be 
worked, with ordinary average resistance. Believed that resistance upon 
that line was much greater than it was on a good railway, and that there 
were sources of great loss of power in the connecting pipe and other parts 
which, according to his opinion as a mechanical man, might be easily re- 
medied and overcome. • •• T ^i; '^ .; -t v-'tv 

Mr. R. Stephenson's objections will be found sul)stantlally in the follow- 
ing extracts from his report, for which, as well as for the preceding abstract 
we are indebted to the Railway Chronicle. 

,*' My first impression was that much higher velocities were attainable by 
the atmospheric system than had yet been accomplished by locomotive en- 
gines ; but a very careful reflection upon all the circumstances which the 
last series of experiments developed and, the detailed calculations which 
have been made upon them, has led me to alter that impression. I am ful- 
ly aware that the calculations which have been given do not absolutely put 
a limit to the speed, and that the investigation may resolve itself merely 
into a question of power, and consequently into one of expense ; to a cer- 
tain extent, this is the case, but an inquiry of this kind, which is as essen- 
tially commercial as scientific, is one in which pecuniary limits must con- 
tinually present themselves, and not unfrequently prove more formidable 
than those of a mechanical nature. In pursuing my calculations, therefore 
I have felt that it was imperative to determine with some accuracy the pro- 
bable additional power which it would be necessary to reckon upon, beyond 
that which has been employed at Kingstown ; and I am convinced the in- 
crease which has been stated as requisite to attain the assumed velocity of 
60 miles per hour is rather under than over estimated ; and this single ex- 
ample, based as it is entirely upon experimental data, is sufficient, in my 
opinion, to demonstrate conclusively, that any velocity beyond that which 
is now frequently attained upon railways, must be attended with a most m- 
ordinate waste of power. I have already contrasted the actual velocities of 
the trains with those which would be indicated by theory, and have shown 
that the loss of velocity arises solely from the leakage of the apparatus, 
and that as the rarefaction is increased this content of leakage becomes aug- 
mented, while the pump is only capable of exhausting a constant content 
of air without reference to the density. This i-eads us to the conclu- 
sion that when the barometer rises to \jithin n few inches of its utmost 
height, the expansion of the air leaking into the apparatus must become 
fully equal to the total capacity of the pump, and no advance of the tube 
piston can be effected. The case occurs on the Kingstov^n and Etelkey 

railway, with a height of barometer of 25^ inches, which is the maximum 

height that can be attained in the entire length of the vacuum tube ; arid 
therefore a train requiring this height of barometer could not be started if 
the air pump did not exceed its uniform rate, although the engine would be 

working at almost its greatest power. This conclusion, which is unques- 



■^■^■i- 



On the Atmospheric System. ! 

tionably correct, points out the improvident expenditure of power wlien t 
high degree of rarefaction is required." 

Having thus removed the great claim made by the inventors to the ex- 
clusive enjoyment of high velocities, Mr. Stephenson next proceeds to com- 
pare the work actually done by the atmospheric system on the Dalkey line 
with the work actually done by stationary power and rope system, as now 
in use at Camden-town. The comparison is fair, in this respect, that thd 
Camden-tovvn incline is 1 in 106, and the Dalkey incline is 1 in 115 be- 
ing in favor of the atmospheric ; only there are sharp curves on the lat- 
ter, which do not exist on the former. The results of the comparison may 
be arranged under several heads, as follows : — 

1. Loss of power by rope and atmospheric tube : — 
" In proceeding to compare with these the results of the experiments on 

the atmospheric railway, it is my object to select a case in each, which shall 
present the closest analogy in the amount of their resistances and velocity. 
The 4th train in table No. VII, and the 18th in table No. V, correspond 
very closely in these particulars, the total resistance of the former, including 
the friction, gravity, and resistance of atmosphere, being equal to 102 horses' 
power, and of the latter, 100 horses' power, and the respective velocities 
being 20 and 18 miles per hour. The loss of power from the working of 
the rope in the former case is equal to 30 per cent, of the total, while the 
loss in the latter, arising from raising the vacuum, leakage, and imperfec- 
tions of the apparatus, amounts to 74 per cent, of the total power. In order 
however, to institute a correct comparison between these two cases, the total 
power in the former must be increased in the proportion of the mean to the 
maximum velocity, which in this instance is ascertained, from experiment* 
made, to add 37 horses' power to the total, and the comparison stands thus : 
the loss of power on the Euston incline amounts to 45 per cent., while that 
on the Kingstown and Dalkey railway is 74 per cent. The result is ob- 
tained with a train which represents the average working of the Euston in- 
cline ; it is therefore evident that in this particular instance the rope is very 
considerably more economical than the atmospheric system. If we assume 
other weights of train, we shall perceive, that as they become lighter the 
proportion of loss by the atmospheric apparatus will be diminished on ac- 
count of the reduction in the efTect of leakage accompanying the reduction 
in pressure, but the proportion of loss by the rope will be increased, as the 

Eower required to work the rope itself is the same with a light as with a 
eavy train ; Avhile on the other hand, with heavier trains the proportion 
of loss by the rope will be diminished, and that by the atmospheric system 
greatly augmented, from the increased effect of the leakage, and the addi- 
tional power required to raise the vacuum to a greater height." 

2. Consumption of fuel by the rope system and the tube system com-' 
pared : — 

" This I am enabled to accomplish from the observation of a fortnight's 
working of the Euston incline, and from an experiment on the Kingstown 
and Dalkey railway, in which tffe number of trains, the exact weight of 
each, and the consumption of fuel, was ascertained during an eutire day. 
The result of the former was, that 13 trains averaging 41 tons each, the 
mean resistance of which amounted to 1590 lb., were drawn up the incline 
of 091 mile length, at a mean velocity of about 17 miles per hour, in one 
day of 15 hours, with a consumption of 30 cwt. of coal ; and the result of 
the latter was that 10 trains averaging 44 tons each, the mean resistance of ■ 
which amounted to 1205 lb., were drawn up the incline of 122 milee 



if-i ^1 •I'li-arfM >'A>i-^ iih ^^i-^ightijihi?' 



On tht Atmospheric System. J563 

length, at a mean velocity of about 14 miles per hour, in one day of eight 
hours, with a consumption of 29 cwt. of coal. The consumption of coal 
per mile of the trains in these two cases amounts to 284 lb. on the Euston 
incline, and 266 lb. at Kingstown ; and dividing these by their respective 
amounts of friction and gravity, we obtain the comparative consumption per 
lb. of tractive force as 18 lb. in the former case, and 21 lb. in the latter." 
N 3. Power of overcoming bad gradients : — 
*4 " If we take some of the trains which are dra^vn up the Euston incline, 
amounting to fully 100 tons weight, we shall find that the total resistance 
exceeds the capacity of the tube which is employed at Kingstown, namely, 
15 inches diameter ; for supposing the pressure to be equal to 22 inches 
height of the barometer, or 11 lb. per square inch, the train just named 
upon the gradient of 1 in 75, which is near the upper end of the Eu?ton 
incline, and continues for about one-third of its length, would offer a resist- 
ance, at a velocity of 17 miles per hour, of about 4,500 lb., and would 
therefore require a tube of 23 inches diameter. Such an increase of tube, 
it must be observed, immediately implied a great reduction of velocity with 
the atmospheric system, or an increased size of air pump, involving a cor- 
responding increase of power, because the ratio between the areas of the 
air pump and vacuum tube is affected ; and it has been clearly shown that, 
working at a high vacuum in a small tube, or increasing the size of the 
tube and lowering the vacuum, if the same amount of power be employed, 
involves equally the sacrifice of velocity. Here we perceive a decided 
proof, that what is termed good gradients is not a matter of indifference to 
the atmospheric system, and that we shall not be justified in attributing to it 
the power of economising the construction of railways to any considerable 
extent, by avoiding the necessity of levelling the face of the country." 

The comparison with the locomotive, even in duty alone, is also of a kind 
unfavorable to it, keeping out of view altogether the peculiar disadvantages 
of stationary as compared with locomotive power. The result is rs follows: 

" If we convert the loads moved in the experiments into equivalent loads 
on a level, we shall then find that in no case they exceed the duty which is 
being daily performed by locomotive engines. Thus, taking experiment 
No. 4, the load being 26 5 tons, the resistance per ton upon an incline of 1 
in 1 15, at a velocity of 34 7 miles per hour, estimating the resistance of the 
atmosphere according to Lardner's experiments previously referred to, will 
stand thus — gravity, 20 lb. per ton ; friction, 10 lb. ; atmosphere, 20 lb. : 
total resistance, 50 lb. per ton. And the resistance upon a level will be — 
friction, 10 lb. per ton ; atmosphere, 20 lb. : total resistance, 30 lb. per ton. 
Therefore this train of 26 5 tons, on the incline of 1 in 115, will be equiv- 
alent to 44 tons upon a level, at the same speed of 347 miles per hour. 
This duty, which is indisputably the utmost given by the experiments at 
Kingstown, is much exceeded daily on many lines of railway in this coun- 
try, and especially by the Great Western, and Northern and Eastera 
Throughout the experiments, it will be seen that the duty performed by the 
Kingstown and Dalkey engine, when reduced to an equivalent level, falls 
short of the daily performance of locomotive engines on our principal lines 
of railway, both as regards speed and load." 

The conclusion of the whole matter, considered as a purely mechanical 
question, is given in the following sentences : — 

" On a long series of bad gradients, extending over several miles, where 
the kind of traffic is such that it is essential to avoid intermediate stoppages, 
the atmospheric system would be the most expedient. If, however, inter- 
mediate stoppages are not objectionable, as is the case in the conveyance of 



iMM On the Atmospkerie System. | 

heavy goods and mineral trains on the railways in the neighborhood of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the application of the rope is preferable to the atmos* 
pheric system. This conclusion I conceive to be fully established by the 
comparison which has been made between the Kingstown and Euston in- 
clines. Again, on lines of railway where moderate gradients are attaina- 
ble at a reasonable expense, the locomotive engine is decidedly superior, both 
as regards power and speed, to any results developed or iikei'y to be de> 
veloped by the atmospheric system. In considering these last, as well as 
all the preceding calculations and remarks, it must be borne in mind that 
they have reference solely to the question of power, and are entirely inde- 
pendent of the question of expense or convenience : the next step in the in- 
quiry will therefore be, the expense of constructing the lines on each system 
and the probable cost of working." 

Hitherto the question has been treated wholly as one respecting the value 
of a given mechanical means of transmitting power. 

There remain to be considered the questions of co5< And convenience; 
and here, as well as throughout the whole line of argument, there will be 
observed a close analogy between the results and reasonings of Mr. Steph- 
enson's report and those in pp. 102, 103 of our last, already referred to. 

The inventors of this system, in vaunting its excellence, rely much on 
the supposed advantage of being able to work with single lines. This Mr. 
S. completely refutes: he proves the necessitj', not only of two lines, but of 
duplicate engines. This raises the cost of the atmospheric to £ll,0iOO per 
mile ; so that on such a line as the London and Birmingham, the total cost, 
in all items, for locomotive power, is - • - £321,974 

and for the atmospheric, .... 1,221,000 

But even the expense of working, after all this greater expenditure of 
capital, is against the atmospheric. 

The cost of locomotive power upon the London and Birmingham rail- 
way, for 1843, was as follows : — ., .,^ 

" Wages of engine drivers and firemen, - - . £9,673 

Coke, - - - - - - 25,541 

Oil, horse pipes and fire tools, pumping engines and water, - - 4,099 

Laborers and cleaners, waste and oil, - - . 4,194 

Repairs of engines and tenders, .... 12,521 

Coals and fire wood, expenses of stationary engine at Wolverton, repairs 

of buildings, gas and incidental charges, ... 3,172 

Superintendent, clerks' and foremen's salaries, and office charges, 4,634 — £63,834 

The expense of working the atmospheric system for one year, I estimate 
approximately as follows : — 

" Wages of engine men, 64 at 6s. ; stokers, 64 at 3s., ' - - £10,513 

The same during the night, - . . . 10,512 

Coal, 172 tons per day, at 9s., .... 28,332 

Oil, hemp, tallow and repairs at 5 per cent, on cost of engines, - 20,000 
Superintendence same as locomotive, ... 4,634 — £73,990 

I have already stated that the above sum has no pretension to precise ac- 
curacy, but since I have intentionally omitted numerous items of expense, 
which must arise (the exact amount of which no one ran venture to predict 
or to introduce into such a calculation with much confidence,) I prefer ma- 
king the comparison under that aspect which is the most favorable to the 
new invention under discussion ; because 1 conceive the question between 
the atmospheric and locomotive systems does not by any means, after what 
has been advanced, depend on the mere annual cost of working. I shall 
content myself with the above statement, which in my opinion sufficiently 
cMablishes the £ict, that the cost of working the Liondoa and Birmingham 









On the Atmospkerie System. 266 

railway, or any other line with a similar traffic, by the atmospheric system 
would greatly exceed that by locomotive engines. 

But, to do the system full justice, a single line, the favorite instance, may 
be taken at their own estimates ; and the result entirely coincides with that 
given by our correspondent S., in our last 

" Let us now conceive it applied to a case of an opposite character ; for 
example, the Norwich and Yarmouth railway, which has cost about £10,- 
000 per mile, including carrying stock and every appurtenance. This line 
passes over a country in which the application of the atmospheric system 
could have effected no economy in the formation of the line, which has not 
exceeded a cost of £8,000 per mile.. The application of a single line of 
the atmospheric apparatus would, in this instance, have added at least £5.000 
per mile, which upon 20 miles, the length of the railway, would amount to 
£100,000. The mere interest of this sum, at 5 per cent, is £5,000 per an- 
num, whereas the actual working of this line, including maintenance of 
way, booking offices, porterage and all other constant traffic charges, has 
been let for £7,000 per annum, being only £2,000 above the bare interest 
of the extra capital which would be required to lay down the atmospheric 
apparatus ; an amount which would be quite inadequate to meet the wear 
and tear of the machinery alone, leaving nothing to meet the current cost 
of w^orxing. Here, therefore, we have a case, where the country is favor- 
able, the original capital small, and the traffic moderate, where the cost of 
the atmospheric system would be so burdensome as to render it totally in- 
applicable." 

In the apj>endix, the comparison of the atmospheric system with that on 
the Blackwall railway is given with great clearness by Mr. Bidder, and 
leads to this conclusion, that — 

" Unlescj some expedient with which I at present am unacquainted can 
be devised for obviating the necessity of stopping at each intermediate sta- 
tion, it would appear that the trains could not be run more frequently than 
at half hour intervals with the engines now at work, thus reducing the 
trains to one half their present number, and this, too, without effecting any 
saving in the working expenses, inasmuch as there would be no reduction 
in the staff of conductors while the constant and severe breaking would in- 
crease the cost of maintenance of way and carriages ; the wages of the rope 
men also would not compensate, for the extra cost arising from the engines 
being kept continually at work, instead of for ten minutes only out of every 
quarter of an hour, as is now the case ; and lastly, the interest of the outlay 
requisite to introduce this system would exceed the annual cost of reparing 
and replacing the rope." 

Mr. Stephenson sums up the whole case thus: — 

" 1st. That the atmospheric system is not an economical mode of trans- 
mitting power, and inferior in this respect both to locomotive engines and 
stationary engines with ropes. 2nd. That it is not calculated practically 
to acquire and maintain higher velocities than are comprised in the present 
working of locomotive engines. 3d. That it would not in the majority of 
instances produce economy in the original construction of railways, and in 
many would most materially augment their cost. 4th. That on some short 
railways, where the traffic is large, admitting of trains of moderate weight 
but requiring high velocities and frequent departures, and where the face of 
the country is such as to preclude the use of gradients suitable for locomo- 
tive engines, the atmospheric system would prove the most eligible. 5th. 
That on short lines of railway, say four or five miles in length, in the vi- 
cinity of large towns, where frequent and rapid communication is required 



266 On the Atmospheric System. 

between the termini alone, the atmospheric system might be advantageous-! 
ly applied. 6th. That on short lines, such as the Blackwall railway, where 
the traffic is chiefly derived from intermediate points, requiring frequent 
stoppages between the termini, the atmospheric system is inapplicable ; be- 
ino much inferior to the plan of disconnecting the carriages from a rope, 
for the accommodation of the intermediate traffic. 7. That on long lines 
of railway, the requisites of a large traffic cannot be attained by so inflexi- 
ble a system as the atmospheric, in which the efficient operation of the 
whole depends so completely upon the perfect performance of each individ- 
ual section of the machinery." 

Mr. Herapath takes strong ground against the atmospheric railway, and 
speaking of the great loss of power from the friction of the air in the pipes, 
says : — 

" That I am not unsupported in the views of the inefficiency of these at- 
mospheric machines, I shall show by a quotation, furnished me a few days 
ago by a friend, from Dr. Robison's Mechanical Philosophy. The first 
experiment was made by Papin, an able man of science and a very eminent 
engineer. The second seems also to have been made by a good engineer 
and it is therefore presumed that both of these facts ought to be well known 
to our engineers of the present day. It is to be lamented that the size of 
the tubes is not mentioned, but doubtless they were small, perhaps only a 
few inches in diameter. As bearing, however, on the general question of 
the great amount of friction of air in tubes, it is not material to know the 
exact size. 

" Dr. Papin, a most ingenious man, proposed this (the motion of air in 
pipes) as the most effectual method of transferring the action of a moving 
power to a great distance. Suppose for instance, that it was required to 
raise water out of a mine by a water machine, and that there was no fall of 
water rvearer than a mile's distance. He employed this water to drive a 
piston, which should compress the air in a cylinder communicating by a 
long pipe, with another cylinder at the mouth of the mine. He expected 
that as soon as the piston at the water machine had compressed the air suf- 
ficiently, it would cause the air in the cylinder at the mine, to force up its 
piston, and thus work the pump. Dr. Hooke made many objections to the 
method when laid before the Royal Society, and it was much debated there. 
But dynamics was at this time an infant scienf-e, and very little understood. 
Newton had not then taken any part in the business of the society, other- 
wise the true objections would not have escaped his sagacious mind. Not- 
withstanding Papin's great reputation as an engineer and mechanic, he could 
not bring his machine into use in England : but afterwards in France and 
Germany, where he settled, he got some persons of great fortune to employ 
him in this project ; and he erected great machines at Auvergne and West- 
phalia, for draining mines. But so far from being effective machines, they 
would not even begin to move. He attributed the failure to the quantity of 
air in the pipe of communication, which must be condensed before it can 
condense the air in the remote cylinder. This indeed is true, and he should 
have thought of this earlier. He therefore diminished the size of this pipe 
and made his water machine exhaust instead of condensing, and had no 
doubt but that the immense velocity with which air rushes into a void, would 
make a rapid and eflfectual communication of power. But he was equally 
disappointed here, and the machine at the mine stood still as before. 

" Near a century after this a very intelligent engineer attempted a much 
more feasible thing of this kind at an iron foundry in Wales. He erected 



; Central Railroad. :~ 367 

a machine at a poti^erful fall of water, which worked a set of cylinder bel- 
lows, the blowpipe of which was conducted to the distance of a mile and a 
half, where it was applied to a blast furnace. But notwithstanding every 
care to make the conducting pipe very air-tight, of great size, and as 
smooth as possible, it would hardly blow out a candle. The failure was as- 
cribed to the impossibility of making the pipe air-tight. But what was sur- 
{►rising, above ten minutes elapsed after the action of the piston in the bel- 
ows, before the least wind could be perceived at the end of the pipe ; where- 
as the engineer expected an interval of six seconds only." 

It was our intention to have offered some remarks of our own on this 
novel and extraordinary project ; but when we find such men as R. Stephea- 
8on and Brunei entertaining diametrically opposite opinions after actual ex- 
amination, we think it will better become us to merely submit their views 
to our readers. The cost alone will prevent the possibility of its adoption 
on the vast majority of roads in this country, though we think that the coal 
region of Pennsylvania affords some suitable openings. 

It will be seen that Mr. Stephenson deduces all his conclusions from his 
own experiments, considering them as infallible, while Mr. Brunei founds 
his opinion on what — judging from the present state of things — may rea- 
sonably be expected from experience skill and observation, and we think 
this is with |>rae/ua2 men the safer mode. 

CENTRAL RAILROAD, GEORGIAr 

This important work, the longest railway in existence, is now completed 
and the following extracts from the report of the engineer, Mr. L. O. Rey- 
nolds, will give our readers a good idea of the railway generally. 

" The quantity of excavation and embankment throughout the whole line 
is about five million six hundred thousand cubic yards. There are, inclu- 
ding the long bridge over the Oconee swamp, about six miles in extent of 
trestle bridging ; about one-third of this may be, at a future day, filled up 
with earth. 

" The road-bed is graded to a width of 15 feet on the embankments, with 
slopes of one and a half base to one vertical. The excavations below sta- 
tion No. 10, are generally graded 25 feet wide ; beyond that station, 20 feet ; 
side slopes generally, 45 degrees — except in loose soils, when they are sim- 
ilar to the embankments, and in some instances two to one. 

" There has been no rock excavation of consequence, but many of the 
cuts have been through a compact mixture of clay and sand, which requir- 
ed the aid of the pick in excavating. 

" Considerable work will be necessary during the present and next year% 
in Extending and perfecting the drainage of the road. Nothing is more im- 
portant than good drainage to insure a firm and even track. 

" The maximum inclination of grade of the road is 30 feet per mile. Al- 
though I have inserted a table of the gradients and curves of the road in a 
former report, I will repeal that they may be classed as follows : 



Level, 


• « • « 


Iticlinations not over 5 feet per mile, 


t( 


from 5 to 10 « " 


u 


« 10 to 15 « »« ' 


4 u 


« 15 to 20 « « 


^ ({ 


" 20 to 25 " « 


-4 M 


« 25 to 30 « « ■■" 



dilM. 


Feet. 


26 


4,378 


44 


4,880 


ao 


4,600 


17 


4,240 


13 


3,160 





3,880 


47—190 


210—1,600 



968 



Central Railroad. 



" The following table exhibits the proportion of straight and curved line, 
with the various radii of the curves. Number of curves, 109 ; number of 
straight lines, 110. 



Length of Radius 




] 


Plumber of Curves 




Aggregate Distance. 


2,000 


feet. 




- 


25 




• , 


42,835 feet 


2,100 


(( 




w 


4 






9,802 " 


tJ,300 


u 






■, ■^■ 




. 


3,943 " 


- 2.500 


u 




. 


- 5 






8,139 " 


3,000 


u 






13 




. 


20,788 " ' 


3,500 


(( 




- 


• 6 






.,• 13,781 « 


4,000 


a 






12 




« 


25,683 « 


4,500 


(( 




- 


- 2 






- 4,980 " 


5,000 


« 






15 




. 


' 45,729 « 


7,000 


u 




. 


• 2 






3,656 « 


8,000 


;( 






5 




• 


15,313 " 


10,000 


u 




- 


- 8 






i.- 28,100 " 


15,000 


u 






5 




• 


- r. - 21.916 « . 


16,000 


u 




• 


1 






. u»riv 7,139 ♦« 


20,000 


(( 






1 




• 


. ^ - 8,374 « 


30,000 


(( 




. 


- 2 






6,920 « 


150,000 


(( 






1 




• 


26,500 « 


Total, 




- 


- 109 


- 




- 293,596 " 


Total len 


gth of 


curv 


ed line, 


55 miles, 


and 


3,156 " 


U ( 




stra 


ght line, 


134 


a 


u 


3,724 " 


Whole length o 


f roa 


J, 


190 


u 


a 


1,600 « 



The summit is 464 feet above tide, and the level of the Ocmulgee bridge 
(floor) is 297 feet above tide. This bridge we take to be the western termi- 
nus of the road. 

" The plan of superstructure for one hundred miles from Savannah, is 
as follows : 

" Cross sleepers are first bedded in the ground and rammed solid, their 
upper surfaces being level with the grade of the road ; string pieces, 6 in. 
deep and 12 in. wide, are then trenailed flatwise on the sleepers, and the 
ground rammed under them, affording a continuous bearing. On the top, 
and in the centre of these string pieces, is placed a small lath or ribbon, 3 
by 2 in. of hard pine ; and this is surmounted by the plate, or strap rail of 
iron, 3 in. wide by | in. thick. The iron is confined by spikes 7 in. long, 
passing through the ribbon into the string piece. Wrought iron splicing 
plates, 4 in- thick, are placed under the joinings of the bars, the spikes pas- 
sing through them. The balance of the road above the 100 mile station is 
similar, excepting that a light T rail is laid on the string piece, instead of 
the ribbon and plate rail. 

" Total cost of the road, $2,581,723. This amount is made up of vari- 
ous items, which may be set down as follows : 

'• Grading, including grubbing, clearing, excavation, embank- 
ment and wooden culverts, - - - - 975,898 
Culverts of masonry, .... *. v. * 49,000 
Depot at Savannah, .... ■^'.,\ 33,078 
Depot at Macon, - - • - . -ii- .. ».: 24,767 
Bridges, including Oconee, which cost $70,000, • - 126,000 
Laying superstructure, and materials, except iron, • - 424,400 
Wells, pumps and cisterns, .... 4,600 



4 



■;'';■' ,■;•;-/■„■■■■.•■ Central Railroatf.^' 2W 

Iron rails, spikes and plates, - , r . .- i -> . 476,081 

Damage by freshet of 1841, > . - ; - - i -68)000 

Right of way, - - - - [*■-],.■;:':,' ^■.:: „., 36|l53 

Engineering, including preliminary surreys, " > . / * 154,530 

Tools, machinery, etc., in shops, - - • -"^ •.:*;;* ( 15,000 

Incidental expenses, • - -••:;: •♦v:-:'-v* 25,873 

:■ -v--^->'^-^ "-^^ - '''••':• '^'^ $2;58l7?^ 

"'"Average cost of road per mile, excTnsive of motive* power, $12,702 

" Since the date of my last report, we have increased our motive power 
by the addition of six freight engines of the second class, making our num- 
ber now 14, viz : 8 third class 6 wheel engines, 5 second class 8 wheel 
freight engines, 1 second class 6 wheel connected freight engine; all of 
which are in running order, except one. These engines have performed 
from the 1st November, 1842, to 1st December, 1843, a total distance of 
.181,954 miles. 

" The whole amount of fuel consumed in performance of the above dis- 
tance, was 2,739 cords of wood, being an average of 6643 miles run for 
every cord of wood consumed. 

" Two additional freight engines, and the wheels, etc., for fifty burthen 
i'cars, have been ordered, and will be received in time to meet the business 
of the next fall. 

" This will swell the number of eight wheel burthen cars to upwards of 
one hundred and fifty." 

The receipts for 13 months ending Nov., 1843, were $227,531 94, of 
■^which $37,329 37 were from passengers, $17,517 76 from the U. S. mail 
and the remainder from freight. Number of passengers, 10,461, of bales 
_of cotton 47,133. 

The expenses for that period have been as follows: ' 

/;« Repairs of the road, - - - 61,886 89 v ^ 

Tools and materials for repairs of engines and cars, 3,175 08 , s.^ 

XBalaries, - - -, - _ - . 9,885 32 

»' way stations, - r -;..,; v 8,276 53 
Oil and tallow, - - ■■ * ; v ; 1,237 75 

-Fuel and water, - - _ • f- 11,477 39 .;;,.. ..-^ 

"^ Labor, provisions and forage, ■•■•.>"/■• 2,578 14 
':vDamage, - - - ; /';/r.,viI:''v>)^"; 'j^^ 82^ \ ;.^:^ ,. 

V: Insurance on cotton, - *,^^" ' 1,352 19 Q '" L F 

'Machinists, runners and firemen, Vi-* ... • 15,194 12 
Carpenters, - - .*;^;ofV- 2,26667 

■Blacksmiths,- - .»:-'>>' . 1,773 78 

Conductors and train hands, :*^"'V"^^^ 11,935 77 

^ Incidental expenses, - . - ' • ' ; w< 2,042 99—134,34143 

Leaving a nett profit, of - - • ' $93,190 51 

" The comptuation of profits, receipts, etc., is made up to Dec. 1st, being 
one month over a year, that the accounts may correspond in date with those 
of the bank for the future." 

The receipts for the three following months, were $86,716 73, 

" It will, no doubt, be observed that, in the account of expenses, the items 
of repairs of road is much increased over last year. We have most sensi' 
biy felt the benefit of increasing the outlay for this purpose in the improved 



S70 



Housatonie Railroad Repori. 



SR317 ner mile. 
572 « 






condition of the road, and the regularity with which our trains perform 

« In order however, to show that the expense of this particular branch 

of the service is still within modertite limits, I majr here mention that the 

annual cost of repairs of our road avRraoe - - ^"^^"^ -"^ " 

T; ouuiii i^aroiina railroad, - - - - 

Georgia railroad, - - - - 303 

Average of eight principal railroads in Massachusetts, - 477 
" Western railroad, - - - 310 

" " The expense of working our road per mile run, during the above pe- 
riod, has been - ~ - - * * 73-8 cents. 

HOUSATONIC RAILROAD REPORT. j '- t ^ -• i' 

VVe have the report of this company, dated 24th June, 1844, and make 
such extracts as will interest our readers. It is mainly occupied by the 
financial affairs of the company. 

" The entire length of the Housatonie railroad, from the tide water at 
Bridgeport to the north line of the State of Connecticut, is 73 ,Vi7 miles. 
In this distance there are twelve regular stations, for the receipt and dis- 
charge of passengers and freight, namely, at Stepney, Botsford's, Newtown, 
Hawleyville, Brookfield, New Milford, Gaylord's Bridge, Kent, Cornwall 
Bridge, West Cornwall, Falls Village and North Canaan. The maximum 
grade is 40 feel to the mile^ but more than half the length of the road is pass- 
ed on grades of nnder 26 feet to the mile. 

" The following expenditures have been made in the construction of the 
road and appendages. 

« Obtaining charter, preliminary surveys, etc., 
Right of way and land damages, , - . 

Grading and superstructure, . . - 

Engineering, • • - . * -. 

Turntables, . . - - - 

Engine houses, . . . - , 

Construction of Depots, etc., •. ^ . 

Profit and loss, . . . >. - 

Contingent expenses, - - . . 

Real estate, .------- 

Engines and cars, / " * 

' $1^,122 91 

"This expenditure of fl,244,ti^ 91, for a road of 74 miles in length, 
with an ample outfit of engines and cars, will bear favorable comparisoa 
with any other railroad in the United States, of similar construction." 

" The Berkshire railroad company, chartered by the State of Massachu- 
setts, with a capital of $250,000, all paid in, constructed their road from the 
aortnern termination of the Housatonie road to the village of West Stock- 
bridge. There are four regular stations on this road — at Sheffield, Great 
Barrington, Van Deusenville and West Stockbridge. Its entire length is 
21-,W miles. The grades are similar to those on the Housatonie road. 
The use of the road is granted to the Housatonie railroad company during 
the term of the charter, at an annual rent of $17,500, payable monthly. 
The road is to be kept in repair by the lessees, and in effect the Housatonie 
railroad company possess as complete control over it, as if it had been con- 
structed under their own charter. The rent is paid m full, and is consider- 
ed as one of the charges of mcmtbiy expense and settled accordingly. Tbe 



6,150 32 

60,051 43 

967,005 60 

24.407 23 

i;493 64 

4,383 68 
11,733 70 
46,770 53 
23,097 32 

1,669 80 
97,359 66 



...?^■^....^^^ 



Railteays in Michigan. 271 

Berkshire company have the right to increase capital to $600,000, and an 
arrangement may be made for the issue of Ptock to an amount which may 
be necessary for substituting heavier rail, upon adding to the rent paid by 
this company a sum equal to seven per cent, upon the expenditure. This 
insures a superstructure equal to any which may be adopted on the Housa- 
tonic road, whenever a ne»v and stronger rail may be laid or- that road. 
From West Stockbridge, the line is continued to the Western road, by the 
West Stockbridge company, a distance of about 2^ miles. That road is 
leased to the Housaionic railroad company, for the term of the charter, at 
an annual rent of about $1000. One half of the expense of the mainten- 
ance of the road is to be paid by the lessees. Provision is made in the 
lease, by which an edge rail may be laid by the Housatonic railroad com- 
pany ; in which case an allowance equal to one half of the average repairs 
of the present road, is to be made to the Housatonic railroad company." 

"Receipts of 1842. 1843. 1844. 

January, $8,072 85 . $11,826 87 $15,305 07 

February, 6,011 75 10,212 36 15,534 03 

March, 6,083 41 13,563 93 14,065 47 

April 5,779 23 9,738 24 10,10106 

May, 6,3 63 03 10,3 10 64 13,142 67 

Total 5 months, $32;3i0 27 $65;652 04 $68,148 30 

RAILWAYS IN MICHIGAN. . .,_ 

The rapid increase of income on these works, is truly gratifying. The 
Central railroad is to be opened very soon to Kalamazoo and this, the com- 
missioners say, will itself pay the interest on the State debt. 

They complain much of the heavy duty lately imposed on railroad iron, 

" The tariff of 1842 placed a cash duty of $25 per ton on railroad iron, 
which prevented the commissioners from importing it, as they were unable 
to make payment of so large a proportion of the cost of the iron on its ar- 
rival in this country. The low price of iron in England would have ena- 
bled them to have imported it to great advantage had it not been for the 
heavy duty placed upon it, for the first time, by the act of 1842. This 
duty is a serious obstacle to the extension of our railroads, and the commis- 
sioners would respectfully suggest to the legislature the propriety of endea- 
voring to have the tariff act so modified, as to allow its importation free of 
duty, as heretofore, particularly for roads which had been commenced while 
such permission was allowed." 

Of the Southern railroad they say : » ^ - . : ^ i.> 

" This road was ironed and put in operation to Hillsdale, 68 miles from 
Monroe, early in October, since which time all the locomotive power on 
the road has been fully employed, and a large amount of produce remained 
on hand at the different points on the load which it was impossible to trans- 
port in time for shipment to the east, for a want of machinery and cars. 
The limited means the board then had control of, not enabling them to pro- 
vide in season the necessary facilities for doing all the business that was of- 
fered. Two new locomotives have been placed upon the road and a suffi- 
cient number of cars will be prepared in season, to do alt the business that 
offers during the coming year. The difficulties which have heretofore pre- 
vented this road from producing any revenue, have now been principally 
overcome. The facilities for shipmeat of produce at its eastern termina- 



mH ^ On Plank Road*. 

tion, have much increased, and by its extension west of Adrian, the coinp&> 
tition with the Toledo road is obviated." 

The following extract from the report of Mr. Berrien, the chief engi- 
neer, is interesting. Speaking of the " warrants" in which the contractor! 
are paid, he says : 

" For all purposes except the purchase of a few things considered as 
cash articles, they are used to much better advantage, and being the same 
as cash to those who use them for the purchase of public land, a great 
many are induced to seek employment upon the road for the purpose of 
applying the proceeds of their labor, and obtaining land, which probably 
they could not obtain in any other way. In addition to the above is the fact 
that but little money is used at present in payment for labor of any kind, 
also helping to increase the demand for work upon the railroad, and the ef- 
fect of competition has been a very great reduction in prices. 

" Were money to be used we should undoubtedly be able to make more ' 
rapid progress ; yet, with the exception of the time required, it is matter of 
doubt whether the road could be carried on to much greater advantage with 
money than is now being done with warrants. At any rate, there is no 
doubt of the fact, that the greater part of the work, and grading especially, 
is done at present at much lower rates in warrants than were paid for simi- 
lar work, a few years ago, in cash." . . .. 

ON FLANK ROADS IN CANADA. 

Lord Sydenham, during his long sojourn in Russia, travelled on several 
of them, and found them well adapted to the circumstances and the climate; 
and, as Ijoth were very similar to those in Canada, he was strongly of the 
opinion that their introduction there would greatly conduce to the public in- 
terest. A few miles of road in the neighborhood of Toronto was first laid 
with plank by the local commissions who had the management of it. The 
cost of stone and the great, expense they had been at in macadamizing a 
portion of the same road, as well as the heavy arinual repairs, had induced 
them to try the experiment in that province of laying a planked surface on 
the road. A gentleman describing it, says : " I'he few miles nearest the 
city, and over which very considerable traffic existed, were planked ; and, 
upon inspection, it was found the top surface of the timber was worn in the 
centre for the breadth of 7 feet, and to the depth of f of an inch ; the ends 
being to the full dimensions as the plank came from the saw. The bottom 
or under side of the planks, was found throughout perfectly sound. In two 
or three places, where a small cavity was left by the foot of a horse or other 
animal, there was found a slight pinkish tinge corresponding with the cavi- 
ty, and indicating the commencement of fungus. The sleepers appeared 
perfectly sound." The facts elicited by examination of the portion of the 
road laid down but one season, were the same as the foregoing, except that 
but f of abrasion had taken place. From the foregoing, it will be seen — 

1st. That the wear and tear of the plank road, even near a populous 
town, is confined to the 7 feet in width of the centre. 

2d. That, for the preservation of the planks from decay underneath, it is 
indispensable that every portion of it be solidly imbedded in the formation. 

3d. That considerably more than half the wear and tear which occurs in 
seven years' use of the road, takes place the first year ; which is easily ac- 
counted for, by the natural stripping off while the plank is fresh, of those 
fibres which were cross-cut by the saw ; and from the fact of the dung of 
the cattle getting bound with the raised fibre of the wood and thus forming 



Georgia Railroad. ♦ 273 

a lough elastic covering, which saves the plank in a great measure, from 
the effects of the horse's shoes, and the tire of the wheels. On this road 
the plank is 16 feet long, 3 inches thick, laid crossways at cross angles to 
the road, on 5 sleepers of pine 5x3 laid on edge, and in the line of the road ; 
and this was considered the best mode of laying a plank road, except that 
on a country road plank 8 or 10 feet long will be found quite sufficient 
On the Chambly road (plank) the planks are 12 feet long, but laid diago- 
nally, so as to make the road but 8 feet wide. This was opposed by some, 
and very justly ; for, as apprehended, the weight of half the vehicle and 
load coming suddenly on one end of the plank, and the other end not being 
kept down at the same time, the traffic constantly tends to disrupt the road, 
and the planks are loose, and spring from end to end. Another principle 
connected with the laying of this road, (which was opposed) is that of hav- 
ing the sleepers of much larger scantling than on the Toronto road. It 
was remarked that, as all earth formation under a road of this nature will 
more or less subside and shrink, the giving to the sleepers too much area 
would enable them to bear up the plank, leaving the earth to settle from 
them, thereby causing springing in the plank, which tends greatly to their 
being cut away ; (in fact, they quickly become rounded from the edges ;) 
and, also, that fungus and decay of the plank would be brought on, in con- 
sequence of the confined air below. These apprehensions are realized. At 
duebec, part of the road has been planked, the plank being laid lengthwise 
of the road. It was considered that the planks would stand better the fric- 
tion, and, when necessary, could be more easily taken up, and the road re- 
paired. One strong objection to this mode of laying the plank is found to , 
be, that the horses cannot keep their feet when jnuch weighted, and are 
much exposed to falling, in consequence. Under all the circun>stances, 
most have approved the manner in which the planks are laid on the Toron- 
to road. Those now being planked under the department in the. western 
section of the province are so laid, except that the planks are spiked with a 
6J inch spike — one in each end. With respect to plank roads generally, I 
wish none to suppose that I am an advocate for their adoption, except in ■ 
those sections of the country where nature has afforded no better material, -, . 
and where funds can be obtained for a better structure. There are stretches " 
of 30 and 40 miles, in parts of the west, where the soil is a deep rich veg- 
etable mould, and withoutstone or gravel of any description ; in such cases 
you must be content to wade through the mud, or adopt the plank roads. 
When the traffic or intercourse of a section of country requires that good .i^ 
roads should be afforded for it, the adoption of plank or stone roads should , 
be governed simply by a comparison of the first cost of each, in conjunc- V 
tion with the probable annual expense of repairs ; and if this comparison is :^ 
based on the plank lasting 12 years, (or some say 10 years,) a safe conclu- ~i 
sionwill be arrived at. In some cases in Canada, the adoption of plank si 
instead of stone would have made such a saving as would have replanked x 
the road every five years, if necessary. There are many sections in the V 
west, where timber abounds, especially in Ohio. Indiana and Kentucky, - 
where such roads might be introduced with great advantage. 



r jj i % GEORGIA RAILROAD. 

'■*jSt;&;-'.' ■;. . . - 



In our last we gave extracts from the report of Mr. Thompson contain- ) 
ing numerous details of interest to the profession, but to render the account ^ 
of this specimen of civil (not political or State) engineering complete, we V 
copy the foUowioj; tables of receipts and expenditures for upwards of 6 yean. 



274 t 



Georgia Railroad. 






■a 
< 



Wis 



300 
-a-" 

t-l 
cs :— 



JS 
"3 
Q 



1 



^ 



3 






o 04^ " — ' * 






to » -< 






C* rj< QD t- »ft CI ro 

« CI ec (N — ■<»< tn 



i-i CO 



S 
o 

Q 
< 
O 

a: 



<1 

as 



O 
O 
C5 

u 

Si 
** 

5 
o 



9 
o 
c 

32 

CO 

X 
>- 



o 
H 



a 
H 

CO 



300 

-3 — ' 






:3 

o 

Q 



I 



CQ 



^ 



C9 

3 



oj'vgc»^i^ocos!so»ciop 



_-JC?500C»»-<eoaocie5(M 
oopabtB-^tcosroift'T»tc«o 

QiOCOCD-*CX)Oe»5CiCO^-H 

-■r ©T (NpfcTof 



CO 



C»<N©»-<tiOOTjiO 

-H-xl'-«MClOrt-< 

«0CEO--OQQ>n>0 



(M 



O — t^(N t^C* 



WWOJOIOD'-O'^QB 

r~ o» «c Tj< 1- «s I- 00 

o»c*ooc5«03r~ 
CO «^ t^ 00 CO oi o CO 
oc'of-H" 






CTJ 
04 

8 



o 



Sod 'q 



CiQcap«(M5*-^-«»<gccco 

.lO-HtSf^-^HOPOGMQOXiift 

ot:-o(Noa<«ao5?'^c^'55i 
Qt-ci^-vaooinot^CKji' 



bo— 

Sao 
t3 1-1 

S 

u, _ 

« b 



^ 



c- 

C i 






eon* 

CliO 

F-co 



COOO Oi«5X o 
-H — I J» 00 M -H 

»n« -- »n to 



S8^S§^: 



J ■^ 00 »-< -N 

o eo w ■^ o o 52 — O 

■^) cri<SC»f^) moo —-; 



o 



(O 
00 



If 



CO 

i 



o» 



^ r- in 00 00 CO 
) to -^ri^ ci -^ 



=3 in 00 CO 55 CO ci 
Q •^ l^ ® — ' in i^ 



(N 






COCO ■ 



inoo »n t^'^ 

(N o 05 00 »n 1-1 

to O ^- C« t^ (N 

-^ooiNO r-cj 

©f ifT-^to" 



»-> CJ 

inrrj 



^t4 ■ i >^r-» CO 



00 

CO 

CO 



to 

CO 



Si ^ 



,0 

Soo 

s _ 
« I-I 

S = 



o 






00 

»n 



3 



krtco -H -H t^ in 
. in c; CO ^o in (N 

t/i _ 

=: o to — ' go -< o- 
o 00 to o 00 Ti" -a 

-v lO to « Ol O CO 



CSC» — 

in 00 00 

©» toe* 
in'*' ci 

^'t-'co" 



p csgoeo 



CO 



1 t^co P p 



P 

s 



to CO to 



t^ - 



s 


sss^r 


1 


1-1 1~- o» — 

rf5 0i '-«»■>* 


m4 


(N -^C» 



— o 




i 



** C Q> 



> 



I 

o 
0. 



o 

a 
U 



- C rt 

bpt: « 

C .ft CD 






3 2 = 2 -!^ 
- "^ ^ S i£ S 



e 

A 

U 

•- c :5 
tSj" 

C te IT (i JT o 



O & u 

o .5 > 

*-" ^ 

tj a •" 

C C 

e o 

J<! ^ 
t- I-. 
O O 






? 3 

c.S 

c o 

u si 

^2 £ 



s e 

O d 



&. 



Sic 

S C u 



bo u 






^ c 
' - c: c 



u 



&,"bO 



- S 

C 

o 



^2 «rjif 






u 



.S 3 2 y « 



^3 C 
C <u 

e i 
— < I* 



^ 

o «> 

^ a 

u <J C 

i: >.>» 

s^ .0 

" <D «» 

<*; q c: 

000 

a %^ i^ 

0.0 O 



.vv 



Georgia Railroad. 



1 



d76 



«0 .(N 




\ <■' -^ 


CO 




.-:•..:-, :-:.-V| 


S2 




o- 


8 




58S8S 






>n o '^ — < >n 






^ iQ to O !0 






50 ^ — 










CO 


O 




3 






..^•r^-- _ .. . F 


00 




OS 


8 




1^ 




£;8SS88 






t OOD — lOO 

^ lO OS o o o 










©» «« o» 






s 


8 




^ 


00 




^" 






t-< 


in 




CO 


c- 




■05 




8 S 8 






© l^ t^ 






i s gs 






eo I-" -H 






lO .■<J< 




M !•* 




^ 


CO 




s 


^ 




■^ ;t-^ 




I--0 




S 12 






>fl OS 






P 2 






•i»« 






C5 CQ 




CO 1* 




«o ^ 




•^ CO 




, -■■ •<<< «5 




lA CO 




t- 




S